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[PMID]: 29126839
[Au] Autor:Ulutasdemir N; Eroglu F; Tanriverdi M; Dagli EI; Koltas IS
[Ad] Address:Avrasya University, Faculty of Health Sciences, Trabzon, Turkey.
[Ti] Title:The epidemic typhus and trench fever are risk for public health due to increased migration in southeast of Turkey.
[So] Source:Acta Trop;178:115-118, 2017 Nov 07.
[Is] ISSN:1873-6254
[Cp] Country of publication:Netherlands
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Pediculus humanus capitis is a small ectoparasitic insect that has lived and feds on human beings for thousands of years. Molecular techniques have been used for Pediculus species identification and evolutionary, phylogenic, and ecological studies. A total of 23 adults of P. h. capitis were collected in Gaziantep, located in southeast Turkey, and DNA was isolated from all P. h. capitis using DNA extraction kit. All DNA samples were screened for investigate of Ricettsia prowazekii, Bartonella quintana and Borrelia recurrentis with real-time polymerase chain reaction. In addition, we investigated genetic variation in DNA samples of Pediculus humanus capitis using the cytochrome oxidase I genetic DNA sequence. We found 4 (17.4%) Ricettsia prowazekii and 3 (13.1%) Bartonella quintana in DNA samples of Pediculus humanus capitis, while we did not find any Bartonella recurrentis in any of the DNA samples. We demonstrated 1.8% genetic variations in DNA samples of Pediculus humanus capitis with Bartonella quintana. The phylogenetic tree based on the cytochrome oxidase I gene revealed that P. h. capitis in southeast Turkey are classified into two clades (clade A, clade B) and Bartonella quintana was found in only clade B. However, we did not find any genetic variations in other DNA samples in this region. The genetic variations may be related to P. h.capitis vector of Bartonella quintana has found in this study. In addition, this study was shown that P. h. capitis do transmit Rickettsia prowazekii and Bartonella quintana to people, epidemic typhus and trench fever may emergence in Gaziantep southeast of Turkey in the future.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1711
[Cu] Class update date: 171121
[Lr] Last revision date:171121
[St] Status:Publisher

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[PMID]: 28931077
[Au] Autor:Amanzougaghene N; Fenollar F; Sangaré AK; Sissoko MS; Doumbo OK; Raoult D; Mediannikov O
[Ad] Address:Aix Marseille Univ, CNRS, IRD, INSERM, AP-HM, URMITE, IHU - Méditerranée Infection, Marseille, France.
[Ti] Title:Detection of bacterial pathogens including potential new species in human head lice from Mali.
[So] Source:PLoS One;12(9):e0184621, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:In poor African countries, where no medical and biological facilities are available, the identification of potential emerging pathogens of concern at an early stage is challenging. Head lice, Pediculus humanus capitis, have a short life, feed only on human blood and do not transmit pathogens to their progeny. They are, therefore, a perfect tool for the xenodiagnosis of current or recent human infection. This study assessed the occurrence of bacterial pathogens from head lice collected in two rural villages from Mali, where a high frequency of head lice infestation had previously been reported, using molecular methods. Results show that all 600 head lice, collected from 117 individuals, belonged to clade E, specific to West Africa. Bartonella quintana, the causative agent of trench fever, was identified in three of the 600 (0.5%) head lice studied. Our study also shows, for the first time, the presence of the DNA of two pathogenic bacteria, namely Coxiella burnetii (5.1%) and Rickettsia aeschlimannii (0.6%), detected in human head lice, as well as the DNA of potential new species from the Anaplasma and Ehrlichia genera of unknown pathogenicity. The finding of several Malian head lice infected with B. quintana, C. burnetii, R. aeschlimannii, Anaplasma and Ehrlichia is alarming and highlights the need for active survey programs to define the public health consequences of the detection of these emerging bacterial pathogens in human head lice.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Bartonella quintana/genetics
DNA, Bacterial/genetics
Insect Vectors/microbiology
Lice Infestations/diagnosis
Pediculus/microbiology
Scalp Dermatoses/diagnosis
Trench Fever/transmission
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Animals
Bartonella quintana/classification
Bartonella quintana/isolation & purification
DNA, Bacterial/classification
DNA, Bacterial/isolation & purification
Humans
Lice Infestations/microbiology
Mali
Phylogeny
Polymerase Chain Reaction
Scalp Dermatoses/microbiology
Trench Fever/microbiology
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (DNA, Bacterial)
[Em] Entry month:1710
[Cu] Class update date: 171017
[Lr] Last revision date:171017
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:170921
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0184621

