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[PMID]: 29524780
[Au] Autor:Fernandes C; Figueira E; Tauler R; Bedia C
[Ad] Address:Departamento de Biologia & CESAM, Universidade de Aveiro, Campus Universitário de Santiago, 3810-193 Aveiro, Portugal.
[Ti] Title:Exposure to chlorpyrifos induces morphometric, biochemical and lipidomic alterations in green beans (Phaseolus vulgaris).
[So] Source:Ecotoxicol Environ Saf;156:25-33, 2018 Mar 07.
[Is] ISSN:1090-2414
[Cp] Country of publication:Netherlands
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Chlorpyrifos (CPF) is a worldwide used pesticide that raises concerns from the environmental and human health perspectives. The presence of pesticides such as CPF in edible vegetables has been already reported, but little is known about the effects induced by this pesticide stress on the morphology, oxidative response and lipid composition of treated plants. In this work, green bean plants (Phaseolus vulgaris) were exposed to increasing concentrations of CPF and the different plant parts (roots, stem bases, stem, leaves, pods and beans) were subjected to different analyses. First, morphometric parameters and the oxidative response caused by CPF were explored. In a second phase of the study, an untargeted lipidomic analysis of the different tissue extracts was performed and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry images of pods and beans were recorded and analysed to illustrate the spatial distribution of the changes observed. As a result of CPF treatment, plants showed a significant decrease in their height, leaf length, and pod number. The biochemical analysis showed lipid peroxidation and the activation of antioxidant mechanisms in roots, stem and leaves. Regarding the lipidomic results, changes in lipid levels were observed, mainly in leaves, pods and seeds. The main changes observed were a reduction of photosynthetic pigments and lipids in leaves and a decrease of triacylglycerols levels in pods and seeds. This last point was confirmed by the analysis of mass spectrometry images of the pods. These observations suggest that CPF would affect the yield of green bean crops as well as the nutritional value of pods and beans. This work represents a step forward in the knowledge of the effects of CPF, one of the most used pesticides worldwide, in plants.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
[St] Status:Publisher

  2 / 47064 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29432856
[Au] Autor:Azevedo BC; Morel LJF; Carmona F; Cunha TM; Contini SHT; Delprete PG; Ramalho FS; Crevelin E; Bertoni BW; França SC; Borges MC; Pereira AMS
[Ad] Address:Departamento de Biotecnologia em Plantas Medicinais, Universidade de Ribeirão Preto, Av. Costábile Romano 2201, 14096-900 Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil.
[Ti] Title:Aqueous extracts from Uncaria tomentosa (Willd. ex Schult.) DC. reduce bronchial hyperresponsiveness and inflammation in a murine model of asthma.
[So] Source:J Ethnopharmacol;218:76-89, 2018 Feb 10.
[Is] ISSN:1872-7573
[Cp] Country of publication:Ireland
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Uncaria tomentosa (Willd. Ex Schult) DC is used by indigenous tribes in the Amazonian region of Central and South America to treat inflammation, allergies and asthma. The therapeutic properties of U. tomentosa have been attributed to the presence of tetracyclic and pentacyclic oxindole alkaloids and to phenolic acids. AIMS OF THE STUDY: To characterize aqueous bark extracts (ABE) and aqueous leaf extracts (ALE) of U. tomentosa and to compare their anti-inflammatory effects. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Constituents of the extracts were identified by ultra performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Anti-inflammatory activities were assessed in vitro by exposing lipopolysaccharide-stimulated macrophage cells (RAW264.7-Luc) to ABE, ALE and standard mitraphylline. In vivo assays were performed using a murine model of ovalbumin (OVA)-induced asthma. OVA-sensitized animals were treated with ABE or ALE while controls received dexamethasone or saline solution. Bronchial hyperresponsiveness, production of Th1 and Th2 cytokines, total and differential counts of inflammatory cells in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and lung tissue were determined. RESULTS: Mitraphylline, isomitraphylline, chlorogenic acid and quinic acid were detected in both extracts, while isorhyncophylline and rutin were detected only in ALE. ABE, ALE and mitraphylline inhibited the transcription of nuclear factor kappa-B in cell cultures, ALE and mitraphylline reduced the production of interleukin (IL)-6, and mitraphylline reduced production of tumor necrosis factor-alpha. Treatment with ABE and ALE at 50 and 200 mg kg , respectively, reduced respiratory elastance and tissue damping and elastance. ABE and ALE reduced the number of eosinophils in BAL, while ALE at 200 mg kg reduced the levels of IL-4 and IL-5 in the lung homogenate. Peribronchial inflammation was significantly reduced by treatment with ABE and ALE at 50 and 100 mg kg respectively. CONCLUSION: The results clarify for the first time the anti-inflammatory activity of U. tomentosa in a murine model of asthma. Although ABE and ALE exhibited distinct chemical compositions, both extracts inhibited the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in vitro. In vivo assays revealed that ABE was more effective in treating asthmatic inflammation while ALE was more successful in controlling respiratory mechanics. Both extracts may have promising applications in the phytotherapy of allergic asthma.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
[St] Status:Publisher

