Database : MEDLINE
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[PMID]: 29476766
[Au] Autor:Lidón-Moyano C; Sampedro-Vida M; Matilla-Santander N; Martín-Sánchez JC; González-Marrón A; Bunch K; Martínez-Sánchez JM
[Ad] Address:Group of Evaluation of Health Determinants and Health Policies, Department of Basic Sciences, Universitat Internacional de Catalunya, Sant Cugat del Vallès, Spain.
[Ti] Title:Attitudes towards tobacco product regulations and their relationship with the tobacco control policies.
[So] Source:Prev Med;111:67-72, 2018 Feb 21.
[Is] ISSN:1096-0260
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:The objective of this work is to describe the acceptability of some tobacco products regulations and to explore their relation with tobacco control legislation levels in Europe. We used data on tobacco control activities in Europe in 2007, 2010 and 2013 measured by the Tobacco Control Scale (TCS) and data regarding attitudes about tobacco control regulations (i.e. adding picture health warnings on all packages of tobacco products or increasing taxes on tobacco products) from the Special Eurobarometer of 2009, 2012 and 2014 (n = 80,831). We calculated the prevalence ratio of favorable attitudes towards tobacco products restrictions in the reference year 2009 vs. the most current year (i.e. 2009 vs 2014), and the effect of previous TCS scores on the attitudes towards tobacco products regulations adjusted for sociodemographic variables. Strong support for the studied tobacco products regulations, which modestly increased over time, was observed. A positive relation was generally observed between TCS scores and support for the studied tobacco products regulations at both the ecological and individual level. A positive correlation was found between TCS scores and support for increasing taxes on tobacco products (r :0.29; 95%CI: 0.10, 0.48) at the ecological level, while at the individual level, the positive association was more remarkable in the case of support for adding large health warning labels to packaging. In conclusion, support for the studied tobacco products regulations were positively related with European tobacco control levels of implementation both at the ecological and individual level.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
[St] Status:Publisher

  2 / 13977 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29427916
[Au] Autor:Smethells JR; Harris AC; Burroughs D; Hursh SR; LeSage MG
[Ad] Address:Minneapolis Medical Research Foundation, 914 S. 8th Street, Minneapolis, MN, United States. Electronic address: smet0011@umn.edu.
[Ti] Title:Substitutability of nicotine alone and an electronic cigarette liquid using a concurrent choice assay in rats: A behavioral economic analysis.
[So] Source:Drug Alcohol Depend;185:58-66, 2018 Feb 05.
[Is] ISSN:1879-0046
[Cp] Country of publication:Ireland
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:BACKGROUND: For the Food and Drug Administration to effectively regulate tobacco products, the contribution of non-nicotine tobacco constituents to the abuse liability of tobacco must be well understood. Our previous work compared the abuse liability of electronic cigarette refill liquids (EC liquids) and nicotine (Nic) alone when each was available in isolation and found no difference in abuse liability (i.e., demand elasticity). Another, and potentially more sensitive measure, would be to examine abuse liability in a choice context, which also provides a better model of the tobacco marketplace. METHODS: Demand elasticity for Nic alone and an EC liquid were measured when only one formulation was available (alone-price demand) and when both formulations were concurrently available (own-price demand), allowing an assessment of the degree to which each formulation served as a substitute (cross-price demand) when available at a low fixed-price. RESULTS: Own-price demand for both formulations were more elastic compared to alone-price demand, indicating that availability of a substitute increased demand elasticity. During concurrent access, consumption of the fixed-price formulation increased as the unit-price of the other formulation increased. The rate of increase was similar between formulations, indicating that they served as symmetrical substitutes. CONCLUSION: The cross-price model reliably quantified the substitutability of both nicotine formulations and indicated that the direct CNS effects of non-nicotine constituents in EC liquid did not alter its abuse liability compared to Nic. These data highlight the sensitivity of this model and its potential utility for examining the relative abuse liability and substitutability of tobacco products.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
[St] Status:Publisher