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[PMID]: 28105732
[Au] Autor:Kim JH; Previte DJ; Yoon KS; Murenzi E; Koehler JE; Pittendrigh BR; Lee SH; Clark JM
[Ad] Address:Department of Agricultural Biotechnology, Seoul National University, Seoul, Korea.
[Ti] Title:Comparison of the proliferation and excretion of Bartonella quintana between body and head lice following oral challenge.
[So] Source:Insect Mol Biol;26(3):266-276, 2017 Jun.
[Is] ISSN:1365-2583
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Human body and head lice are highly related haematophagous ectoparasites but only the body louse has been shown to transmit Bartonella quintana, the causative agent of trench fever. The mechanisms by which body lice became a vector for B. quintana, however, are poorly understood. Following oral challenge, green fluorescent protein-expressing B. quintana proliferated over 9 days postchallenge with the number of bacteria being significantly higher in whole body vs. head lice. The numbers of B. quintana detected in faeces from infected lice, however, were approximately the same in both lice. Nevertheless, the viability of B. quintana was significantly higher in body louse faeces. Comparison of immune responses in alimentary tract tissues revealed that basal transcription levels of peptidoglycan recognition protein and defensins were lower in body lice and the transcription of defensin 1 was up-regulated by oral challenge with wild-type B. quintana in head but not in body lice. In addition, the level of cytotoxic reactive oxygen species generated by epithelial cells was significantly lower in body lice. Although speculative at this time, the reduced immune response is consistent with the higher vector competence seen in body vs. head lice in terms of B. quintana infection.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Bartonella quintana/physiology
Insect Vectors/microbiology
Pediculus/microbiology
Trench Fever/transmission
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Animals
Gastrointestinal Tract/metabolism
Green Fluorescent Proteins
Humans
Pediculus/immunology
Pediculus/metabolism
Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism
[Pt] Publication type:COMPARATIVE STUDY; JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (Reactive Oxygen Species); 147336-22-9 (Green Fluorescent Proteins)
[Em] Entry month:1708
[Cu] Class update date: 170828
[Lr] Last revision date:170828
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:170121
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1111/imb.12292

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[PMID]: 27692988
[Au] Autor:Sadanandane C; Elango A; Marja N; Sasidharan PV; Raju KH; Jambulingam P
[Ad] Address:Vector Control Research Centre, Indian Council of Medical Research, Ministry of Health & Family Welfare, Govt. of India, Indira Nagar, Pondicherry 605 006, India. Electronic address: cs_anandane@yahoo.com.
[Ti] Title:An outbreak of Kyasanur forest disease in the Wayanad and Malappuram districts of Kerala, India.
[So] Source:Ticks Tick Borne Dis;8(1):25-30, 2017 Jan.
[Is] ISSN:1877-9603
[Cp] Country of publication:Netherlands
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Kyasanur forest disease (KFD) is a zoonotic viral haemorrhagic fever and has been endemic to Karnataka State, India. Outbreaks of KFD were reported in new areas of Wayanad and Malappuram districts of Kerala, India during 2014-2015. Investigation of the outbreaks was carried out in these districts during May 2015. The line-list data of KFD cases available with District Medical Office, Wayanad were analysed. Case investigation was carried out to determine the risk factors associated with the outbreak and possible site of contraction infections. Ticks from the forest floor were collected in areas associated with monkey deaths by flagging method to estimate species abundance. Of 102 confirmed cases of KFD reported in Wayanad, 91% were adults aged >15years. About 43% of the cases were from the areas of Poothady Primary Health Centre (PHC) followed by Chethalayam PHC (22%). Most of the affected individuals belong to Kattunayakan tribe, dependent on forest for their livelihood. Those tribes are engaged in trench digging and fire line works in summer months and hence are at a higher risk. In Malappuram, the Cholanaickan tribe, are under high risk of exposure to infected ticks as they live deep in the forest and trap monkeys for game meat. High abundance of Haemaphysalis spinigera and H. turturis, the established vectors of KFD virus was recorded in all affected areas. Incidence of KFD cases/monkey deaths and high abundance of Haemaphysalis vectors in the forest ranges of Wayanad and Malappuram districts indicate that the area has become receptive for KFD outbreaks. Preventive measures (vaccination of high risk groups) coupled with intensive health education should be carried out prior to transmission season.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1610
[Cu] Class update date: 161204
[Lr] Last revision date:161204
[St] Status:In-Process

