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[PMID]: 29511366
[Au] Autor:Mohamad NV; Che Zulkepli MAA; May Theseira K; Zulkifli N; Shahrom NQ; Ridzuan NAM; Jamil NA; Soelaiman IN; Chin KY
[Ad] Address:Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre, 56000 Cheras, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
[Ti] Title:Establishing an Animal Model of Secondary Osteoporosis by Using a Gonadotropin-releasing Hormone Agonist.
[So] Source:Int J Med Sci;15(4):300-308, 2018.
[Is] ISSN:1449-1907
[Cp] Country of publication:Australia
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Orchidectomy is currently the preferred method to induce bone loss in preclinical male osteoporosis model. Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonists used in prostate cancer treatment can induce testosterone deficiency but its effects on bone in preclinical male osteoporosis model are less studied. This study aimed to evaluate the skeletal effect of buserelin (a GnRH agonist) in male rats and compare it with orchidectomy. Forty-six three-month-old male rats were divided into three experimental arms. The baseline arm (n=6) was sacrificed at the onset of the study. In the buserelin arm, the rats received a daily subcutaneous injection of either normal saline (n=8), buserelin acetate at 25 µg/kg (n=8) or 75 µg/kg (n=8). In the orchidectomy arm, the rats were either sham-operated (n=8) or orchidectomized (n=8). All groups underwent in-vivo X-ray micro-computed tomography scanning at the left proximal tibia every month. Blood was collected at the beginning and the end of the study for testosterone level evaluation. The rats were euthanized after the three-month treatment. The femurs were harvested for biomechanical strength and bone calcium determination. The results showed that buserelin at both doses caused a significant decline in testosterone level and deterioration in bone microstructure (p<0.05), but did not affect bone calcium content (p>0.05). Buserelin at 25 µg/kg decreased displacement and strain of the femur significantly (p<0.05). Similar changes were observed in the orchidectomized group compared to the sham-operated group but without any significant changes in biomechanical strength (p>0.05). Buserelin can induce testosterone deficiency and the associated deterioration of bone microarchitecture similar to orchidectomy in three months. However, it may require a longer time to show significant effects on bone strength and mineral content.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180311
[Lr] Last revision date:180311
[St] Status:In-Process
[do] DOI:10.7150/ijms.22732

  2 / 55849 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29408411
[Au] Autor:Yukata K; Xie C; Li TF; Brown ML; Kanchiku T; Zhang X; Awad HA; Schwarz EM; Beck CA; Jonason JH; O'Keefe RJ
[Ad] Address:Center for Musculoskeletal Research, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, NY, USA; Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Yamaguchi University Graduate School of Medicine, Ube, Yamaguchi, Japan.
[Ti] Title:Teriparatide (human PTH ) compensates for impaired fracture healing in COX-2 deficient mice.
[So] Source:Bone;110:150-159, 2018 Feb 03.
[Is] ISSN:1873-2763
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Genetic ablation of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in mice is known to impair fracture healing. To determine if teriparatide (human PTH ) can promote healing of Cox-2-deficient fractures, we performed detailed in vivo analyses using a murine stabilized tibia fracture model. Periosteal progenitor cell proliferation as well as bony callus formation was markedly reduced in Cox-2 mice at day 10 post-fracture. Remarkably, intermittent PTH administration increased proliferation of periosteal progenitor cells, restored callus formation on day 7, and enhanced bone formation on days 10, 14 and 21 in Cox-2-deficient mice. PTH also increased biomechanical torsional properties at days 10 or 14 in all genotypes, consistent with enhanced bony callus formation by radiologic examinations. To determine the effects of intermittent PTH for callus remodeling, TRAP staining was performed. Intermittent PTH treatment increased the number of TRAP positive cells per total callus area on day 21 in Cox-2 fractures. Taken together, the present findings indicate that intermittent PTH treatment could compensate for COX-2 deficiency and improve impaired fracture healing in Cox-2-deficient mice.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
[St] Status:Publisher