  3 / 13977 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29381718
[Au] Autor:Sasaki M; Chubachi S; Kameyama N; Sato M; Haraguchi M; Miyazaki M; Takahashi S; Nakano T; Kuroda Y; Betsuyaku T; Matsuo K
[Ad] Address:Division of Pulmonary Medicine, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, Japan.
[Ti] Title:Effects of long-term cigarette smoke exposure on bone metabolism, structure, and quality in a mouse model of emphysema.
[So] Source:PLoS One;13(1):e0191611, 2018.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Smoking is a common risk factor for both chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and osteoporosis. In patients with COPD, severe emphysema is a risk factor for vertebral fracture; however, the effects of smoking or emphysema on bone health remain largely unknown. We report bone deterioration in a mouse model of emphysema induced by nose-only cigarette smoke (CS) exposure. Unexpectedly, short-term exposure for 4-weeks decreased bone turnover and increased bone volume in mice. However, prolonged exposure for 20- and 40-weeks reversed the effects from suppression to promotion of bone resorption. This long-term CS exposure increased osteoclast number and impaired bone growth, while it increased bone volume. Strikingly, long-term CS exposure deteriorated bone quality of the lumbar vertebrae as illustrated by disorientation of collagen fibers and the biological apatite c-axis. This animal model may provide a better understanding of the mechanisms underlying the deterioration of bone quality in pulmonary emphysema caused by smoking.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Bone and Bones/metabolism
Disease Models, Animal
Emphysema/metabolism
Smoke
Tobacco Products
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Animals
Bone Remodeling
Mice
Mice, Inbred C57BL
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (Smoke)
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180309
[Lr] Last revision date:180309
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:180131
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0191611

  4 / 13977 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29378269
[Au] Autor:Williams RS; Derrick JC
[Ad] Address:Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USA; Center for Health Promotion and Disease Prevention, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USA. Electronic address: rebeccawilliams@unc.edu.
[Ti] Title:Internet little cigar and cigarillo vendors: Surveillance of sales and marketing practices via website content analysis.
[So] Source:Prev Med;109:51-57, 2018 Apr.
[Is] ISSN:1096-0260
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:INTRODUCTION: Cigar sales have nearly doubled as cigarette sales have dropped, and large cigars have been replaced by little cigars and cigarillos (LCCs). Many LCCs are flavored, are perceived as less harmful than cigarettes, and have become increasingly available from e-commerce sources. We conducted surveillance of the online retail environment in 2013 and 2014 for LCCs in order to describe characteristics of Internet tobacco vendors selling LCCs and their sales and marketing practices, youth access practices, and their practices in relation to cigarette and other tobacco product sales. METHODS: In 2013, we identified and manually screened 32,446 websites, yielding 500 unique Internet LCC vendors. In 2014, we identified 511 vendors selling LCCs from a list of 31,239 manually screened websites. We then selected 249 in 2013 and 263 in 2014 for content analysis focusing on six domains including demographics, youth access, payment and delivery, products for sale, promotions and claims, and prices. RESULTS: Just over half of vendors in both years were located solely in the U.S. with 70.1% of those selling flavored LCCs in 2013 and 76.1% in 2014. Nearly half only used proven ineffective age verification strategies and another 10% made no attempts to verify age at all. Most vendors accepted credit cards and advertised using the United States Postal Service. Half of vendors featured a variety of health warnings and most featured promotions. CONCLUSIONS: Federal bans on flavored cigarettes and restrictions on age verification, payment, and shipping for Internet tobacco sales should be extended to include LCCs.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1801
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
[St] Status:In-Data-Review