  5 / 310 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 27916953
[Au] Autor:Hu S; Niu L; Luo L; Song X; Sun J; Liu Q
[Ad] Address:Clinical Laboratory of Peking University Shougang Hospital, Beijing100144, China. shoukuihua@163.com.
[Ti] Title:Rapid, Sensitive Detection of Bartonella quintana by Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification of the groEL Gene.
[So] Source:Int J Mol Sci;17(12), 2016 Dec 01.
[Is] ISSN:1422-0067
[Cp] Country of publication:Switzerland
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Trench fever, caused by , is recognized as a re-emerging and neglected disease. Rapid and sensitive detection approaches are urgently required to monitor and help control infections. Here, loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP), which amplifies target DNA at a fixed temperature with high sensitivity, specificity and rapidity, was employed to detect . Thirty-six strains, including 10 , 13 other spp., and 13 other common pathogens, were applied to verify and evaluate the LAMP assay. The specificity of the LAMP assay was 100%, and the limit of detection was 125 fg/reaction. The LAMP assay was compared with qPCR in the examination of 100 rhesus and 20 rhesus-feeder blood samples; the diagnostic accuracy was found to be 100% when LAMP was compared to qPCR, but the LAMP assay was significantly more sensitive ( < 0.05). Thus, LAMP methodology is a useful for diagnosis of trench fever in humans and primates, especially in low-resource settings, because of its rapid, sensitive detection that does not require sophisticated equipment.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Bartonella quintana/isolation & purification
Chaperonin 60/blood
Trench Fever/blood
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Animals
Bartonella quintana/genetics
Bartonella quintana/pathogenicity
Chaperonin 60/genetics
Humans
Macaca mulatta/blood
Macaca mulatta/microbiology
Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods
Trench Fever/genetics
Trench Fever/microbiology
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (Chaperonin 60)
[Em] Entry month:1703
[Cu] Class update date: 170328
[Lr] Last revision date:170328
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:161206
[St] Status:MEDLINE

  6 / 310 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 27726806
[Au] Autor:Raoult D
[Ti] Title:A Personal View of How Paleomicrobiology Aids Our Understanding of the Role of Lice in Plague Pandemics.
[So] Source:Microbiol Spectr;4(4), 2016 Aug.
[Is] ISSN:2165-0497
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:We have been involved in the field of paleomicrobiology since 1998, when we used dental pulp to identify Yersinia pestis as the causative agent of the great plague of Marseille (1720). We recently designed a specific technique, "suicide PCR," that can prevent contamination. A controversy arose between two teams, with one claiming that DNA must be altered to amplify it and the other group claiming that demographic data did not support the role of Y. pestis in the Black Death (i.e., the great plague of the Middle Ages). These controversies led us to evaluate other epidemiological models and to propose the body louse as the vector of this pandemic. This proposal was substantiated by experimental models, the recovery of Y. pestis from lice in the Congo, and the identification of epidemics involving both Y. pestis and Bartonella quintana (the agent of trench fever, transmitted by the body louse) in ancient corpses from mass graves. Paleomicrobiology has led to a re-evaluation of plague pandemics.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Insect Vectors/microbiology
Microbiological Techniques/methods
Paleopathology/methods
Pandemics
Phthiraptera/microbiology
Plague/epidemiology
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Animals
History, 18th Century
History, Medieval
Humans
Insect Vectors/growth & development
Phthiraptera/growth & development
Plague/history
Plague/transmission
[Pt] Publication type:HISTORICAL ARTICLE; JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
[Em] Entry month:1707
[Cu] Class update date: 170705
[Lr] Last revision date:170705
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:161012
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1128/microbiolspec.PoH-0001-2014