  3 / 55849 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29382612
[Au] Autor:Yang Y; Pan F; Wu F; Squibb K; Thomson R; Winzenberg T; Jones G
[Ad] Address:Menzies Institute for Medical Research, University of Tasmania, Hobart 7000, Australia. Electronic address: Yi.Yang@utas.edu.au.
[Ti] Title:Familial resemblance in trabecular and cortical volumetric bone mineral density and bone microarchitecture as measured by HRpQCT.
[So] Source:Bone;110:76-83, 2018 Jan 31.
[Is] ISSN:1873-2763
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:To estimate the heritability of bone geometry, volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD) and microarchitecture of trabecular (Tb) and cortical (Ct) bone measured by high resolution peripheral quantitative computerised tomography (HRpQCT) at the distal radius and tibia and to investigate the genetic correlations of these measures. Participants were 177 mother-offspring pairs from 162 families (mothers, mean age (SD) = 52.1 (4.7) years; offspring, 25.6 (0.73) years). Trabecular and cortical bone measures were obtained by HRpQCT. Multivariable linear regression was used to analyse the association of bone measures between mother and offspring. Sequential Oligogenic Linkage Analysis Routines (SOLAR) software was utilised to conduct quantitative genetic analyses. All maternal bone measures were independently associated with the corresponding bone measures in the offspring before and after adjustment for age, sex, weight and height. Heritability estimates ranged from 24% to 67% at the radius and from 42% to 74% at the tibia. The relationship for most bone geometry measures was significantly stronger in mother-son pairs (n = 107) compared with mother-daughter pairs (n = 70) (p < 0.05). In contrast, the heritability for most vBMD and microarchitecture measures were higher in mother-daughter pairs. Bivariate analyses found moderate to strong genetic correlations across all measures between radius and tibia (R = 0.49 to 0.93). Genetic factors have an important role in the development of bone geometry, vBMD and microarchitecture. These factors are strongly shared for the radius and tibia but vary by sex implying a role for imprinting.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
[St] Status:Publisher

  4 / 55849 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29357314
[Au] Autor:Sharma D; Larriera AI; Palacio-Mancheno PE; Gatti V; Fritton JC; Bromage TG; Cardoso L; Doty SB; Fritton SP
[Ad] Address:Department of Biomedical Engineering, The City College of New York, New York, NY 10031, United States.
[Ti] Title:The effects of estrogen deficiency on cortical bone microporosity and mineralization.
[So] Source:Bone;110:1-10, 2018 Jan 20.
[Is] ISSN:1873-2763
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Recent studies have demonstrated matrix-mineral alterations in bone tissue surrounding osteocytes in estrogen-deficient animals. While cortical bone porosity has been shown to be a contributor to the mechanical properties of bone tissue, little analysis has been done to investigate the effects of estrogen deficiency on bone's microporosities, including the vascular and osteocyte lacunar porosities. In this study we examined alterations in cortical bone microporosity, mineralization, and cancellous bone architecture due to estrogen deficiency in the ovariectomized rat model of postmenopausal osteoporosis. Twenty-week-old female Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to either ovariectomy or sham surgery. Six weeks post-surgery tibiae were analyzed using high-resolution micro-CT, backscattered electron imaging, nanoindentation, and dynamic histomorphometry. Estrogen deficiency caused an increase in cortical bone vascular porosity, with enlarged vascular pores and little change in tissue mineral density in the proximal tibial metaphysis. Measurements of cancellous architecture corresponded to previous studies reporting a decrease in bone volume fraction, an increase in trabecular separation, and a decrease in trabecular number in the proximal tibia due to estrogen deficiency. Nanoindentation results showed no differences in matrix stiffness in osteocyte-rich areas of the proximal tibia of estrogen-deficient rats, and bone labeling and backscattered electron imaging showed no significant changes in mineralization around the vascular pores. The findings demonstrate local surface alterations of vascular pores due to estrogen deficiency. An increase in cortical vascular porosity may diminish bone strength as well as alter bone mechanotransduction via interstitial fluid flow, both of which could contribute to bone fragility during postmenopausal osteoporosis.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1801
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
[St] Status:Publisher