  5 / 13977 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29521160
[Au] Autor:Hawkins B; Holden C; Mackinder S
[Ad] Address:a Department of Global Health and Development , London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine , London , UK.
[Ti] Title:A multi-level, multi-jurisdictional strategy: Transnational tobacco companies' attempts to obstruct tobacco packaging restrictions.
[So] Source:Glob Public Health;:1-14, 2018 Mar 09.
[Is] ISSN:1744-1706
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Despite the extensive literature on the tobacco industry, there has been little attempt to study how transnational tobacco companies (TTCs) coordinate their political activities globally, or to theorise TTC strategies within the context of global governance structures and policy processes. This article draws on three concepts from political science - policy transfer, multi-level governance and venue shifting - to analyse TTCs' integrated, global strategies to oppose augmented packaging requirements across multiple jurisdictions. Following Uruguay's introduction of extended labelling requirements, Australia became the first country in the world to require tobacco products to be sold in standardised ('plain') packaging in 2012. Governments in the European Union, including in the United Kingdom and Ireland, adopted similar laws, with other member states due to follow. TTCs vehemently opposed these measures and developed coordinated, global strategies to oppose their implementation, exploiting the complexity of contemporary global governance arrangements. These included a series of legal challenges in various jurisdictions, alongside political lobbying and public relations campaigns. This article draws on analysis of public documents and 32 semi-structured interviews with key policy actors. It finds that TTCs developed coordinated and highly integrated strategies to oppose packaging restrictions across multiple jurisdictions and levels of governance.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180309
[Lr] Last revision date:180309
[St] Status:Publisher
[do] DOI:10.1080/17441692.2018.1446997

  6 / 13977 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29520549
[Au] Autor:Tombolini F; Pigini D; Tranfo G; Paci E; Carosi I; Marini F; Bauleo L; Ancona C; Forastiere F
[Ad] Address:Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Epidemiology and Hygiene, Research Area of Monte Porzio Catone (RM), INAIL Research, Via di Fontana Candida 1, 00040 Monteporzio Catone, Rome, Italy.
[Ti] Title:Levels of urinary metabolites of four PAHs and cotinine determined in 1016 volunteers living in Central Italy.
[So] Source:Environ Sci Pollut Res Int;, 2018 Mar 08.
[Is] ISSN:1614-7499
[Cp] Country of publication:Germany
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are products of the incomplete combustion of organic materials, and exposure of the general population to PAH is ubiquitous. They are also present in tobacco smoke. Some PAH are classified as carcinogens. Urine samples from 747 non-smoking and 269 smoking subjects living in the same area of Central Italy were analyzed in order to determine reference values for PAHs exposure of a general population. The concentration of cotinine, urinary metabolite of nicotine was also measured in these samples in order to classify the subjects as smokers or not. The median concentration and 50th percentile in females was higher than in males for all metabolites; 1- and 2-hydroxynaphtalene (1-OHNAP and 2-OHNAP) and 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHPy), are significantly higher in smokers; on the other side 3-hydroxybenzo[a]pyrene (3-OHBaPy) and 6-hydroxynitropyrene (6-OHNPy) do not correlate with the cotinine concentration.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180309
[Lr] Last revision date:180309
[St] Status:Publisher
[do] DOI:10.1007/s11356-018-1650-x

  7 / 13977 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29454177
[Au] Autor:Ganz O; Johnson AL; Cohn AM; Rath J; Horn K; Vallone D; Villanti AC
[Ad] Address:Schroeder Institute at Truth Initiative, Washington, DC, United States; Department of Prevention and Community Health, George Washington University Milken Institute School of Public Health, Washington, DC, United States. Electronic address: ganzo@gwmail.gwu.edu.
[Ti] Title:Tobacco harm perceptions and use among sexual and gender minorities: findings from a national sample of young adults in the United States.
[So] Source:Addict Behav;81:104-108, 2018 Jan 31.
[Is] ISSN:1873-6327
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:INTRODUCTION: In the United States, the prevalence of tobacco use among sexual and gender minorities (SGM) is higher compared to their non-SGM counterparts. Tobacco harm perceptions have gone largely unexamined as a potential mechanism supporting disproportionate tobacco use among this population. The purpose of this study was to examine differences between SGM and non-SGM young adults in harm perceptions of various tobacco products and tobacco use behavior and whether low tobacco-related harm perceptions moderate the relationship between identifying as a SGM and tobacco use behavior. METHODS: This study used data from Wave 10 of the Truth Initiative Young Adult Cohort Study, a sample of U.S. young adults (ages 18-34). Data were collected from September to October 2016 and the study sample included 3089 individuals. Demographics, past 30-day use of cigarettes, little cigars/cigarillos/bidis and electronic cigarettes were assessed. Absolute and relative harm perceptions of these products were also examined. RESULTS: Identifying as a SGM and low tobacco harm perceptions were found to be positively associated with past 30-day tobacco use. There was no interaction between SGM status and harm perceptions on past 30-day tobacco use CONCLUSIONS: Findings confirm that SGM young adults continue to disproportionately use tobacco products, compared to non-SGM young adults. More research is needed to understand moderators of the relationship between SGM status and tobacco use in young adults.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180309
[Lr] Last revision date:180309
[St] Status:Publisher