  3 / 47064 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29319804
[Au] Autor:Nordgren TM; Bailey KL; Heires AJ; Katafiasz D; Romberger DJ
[Ad] Address:Pulmonary, Critical Care, Sleep and Allergy Division, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198.
[Ti] Title:Effects of agricultural organic dusts on human lung-resident mesenchymal stem (stromal) cell function.
[So] Source:Toxicol Sci;, 2018 Jan 08.
[Is] ISSN:1096-0929
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Agricultural organic dust exposures trigger harmful airway inflammation, and workers experiencing repetitive dust exposures are at increased risk for lung disease. Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSC) regulate wound repair processes in the lung, and may contribute to either pro-resolution or pro-fibrotic lung responses. It is unknown how organic dust exposures alter lung-resident MSC activation and pro-inflammatory versus pro-repair programs in the lung. To address this gap in knowledge, we isolated human lung-resident MSC from lung tissue. Cells were stimulated with aqueous extracts of organic dusts (DE) derived from swine confinement facilities and were assessed for changes in proliferative and migratory capacities, and production of pro-inflammatory and pro-repair mediators. Through these investigations, we found that DE induces significant release of pro-inflammatory mediators TNF-α, IL-6, IL-8, and matrix metalloproteases, while also inducing the production of pro-repair mediators amphiregulin, FGF-10, and resolvin D1. In addition, DE significantly reduced the growth and migratory capacities of lung-resident MSC. Together, these investigations indicate lung-resident MSC activation and wound repair activities are altered by organic dust exposures. These findings warrant future investigations to assess how organic dusts affect lung-resident mesenchymal stem/stromal cell function and impact airway inflammation, injury, and repair during agricultural aerosol exposures.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1801
[Cu] Class update date: 180311
[Lr] Last revision date:180311
[St] Status:Publisher
[do] DOI:10.1093/toxsci/kfx286

  4 / 47064 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29505506
[Au] Autor:Payab M; Hasani-Ranjbar S; Aletaha A; Ghasemi N; Qorbani M; Atlasi R; Abdollahi M; Larijani B
[Ad] Address:Obesity and Eating Habits Research Center, Endocrinology and Metabolism Molecular -Cellular Sciences Institute.
[Ti] Title:Efficacy, safety, and mechanisms of herbal medicines used in the treatment of obesity: A protocol for systematic review.
[So] Source:Medicine (Baltimore);97(1):e8825, 2018 Jan.
[Is] ISSN:1536-5964
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:INTRODUCTION: This systematic review protocol aims to perform a protocol for assessing the effectiveness, safety, and mechanism of herbal medicines for the treatment of obesity and metabolic syndrome. Some systematic reviews conducted earlier have evaluated the efficacy of herbal medicine to treat obesity and metabolic syndrome. Owing to the huge burden imposed by obesity in the recent years, a need is felt for conducting new systematic reviews on the topic of obesity with a focus on randomized clinical trials, we felt the need. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: All relevant clinical trials that examine the effectiveness of herbal medicines for the treatment of obesity and metabolic syndrome without restrictions on publication status will be applied.Four electronic databases will be searched: PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. The main outcome is expected to be an improvement in the body weight, body mass index, waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, body fat (weight or mass of visceral adipose tissue, fat mass or percent), and appetite.Selection studies, data extraction, and risk of bias will be assessed independently by 2 authors. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: In this study, ethical approval is not required because the data that will be used are not subjects and the results will be discussed through peer-reviewed publications. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: PROSPEROCRD42016049753.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Obesity/drug therapy
Phytotherapy
Plant Extracts/therapeutic use
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Humans
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (Plant Extracts)
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180309
[Lr] Last revision date:180309
[Js] Journal subset:AIM; IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:180306
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1097/MD.0000000000008825