  5 / 55849 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29305450
[Au] Autor:Kono K; Tomita T; Futai K; Yamazaki T; Tanaka S; Yoshikawa H; Sugamoto K
[Ad] Address:Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033, Japan and Department of Orthopaedic Biomaterial Science, Osaka University Graduate School of Medicine, 2-2 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871, Japan.
[Ti] Title: three-dimensional kinematics of normal knees during different high-flexion activities.
[So] Source:Bone Joint J;100-B(1):50-55, 2018 Jan.
[Is] ISSN:2049-4408
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:AIMS: In Asia and the Middle-East, people often flex their knees deeply in order to perform activities of daily living. The purpose of this study was to investigate the 3D kinematics of normal knees during high-flexion activities. Our hypothesis was that the femorotibial rotation, varus-valgus angle, translations, and kinematic pathway of normal knees during high-flexion activities, varied according to activity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We investigated the kinematics of eight normal knees in four male volunteers (mean age 41.8 years; 37 to 53) using 2D and 3D registration technique, and modelled the knees with a computer aided design program. Each subject squatted, kneeled, and sat cross-legged. We evaluated the femoral rotation and varus-valgus angle relative to the tibia and anteroposterior translation of the medial and lateral side, using the transepicodylar axis as our femoral reference relative to the perpendicular projection on to the tibial plateau. This method evaluates the femur medially from what has elsewhere been described as the extension facet centre, and differs from the method classically applied. RESULTS: During squatting and kneeling, the knees displayed femoral external rotation. When sitting cross-legged, femurs displayed internal rotation from 10° to 100°. From 100°, femoral external rotation was observed. No significant difference in varus-valgus angle was seen between squatting and kneeling, whereas a varus position was observed from 140° when sitting cross-legged. The measure kinematic pathway using our methodology found during squatting a medial pivoting pattern from 0° to 40° and bicondylar rollback from 40° to 150°. During kneeling, a medial pivot pattern was evident. When sitting cross-legged, a lateral pivot pattern was seen from 0° to 100°, and a medial pivot pattern beyond 100°. CONCLUSION: The kinematics of normal knees during high flexion are variable according to activity. Nevertheless, our study was limited to a small number of male patients using a different technique to report the kinematics than previous publications. Accordingly, caution should be observed in generalizing our findings. Cite this article: 2018;100-B:50-5.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Biomechanical Phenomena/physiology
Knee Joint/physiology
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Activities of Daily Living
Adult
Computer Simulation
Computer-Aided Design
Fluoroscopy
Humans
Imaging, Three-Dimensional/methods
Knee Joint/diagnostic imaging
Male
Middle Aged
Models, Anatomic
Range of Motion, Articular/physiology
Rotation
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1801
[Cu] Class update date: 180311
[Lr] Last revision date:180311
[Js] Journal subset:AIM; IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:180107
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1302/0301-620X.100B1.BJJ-2017-0553.R2

  6 / 55849 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29524088
[Au] Autor:Burssens A; Peeters J; Peiffer M; Marien R; Lenaerts T; Vandeputte G; Victor J; WBCT ISG
[Ad] Address:Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Ghent University Hospital, De Pintelaan 185, 9000, Ghent, Belgium. arne.burssens@ugent.be.
[Ti] Title:Reliability and correlation analysis of computed methods to convert conventional 2D radiological hindfoot measurements to a 3D setting using weightbearing CT.
[So] Source:Int J Comput Assist Radiol Surg;, 2018 Mar 09.
[Is] ISSN:1861-6429
[Cp] Country of publication:Germany
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:PURPOSE: The exact radiographic assessment of the hindfoot alignment remains challenging. This is reflected in the different measurement methods available. Weightbearing CT (WBCT) has been demonstrated to be more accurate in hindfoot measurements. However, current measurements are still performed in 2D. This study wants to assess the use of computed methods to convert the former uniplanar hindfoot measurements obtained after WBCT towards a 3D setting. METHODS: Forty-eight patients, mean age of 39.6 ± 13.2 years, with absence of hindfoot pathology were included. A WBCT was obtained, and images were subsequently segmented and analyzed using computer-aided design operations. In addition to the hindfoot angle (HA), other ankle and hindfoot parameters such as the anatomical tibia axis, talocalcaneal axis (TCA), talocrural angle, tibial inclination (TI), talar tilt, and subtalar vertical angle were determined in 2D and 3D. RESULTS: The mean [Formula: see text] was [Formula: see text] of valgus ± 3.2 and the [Formula: see text] was [Formula: see text] of valgus ± 6.5. These angles differed significantly from each other with a [Formula: see text]. The correlation between both showed to be good by [Formula: see text] Pearson correlation coefficient (r) of 0.72 ([Formula: see text]). The [Formula: see text] showed to be excellent when compared to the [Formula: see text], which was good. Similar findings were obtained in other angles. The highest correlation was seen between the [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] (r = 0.83, [Formula: see text]) and an almost perfect agreement in the [Formula: see text] ([Formula: see text]). CONCLUSION: This study shows a good and reliable correlation between the [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text]. However, the [Formula: see text] overcomes the shortcomings of inaccuracy and provides valuable spatial data that could be incorporated during computer-assisted surgery to assess the multiplanar correction of a hindfoot deformity.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
[St] Status:Publisher
[do] DOI:10.1007/s11548-018-1727-5