  8 / 13977 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 28459618
[Au] Autor:Celedón JC; Burchard EG; Schraufnagel D; Castillo-Salgado C; Schenker M; Balmes J; Neptune E; Cummings KJ; Holguin F; Riekert KA; Wisnivesky JP; Garcia JGN; Roman J; Kittles R; Ortega VE; Redline S; Mathias R; Thomas A; Samet J; Ford JG; American Thoracic Society and the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute
[Ti] Title:An American Thoracic Society/National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Workshop Report: Addressing Respiratory Health Equality in the United States.
[So] Source:Ann Am Thorac Soc;14(5):814-826, 2017 May.
[Is] ISSN:2325-6621
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Health disparities related to race, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status persist and are commonly encountered by practitioners of pediatric and adult pulmonary, critical care, and sleep medicine in the United States. To address such disparities and thus progress toward equality in respiratory health, the American Thoracic Society and the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute convened a workshop in May of 2015. The workshop participants addressed health disparities by focusing on six topics, each of which concluded with a panel discussion that proposed recommendations for research on racial, ethnic, and socioeconomic disparities in pulmonary, critical care, and sleep medicine. Such recommendations address best practices to advance research on respiratory health disparities (e.g., characterize broad ethnic groups into subgroups known to differ with regard to a disease of interest), risk factors for respiratory health disparities (e.g., study the impact of new tobacco or nicotine products on respiratory diseases in minority populations), addressing equity in access to healthcare and quality of care (e.g., conduct longitudinal studies of the impact of the Affordable Care Act on respiratory and sleep disorders), the impact of personalized medicine on disparities research (e.g., implement large studies of pharmacogenetics in minority populations), improving design and methodology for research studies in respiratory health disparities (e.g., use study designs that reduce participants' burden and foster trust by engaging participants as decision-makers), and achieving equity in the pulmonary, critical care, and sleep medicine workforce (e.g., develop and maintain robust mentoring programs for junior faculty, including local and external mentors). Addressing these research needs should advance efforts to reduce, and potentially eliminate, respiratory, sleep, and critical care disparities in the United States.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Ethnic Groups/statistics & numerical data
Health Services Accessibility/statistics & numerical data
Health Status Disparities
Healthcare Disparities
Minority Groups/statistics & numerical data
Respiratory Tract Diseases/epidemiology
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Health Policy
Humans
National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (U.S.)
Pulmonary Medicine
Social Class
Societies, Medical
United States
[Pt] Publication type:CONSENSUS DEVELOPMENT CONFERENCE, NIH; JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180308
[Lr] Last revision date:180308
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:170502
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1513/AnnalsATS.201702-167WS