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[PMID]: 27529073
[Au] Autor:Sangaré AK; Doumbo OK; Raoult D
[Ad] Address:Research Unit on Emerging Infectious and Tropical Diseases (URMITE), UMR CNRS 7278, IRD 198, INSERM 1095, Faculty of Medicine, Aix-Marseille University, 27 boulevard Jean Moulin, 13005 Marseille, France; Epidemiology Department of Parasitic Diseases, Faculty of Medicine and Odonto-Stomatology, Faculty of Pharmacy (MRTC/DEAP/FMOS-FAPH) UMI3189, University of Sciences, Techniques and Technologies of Bamako (USTTB), Bamako, Mali.
[Ti] Title:Management and Treatment of Human Lice.
[So] Source:Biomed Res Int;2016:8962685, 2016.
[Is] ISSN:2314-6141
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Of the three lice (head, body, and pubic louse) that infest humans, the body louse is the species involved in epidemics of louse-borne typhus, trench fever, and relapsing fever, but all the three cause pediculosis. Their infestations occur today in many countries despite great efforts to maintain high standards of public health. In this review, literature searches were performed through PubMed, Medline, Google Scholar, and EBSCOhost, with key search words of "Pediculus humanus", "lice infestation", "pediculosis", and "treatment"; and controlled clinical trials were viewed with great interest. Removing lice by hand or with a lice comb, heating infested clothing, and shaving the scalp were some of the oldest methods of controlling human lice. Despite the introduction of other resources including cresol, naphthalene, sulfur, mercury, vinegar, petroleum, and insecticides, the numbers of lice infestation cases and resistance have increased. To date, viable alternative treatments to replace insecticides have been developed experimentally in vitro. Today, the development of new treatment strategies such as symbiotic treatment and synergistic treatment (antibiotics + ivermectin) in vitro has proved effective and is promising. Here, we present an overview on managing and treating human lice and highlight new strategies to more effectively fight pediculosis and prevent resistance.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Lice Infestations/therapy
Phthiraptera
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Animals
Humans
Lice Infestations/epidemiology
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; META-ANALYSIS; REVIEW
[Em] Entry month:1702
[Cu] Class update date: 170220
[Lr] Last revision date:170220
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:160817
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1155/2016/8962685

  8 / 310 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 27375211
[Au] Autor:Anstead GM
[Ad] Address:Medicine Service, South Texas Veterans Health Care System, San Antonio, TX, USA; Department of Medicine, Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, TX, USA. Electronic address: anstead@uthscsa.edu.
[Ti] Title:The centenary of the discovery of trench fever, an emerging infectious disease of World War 1.
[So] Source:Lancet Infect Dis;16(8):e164-72, 2016 Aug.
[Is] ISSN:1474-4457
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:In 1915, a British medical officer on the Western Front reported on a soldier with relapsing fever, headache, dizziness, lumbago, and shin pain. Within months, additional cases were described, mostly in frontline troops, and the new disease was called trench fever. More than 1 million troops were infected with trench fever during World War 1, with each affected soldier unfit for duty for more than 60 days. Diagnosis was challenging, because there were no pathognomonic signs and symptoms and the causative organism could not be cultured. For 3 years, the transmission and cause of trench fever were hotly debated. In 1918, two commissions identified that the disease was louse-borne. The bacterium Rickettsia quintana was consistently found in the gut and faeces of lice that had fed on patients with trench fever and its causative role was accepted in the 1920s. The organism was cultured in the 1960s and reclassified as Bartonella quintana; it was also found to cause endocarditis, peliosis hepatis, and bacillary angiomatosis. Subsequently, B quintana infection has been identified in new populations in the Andes, in homeless people in urban areas, and in individuals with HIV. The story of trench fever shows how war can lead to the recrudescence of an infectious disease and how medicine approached an emerging infection a century ago.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Communicable Diseases, Emerging/history
Disease Transmission, Infectious/history
Relapsing Fever/history
Trench Fever/history
World War I
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Animals
Arthropod Vectors
Bartonella quintana/isolation & purification
History, 20th Century
Humans
Lice Infestations
Relapsing Fever/etiology
Relapsing Fever/microbiology
Relapsing Fever/transmission
Trench Fever/microbiology
Trench Fever/transmission
[Pt] Publication type:HISTORICAL ARTICLE; JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
[Em] Entry month:1706
[Cu] Class update date: 170612
[Lr] Last revision date:170612
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:160705
[St] Status:MEDLINE