  7 / 55849 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29523155
[Au] Autor:Lindström E; Rizoska B; Tunblad K; Edenius C; Bendele AM; Maul D; Larson M; Shah N; Yoder Otto V; Jerome C; Grabowska U
[Ad] Address:Medivir AB, Box 1086, 141 22, Huddinge, Sweden.
[Ti] Title:The selective cathepsin K inhibitor MIV-711 attenuates joint pathology in experimental animal models of osteoarthritis.
[So] Source:J Transl Med;16(1):56, 2018 Mar 09.
[Is] ISSN:1479-5876
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: MIV-711 is a highly potent and selective cathepsin K inhibitor. The current article summarizes the therapeutic effects of MIV-711 on joint pathology in rabbits subjected to anterior cruciate ligament transection (ACLT), and the prophylactic effects on joint pathology in dogs subjected to partial medial meniscectomy, two surgical models of osteoarthritis (OA). METHODS: Starting 1 week after surgery, rabbits were dosed daily via oral gavage with either MIV-711 or vehicle (n = 7/group) for 7 weeks. The four treatment groups were: (1) sham + vehicle; (2) ACLT + vehicle; (3) ACLT + MIV-711, 30 µmol/kg and (4) ACLT + MIV-711, 100 µmol/kg. Subchondral bone and articular cartilage structures were assessed by µCT, histomorphometry, and scoring. Dogs subjected to partial medial meniscectomy received either MIV-711 (30 µmol/kg) or vehicle (n = 15/group) via oral gavage once daily, starting 1 day before meniscectomy, for 28 days. Cartilage degradation was assessed at the macroscopic and microscopic levels. The exposures of MIV-711 were assessed in both studies and biomarkers reflecting bone resorption (HP-1 in rabbits, CTX-I in dogs) and cartilage degradation (CTX-II) were measured. RESULTS: In ACLT rabbits, MIV-711 decreased HP-1 levels by up to 72% (p < 0.001) and CTX-II levels by up to 74% (p < 0.001) compared to ACLT vehicle controls. ACLT surgery significantly reduced the total thickness of the subchondral bone plate and reduced trabecular bone volume in the femur and tibia. These effects were reversed by MIV-711. ACLT resulted in cartilage thickening, which was attenuated by MIV-711. MIV-711 did not affect osteophyte formation or Mankin scores. In dogs, MIV-711 reduced CTX-I and CTX-II levels by 86% (p < 0.001) and 80% (p < 0.001), respectively. Synovial CTX-II levels were reduced by 55-57% (p < 0.001) compared to baseline. MIV-711-treated animals had 25-37% lower macroscopic scores in the femur condyles and 13-33% lower macroscopic scores in the tibial plateaus. CONCLUSIONS: MIV-711 prevents subchondral bone loss and partially attenuates cartilage pathology in two animal models of OA. These beneficial effects of MIV-711 on joint pathology are observed in conjunction with decreases in bone and cartilage biomarkers that have been shown to be clinically attainable in human. The data support the further development of MIV-711 for the treatment of OA.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1186/s12967-018-1425-7

  8 / 55849 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29522302
[Au] Autor:Pozowski A; Kowal M; Kierzek A; Kuciel-Lewandowska J; Tradecki M; Paprocka-Borowicz M
[Ti] Title:[Significance of biomechanical criteria in proper treatment planning in knee osteoarthritis].
[So] Source:Pomeranian J Life Sci;61(4):363-7, 2015.
[Is] ISSN:2450-4637
[Cp] Country of publication:Poland
[La] Language:pol
[Ab] Abstract:Introduction: Following the established and unequivocal criteria when choosing the treatment of knee osteoarthritis, despite possibility of precise imaging, is still very problematic. This is partly because doctors of different disciplines: general practitioners, orthopaedic surgeons, rheumatologists, physiotherapists, are involved in the treatment of this disease. For most of them the basic criteria to implement the treatment are: pain and assessment of X -ray in the supine position. As a result of that, despite slight and doubtful improvement, treatment is improperly targeted and extended. The aim of the study was to prove that the correct diagnosis, including biomechanical characteristics of the affected limb, choice of correct treatment, and observance of indications, can shorten treatment, make it more efficient and less expensive. Material and methods: We analyzed of 103 patients qualified for total knee arthroplasty between 2006 and 2011. The indication was primary and advanced knee osteoarthritis in phases III and IV according to Ahlbäcka scale medial displacement of mechanical axis deviation in the lower limb with club- -foot (I to IV degrees) and with centre of rotation of angulation (CORA) in the proximal part of the tibia. Only subjects with body mass index under 25 were included in the study. Surveys were used to assess the pre -operative duration of illness, non-surgical methods of treatment and their effects. Final evaluation was made using the Visual Analogue Scale (10 -degrees) of pain (during the effort and rest) and gait efficiency 30 days after completed treatment. Results: The 66.5% of patients showed no significant improvement in all assessed parameters, which would justify to continuation of the therapy as described above.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180309
[Lr] Last revision date:180309
[St] Status:In-Process