  5 / 47064 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29174446
[Au] Autor:Anuja GI; Shine VJ; Latha PG; Suja SR
[Ad] Address:Ethnomedicine and Ethnopharmacology Division, Jawaharlal Nehru Tropical Botanic Garden and Research Institute, Palode, Thiruvananthapuram 695562, Kerela, India. Electronic address: anuviolet@gmail.com.
[Ti] Title:Protective effect of ethyl acetate fraction of Drynaria quercifolia against CCl induced rat liver fibrosis via Nrf2/ARE and NFκB signalling pathway.
[So] Source:J Ethnopharmacol;216:79-88, 2018 Apr 24.
[Is] ISSN:1872-7573
[Cp] Country of publication:Ireland
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Drynaria quercifolia rhizome is traditionally used as hepatoprotective drug especially in chronic jaundice. AIM OF THE STUDY: The present study was undertaken to scientifically evaluate the efficacy of D. quercifolia rhizome against liver fibrosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: D. quercifolia rhizome crude extract (DQ) and its fractions of hexane (HDQ), ethyl acetate (EDQ), butanol (BDQ) were evaluated in vitro using primary hepatocytes and RAW 264.7 cells. In vivo anti-liver fibrotic activity of EDQ was assessed using CCl induced liver fibrosis in Wistar rats and serum biochemical parameters (AST, ALT, ALP, SB, cholesterol), MDA, PT, INR, GSH, SOD, CAT, liver glycogen, serum albumin levels were monitored. qRT-PCR analysis of TNF-α, COX-2, iNOS were performed. ELISA method was used to estimate TNF-α, COX-1 & 2. Histopathological studies like H & E, Masson's trichrome, immunohistochemistry staining for α-SMA, TIMP-1, Nrf2 were conducted. LC-Q-TOF-MS analysis of EDQ was conducted. RESULTS: In vitro activity guided fractionation of D. quercifolia revealed EDQ as active fraction when compared to other extracts. EDQ treatment significantly inhibited the expression of α-SMA, TIMP-1, COX-2, TNF-α, iNOS and increased the levels of Nrf2 in rat liver fibrosis. LC-Q-TOF-MS analysis of EDQ confirmed the presence of naringin and naringenin. CONCLUSION: The anti-liver fibrotic activity of EDQ is via inhibition of NFκB signalling pathway, antioxidant response through Nrf2 activation and further inhibition of HSC activation.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1711
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
[St] Status:In-Process

  6 / 47064 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 28974426
[Au] Autor:Chatzikonstantinou AV; Chatziathanasiadou MV; Ravera E; Fragai M; Parigi G; Gerothanassis IP; Luchinat C; Stamatis H; Tzakos AG
[Ad] Address:Department of Chemistry, Section of Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Ioannina, 45110 Ioannina, Greece; Department of Biological Applications and Technologies, University of Ioannina, 45110 Ioannina, Greece.
[Ti] Title:Enriching the biological space of natural products and charting drug metabolites, through real time biotransformation monitoring: The NMR tube bioreactor.
[So] Source:Biochim Biophys Acta;1862(1):1-8, 2018 01.
[Is] ISSN:0006-3002
[Cp] Country of publication:Netherlands
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: Natural products offer a wide range of biological activities, but they are not easily integrated in the drug discovery pipeline, because of their inherent scaffold intricacy and the associated complexity in their synthetic chemistry. Enzymes may be used to perform regioselective and stereoselective incorporation of functional groups in the natural product core, avoiding harsh reaction conditions, several protection/deprotection and purification steps. METHODS: Herein, we developed a three step protocol carried out inside an NMR-tube. 1st-step: STD-NMR was used to predict the: i) capacity of natural products as enzyme substrates and ii) possible regioselectivity of the biotransformations. 2nd-step: The real-time formation of multiple-biotransformation products in the NMR-tube bioreactor was monitored in-situ. 3rd-step: STD-NMR was applied in the mixture of the biotransformed products to screen ligands for protein targets. RESULTS: Herein, we developed a simple and time-effective process, the "NMR-tube bioreactor", that is able to: (i) predict which component of a mixture of natural products can be enzymatically transformed, (ii) monitor in situ the transformation efficacy and regioselectivity in crude extracts and multiple substrate biotransformations without fractionation and (iii) simultaneously screen for interactions of the biotransformation products with pharmaceutical protein targets. CONCLUSIONS: We have developed a green, time-, and cost-effective process that provide a simple route from natural products to lead compounds for drug discovery. GENERAL SIGNIFICANSE: This process can speed up the most crucial steps in the early drug discovery process, and reduce the chemical manipulations usually involved in the pipeline, improving the environmental compatibility.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Bioreactors
Lipase/metabolism
Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy/methods
Quercetin/pharmacology
Quercetin/pharmacokinetics
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Biotransformation
Lipase/chemistry
Quercetin/chemistry
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Nm] Name of substance:9IKM0I5T1E (Quercetin); EC 3.1.1.- (Novozyme 435); EC 3.1.1.3 (Lipase)
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180309
[Lr] Last revision date:180309
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:171005
[St] Status:MEDLINE