  9 / 13977 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29452385
[Au] Autor:Hair EC; Romberg AR; Niaura R; Abrams DB; Bennett MA; Xiao H; Rath JM; Pitzer L; Vallone D
[Ad] Address:Schroeder Institute at Truth Initiative, Washington, DC.
[Ti] Title:Longitudinal Tobacco Use Transitions Among Adolescents and Young Adults: 2014-2016.
[So] Source:Nicotine Tob Res;, 2018 Feb 13.
[Is] ISSN:1469-994X
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Introduction: Among youth, the frequency and prevalence of using more than one tobacco (small cigar, cigarette, and hookah) or nicotine-containing product (e-cigarettes-ENDS) are changing. These shifts pose challenges for regulation, intervention, and prevention campaigns because of scant longitudinal data on the stability of use patterns in this changing product landscape. Methods: A nationally representative longitudinal survey of 15- to 21-year olds (n = 15,275) was used to describe transitions between never use, noncurrent use, and past 30-day use of combustible tobacco, e-cigarettes (ENDS), and dual use of both kinds of products. A multistate model was fit to observations collected every 6 months across 2.5 years to estimate the probability of transitions between states (TPs), the average time in state (sojourn time), and the effect of age on transitions. Results: Current state strongly predicted future state over time intervals of 1 year or less, but only weakly predicted future state at longer intervals: TP to noncurrent use was higher for ENDS-only than combustible-only users over a 6-month interval but was similar for both groups over a 2-year interval. Sojourn time was significantly longer for combustible-only (0.52 years) and dual use (0.55 years) than ENDS-only use (0.27 years); older youth were more likely than younger youth to stay combustible tobacco users or noncurrent users. Conclusions: The dynamics of transitions between combustible tobacco products and ENDS in a population of youth and young adults suggest that policy and prevention efforts must consider the frequent changes and instability over a 1-year or less time period in use patterns among young people. Implications: The study addresses an urgent need in public health for timely information on how youth and young adults use tobacco and nicotine products. We found that youth, particularly adolescents, moved frequently between using ENDS and combustible tobacco products either alone or together. Importantly, the utility of current-use states for predicting future use states declined for time horizons longer than 1 year. Our results demonstrate a need for caution in interpreting product transitions. Longitudinal data with frequent observations and coverage of a wide range of possible product types is required to fully characterize usage patterns in youth.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180308
[Lr] Last revision date:180308
[St] Status:Publisher
[do] DOI:10.1093/ntr/ntx285

  10 / 13977 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29444268
[Au] Autor:Thrasher JF; Brewer NT; Niederdeppe J; Peters E; Strasser AA; Grana R; Kaufman AR
[Ad] Address:Department of Health Promotion, Education, and Behavior, Arnold School of Public Health, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC.
[Ti] Title:Advancing Tobacco Product Warning Labels Research Methods and Theory: A Summary of a Grantee Meeting Held by the US National Cancer Institute.
[So] Source:Nicotine Tob Res;, 2018 Feb 10.
[Is] ISSN:1469-994X
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Background: The World Health Organization's Framework Convention on Tobacco Control recommends prominent pictorial health warnings on tobacco products. To advance research methods, theory and understanding of how tobacco product warning labels (TPWLs) work, the US National Cancer Institute convened a grantee meeting. Our article describes the key insights that emerged from the meeting, situated within the context of the scientific literature. Results & Recommendations: First, presentations confirmed that large, pictorial TPWLs motivate people to try to quit and encourage smoking cessation. Second, pictorial TPWLs increase attention, knowledge, negative affect, and thinking about the warning. Third, TPWL studies have primarily used brief-exposure laboratory studies and observational studies of sustained exposure through national policy implementation, with a few randomized trials involving several weeks of exposure-with generally consistent results found across study designs. Fourth, novel assessment methods include brain imaging, eye tracking and "best-worst" discrete choice experiments. To make TPWL even more effective, research is needed to confirm the mechanisms of their influence, their impact across vulnerable populations, and their effect on social media posts about tobacco products. Research is also needed on the effect of trial design choices, the predictive validity of new measurement approaches, and warning labels for non-cigarette tobacco products. Implications: To improve scientific understanding of TPWL effects, this grantee meeting summary describes emerging research methods, theory and study results. Directions for future research include examination of the mechanisms of how warning labels work across diverse tobacco products and across different populations and contexts.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180308
[Lr] Last revision date:180308
[St] Status:Publisher
[do] DOI:10.1093/ntr/nty017


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