  9 / 55849 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29496627
[Au] Autor:Nadein K; Betz O
[Ad] Address:Senckenberg German Entomological Institute, Eberswalder Str. 90, 15374, Müncheberg, Germany. Electronic address: k.nadein@gmail.com.
[Ti] Title:Jumping mechanisms and performance in beetles. II. Weevils (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Rhamphini).
[So] Source:Arthropod Struct Dev;, 2018 Mar 06.
[Is] ISSN:1873-5495
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:We describe the kinematics and performance of the natural jump in the weevil Orchestes fagi (Fabricius, 1801) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) and its jumping apparatus with underlying anatomy and functional morphology. In weevils, jumping is performed by the hind legs and involves the extension of the hind tibia. The principal structural elements of the jumping apparatus are (1) the femoro-tibial joint, (2) the metafemoral extensor tendon, (3) the extensor ligament, (4) the flexor ligament, (5) the tibial flexor sclerite and (6) the extensor and flexor muscles. The kinematic parameters of the jump (from minimum to maximum) are 530-1965 m s (acceleration), 0.7-2.0 m s (velocity), 1.5-3.0 ms (time to take-off), 0.3-4.4 µJ (kinetic energy) and 54-200 (g-force). The specific joint power as calculated for the femoro-tibial joint during the jumping movement is 0.97 W g . The full extension of the hind tibia during the jump was reached within up to 1.8-2.5 ms. The kinematic parameters, the specific joint power and the time for the full extension of the hind tibia suggest that the jump is performed via a catapult mechanism with an input of elastic strain energy. A resilin-bearing elastic extensor ligament that connects the extensor tendon and the tibial base is considered to be the structure that accumulates the elastic strain energy for the jump. According to our functional model, the extensor ligament is loaded by the contraction of the extensor muscle, while the co-contraction of the antagonistic extensor and flexor muscles prevents the early extension of the tibia. This is attributable to the leverage factors of the femoro-tibial joint providing a mechanical advantage for the flexor muscles over the extensor muscles in the fully flexed position. The release of the accumulated energy is performed by the rapid relaxation of the flexor muscles resulting in the fast extension of the hind tibia propelling the body into air.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
[St] Status:Publisher

  10 / 55849 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29470959
[Au] Autor:Kumar M; Wadhwa R; Kothari P; Trivedi R; Vohora D
[Ad] Address:Pharmaceutical Medicine, School of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, Jamia Hamdard, New Delhi 110062, India.
[Ti] Title:Differential effects of serotonin reuptake inhibitors fluoxetine and escitalopram on bone markers and microarchitecture in Wistar rats.
[So] Source:Eur J Pharmacol;825:57-62, 2018 Feb 19.
[Is] ISSN:1879-0712
[Cp] Country of publication:Netherlands
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Evidence from several studies indicates that the long-term treatment of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) is associated with a decrease in bone mass and increase the risk of fractures. The present work evaluated and compared the effect of treatment with two SSRIs viz. fluoxetine and escitalopram on bone biomarkers (P1NP and ßCTX) in male Wistar rats. In addition, the effect of these drugs on bone microarchitecture of lumbar and tibia bones was carried out. Fluoxetine (8.2 mg/kg) treatment for 40 days significantly reduced (P < 0.01) the levels of the P1NP while escitalopram (2.0 mg/kg) was without such effects. Both drugs were devoid of any effects on bone resorption marker ßCTX. The pCREB levels were reduced by both the antidepressants but the reduction was significantly (P < 0.001) marked in case of fluoxetine. The micro-CT data revealed that fluoxetine, but not escitalopram, treatment resulted in reduced bone volume fraction, trabecular thickness and number while increased trabecular separation, trabecular pattern factor and connectivity density in the proximal tibial metaphysis. No significant changes were, however, discernible in lumbar bones. The study shows that fluoxetine reduces bone formation possibly through reduced pCREB mediated by the action of gut serotonin in osteoblasts and that escitalopram can be a better treatment option as far as adverse effects on bone are concerned.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180309
[Lr] Last revision date:180309
[St] Status:Publisher


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