  7 / 47064 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29520667
[Au] Autor:Jonsson A; Hjalmarsson C; Falk P; Ivarsson ML
[Ad] Address:Hallands Hospital Varberg, Region Halland, 432 37, Varberg, Sweden.
[Ti] Title:Stability of matrix metalloproteinase-9 as biological marker in colorectal cancer.
[So] Source:Med Oncol;35(4):50, 2018 Mar 09.
[Is] ISSN:1559-131X
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are believed to be of importance in the growth and spread of colorectal cancer (CRC). MMP-9 level has been suggested as a biological predictor of prognosis in CRC as well as in other types of cancer such as breast and cervical cancer. The purpose of this study was to investigate the stability over time of MMP-9 in cryopreserved plasma, colorectal tumor tissue extract and macroscopically tumor-free colon mucosa tissue extract samples. Plasma and tissue samples were taken from patients at primary CRC surgery and analyzed for MMP-9. Aliquots of samples from the same patients were stored at - 80 °C pending analysis. These aliquots were analyzed using identical methods after storage periods of nine (plasma) and twelve (tissue) years. No significant difference in plasma MMP-9 concentration was seen between baseline samples and those after 9 years of cryopreservation (median values 9.9 and 9.7 ng/mL, respectively; p > 0.05). MMP-9 levels in the tumor-free tissue extracts had increased to baseline (median values 7.1 and 8.1 ng/mL, respectively; p < 0.01). MMP-9 levels in the tumor tissue extracts had also increased significantly (median values 89.9 and 133.5 ng/mL, respectively; p < 0.01). We have demonstrated that MMP-9 levels in frozen citrated plasma are stable if stored at - 80 °C, whereas MMP-9 levels in extracts from tumor tissue and tumor-free intestinal mucosa appear to increase with time. We conclude that MMP-9 levels in cryopreserved plasma may be considered stable over time and are thus suitable for comparison purposes in consecutive series.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180309
[Lr] Last revision date:180309
[St] Status:In-Process
[do] DOI:10.1007/s12032-018-1109-4

  8 / 47064 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29452189
[Au] Autor:Priftis A; Panagiotou EM; Lakis K; Plika C; Halabalaki M; Ntasi G; Veskoukis AS; Stagos D; Skaltsounis LA; Kouretas D
[Ad] Address:Department of Biochemistry and Biotechnology, University of Thessaly, Viopolis, Larissa, 41500, Greece.
[Ti] Title:Roasted and green coffee extracts show antioxidant and cytotoxic activity in myoblast and endothelial cell lines in a cell specific manner.
[So] Source:Food Chem Toxicol;114:119-127, 2018 Feb 13.
[Is] ISSN:1873-6351
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Coffee is one of the most highly consumed beverages with potential beneficial health implications, however its molecular mechanism of action has not been completely elucidated yet. To that cause, the polyphenolic composition of different coffee extracts (from Light, Medium and Dark roasts as well as green beans) was examined by UHPLC-HRMS analysis, indicating chlorogenic acids isomers as the main constituents. In the following step, the toxicity of the extracts was tested in myoblasts and endothelial cells and differential toxicity of green and roasted samples was displayed as the myoblasts were more sensitive to green coffee extracts, in contrast to the endothelial cells. Subsequently, biologically relevant, non-cytotoxic extract concentrations were administered to explore their potential effect on cell redox status using flow cytometry and spectrophotometric assays. The results indicated that all coffee extracts improved cell redox status, however differences were observed between the two different cell lines tested, implying that coffee compounds display cell- and tissue-specificity. Glutathione levels were increased in almost all cases up to 70%, while the roasting degree affected the free radical scavenging potential of the extracts and their ability to protect from macromolecular oxidation as exhibited by the differences in ROS, CARB and TBARS levels, especially in the myoblasts.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180308
[Lr] Last revision date:180308
[St] Status:Publisher

  9 / 47064 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29392532
[Au] Autor:Hill EM; Robinson LA; Abdul-Sada A; Vanbergen AJ; Hodge A; Hartley SE
[Ad] Address:School of Life Sciences, University of Sussex, Brighton, BN1 9QG, UK.
[Ti] Title:Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi and Plant Chemical Defence: Effects of Colonisation on Aboveground and Belowground Metabolomes.
[So] Source:J Chem Ecol;44(2):198-208, 2018 Feb.
[Is] ISSN:1573-1561
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF) colonisation of plant roots is one of the most ancient and widespread interactions in ecology, yet the systemic consequences for plant secondary chemistry remain unclear. We performed the first metabolomic investigation into the impact of AMF colonisation by Rhizophagus irregularis on the chemical defences, spanning above- and below-ground tissues, in its host-plant ragwort (Senecio jacobaea). We used a non-targeted metabolomics approach to profile, and where possible identify, compounds induced by AMF colonisation in both roots and shoots. Metabolomics analyses revealed that 33 compounds were significantly increased in the root tissue of AMF colonised plants, including seven blumenols, plant-derived compounds known to be associated with AMF colonisation. One of these was a novel structure conjugated with a malonyl-sugar and uronic acid moiety, hitherto an unreported combination. Such structural modifications of blumenols could be significant for their previously reported functional roles associated with the establishment and maintenance of AM colonisation. Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs), key anti-herbivore defence compounds in ragwort, dominated the metabolomic profiles of root and shoot extracts. Analyses of the metabolomic profiles revealed an increase in four PAs in roots (but not shoots) of AMF colonised plants, with the potential to protect colonised plants from below-ground organisms.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180309
[Lr] Last revision date:180309
[St] Status:In-Process
[do] DOI:10.1007/s10886-017-0921-1

  10 / 47064 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29325032
[Au] Autor:Santoro A; Anjomani Virmouni S; Paradies E; Villalobos Coa VL; Al-Mahdawi S; Khoo M; Porcelli V; Vozza A; Perrone M; Denora N; Taroni F; Merla G; Palmieri L; Pook MA; Marobbio CMT
[Ad] Address:Institute of Biomembranes, Bioenergetics and Molecular Biotechnologies, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, 70126 Bari, Italy.
[Ti] Title:Effect of diazoxide on Friedreich ataxia models.
[So] Source:Hum Mol Genet;27(6):992-1001, 2018 Mar 15.
[Is] ISSN:1460-2083
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Friedreich ataxia (FRDA) is an inherited recessive disorder caused by a deficiency in the mitochondrial protein frataxin. There is currently no effective treatment for FRDA available, especially for neurological deficits. In this study, we tested diazoxide, a drug commonly used as vasodilator in the treatment of acute hypertension, on cellular and animal models of FRDA. We first showed that diazoxide increases frataxin protein levels in FRDA lymphoblastoid cell lines, via the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway. We then explored the potential therapeutic effect of diazoxide in frataxin-deficient transgenic YG8sR mice and we found that prolonged oral administration of 3 mpk/d diazoxide was found to be safe, but produced variable effects concerning efficacy. YG8sR mice showed improved beam walk coordination abilities and footprint stride patterns, but a generally reduced locomotor activity. Moreover, they showed significantly increased frataxin expression, improved aconitase activity, and decreased protein oxidation in cerebellum and brain mitochondrial tissue extracts. Further studies are needed before this drug should be considered for FRDA clinical trials.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1801
[Cu] Class update date: 180307
[Lr] Last revision date:180307
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1093/hmg/ddy016


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