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[PMID]: 27352876
[Au] Autor:Umulisa I; Omolo J; Muldoon KA; Condo J; Habiyaremye F; Uwimana JM; Muhimpundu MA; Galgalo T; Rwunganira S; Dahourou AG; Tongren E; Koama JB; McQuiston J; Raghunathan PL; Massung R; Gatei W; Boer K; Nyatanyi T; Mills EJ; Binagwaho A
[Ad] Address:Rwanda Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Program, School of Public Health, University of Rwanda, Kigali, Rwanda. umulisa5@gmail.com.
[Ti] Title:A Mixed Outbreak of Epidemic Typhus Fever and Trench Fever in a Youth Rehabilitation Center: Risk Factors for Illness from a Case-Control Study, Rwanda, 2012.
[So] Source:Am J Trop Med Hyg;95(2):452-6, 2016 Aug 03.
[Is] ISSN:1476-1645
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:In August 2012, laboratory tests confirmed a mixed outbreak of epidemic typhus fever and trench fever in a male youth rehabilitation center in western Rwanda. Seventy-six suspected cases and 118 controls were enrolled into an unmatched case-control study to identify risk factors for symptomatic illness during the outbreak. A suspected case was fever or history of fever, from April 2012, in a resident of the rehabilitation center. In total, 199 suspected cases from a population of 1,910 male youth (attack rate = 10.4%) with seven deaths (case fatality rate = 3.5%) were reported. After multivariate analysis, history of seeing lice in clothing (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 2.6, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.1-5.8), delayed (≥ 2 days) washing of clothing (aOR = 4.0, 95% CI = 1.6-9.6), and delayed (≥ 1 month) washing of beddings (aOR = 4.6, 95% CI = 2.0-11) were associated with illness, whereas having stayed in the rehabilitation camp for ≥ 6 months was protective (aOR = 0.20, 95% CI = 0.10-0.40). Stronger surveillance and improvements in hygiene could prevent future outbreaks.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Bartonella quintana/isolation & purification
Disease Outbreaks
Phthiraptera/microbiology
Rickettsia prowazekii/isolation & purification
Trench Fever/epidemiology
Typhus, Epidemic Louse-Borne/epidemiology
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Adolescent
Adult
Animals
Bartonella quintana/pathogenicity
Case-Control Studies
Coinfection
Humans
Incidence
Male
Odds Ratio
Rehabilitation Centers
Rickettsia prowazekii/pathogenicity
Risk Factors
Rwanda/epidemiology
Survival Analysis
Trench Fever/diagnosis
Trench Fever/mortality
Trench Fever/transmission
Typhus, Epidemic Louse-Borne/diagnosis
Typhus, Epidemic Louse-Borne/mortality
Typhus, Epidemic Louse-Borne/transmission
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1705
[Cu] Class update date: 170803
[Lr] Last revision date:170803
[Js] Journal subset:AIM; IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:160630
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.4269/ajtmh.15-0643

  10 / 310 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 27084843
[Au] Autor:Wever PC; Hodges AJ
[Ad] Address:Department of Medical Microbiology and Infection Control, Jeroen Bosch Hospital, 's-Hertogenbosch, The Netherlands Military Medicine Historical Research Society, The Netherlands.
[Ti] Title:The First World War years of Sydney Domville Rowland: an early case of possible laboratory-acquired meningococcal disease.
[So] Source:J R Army Med Corps;162(4):310-5, 2016 Aug.
[Is] ISSN:0035-8665
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Sydney Domville Rowland was a bacteriologist and staff member at the Lister Institute of Preventive Medicine when the First World War broke out in 1914. Following a request to the Director of the Lister Institute to staff and equip a mobile field laboratory as quickly as possible, Rowland was appointed to take charge of No. 1 Mobile Laboratory and took up a temporary commission at the rank of Lieutenant in the Royal Army Medical Corps. On 9 October 1914, Rowland set out for the European mainland and was subsequently attached to General Headquarters in Saint-Omer, France (October 1914-June 1915), No. 10 Casualty Clearing Station in Lijssenthoek, Belgium (June 1915-February 1916, during which period he was promoted Major), and No. 26 General Hospital in Étaples, France (February 1916-March 1917). His research focused on gas gangrene, typhoid fever, trench fever, wound infection and cerebrospinal fever. In February of 1917, while engaged in identifying meningococcal carriers, Rowland contracted cerebrospinal meningitis to which he succumbed at age 44 on 6 March 1917. His untimely death might have been caused by laboratory-acquired meningococcal disease, especially since Rowland's work with Neisseria meningitidis isolates had extended beyond routine laboratory techniques and included risk procedures like immunisation of rabbits with pathogenic strains isolated from cerebrospinal fluid. Currently, microbiology laboratory workers who are routinely exposed to N. meningitidis isolates are recognised as a population at increased risk for meningococcal disease, for which reason recommended preventive measures include vaccination and handling of isolates within a class II biosafety cabinet.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Bacteriology/history
Laboratories
Meningococcal Infections
Military Medicine
Mobile Health Units
Occupational Exposure
World War I
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: History, 19th Century
History, 20th Century
[Pt] Publication type:BIOGRAPHY; EDITORIAL; HISTORICAL ARTICLE; PORTRAITS
[Ps] Personal name as subject:Rowland SD
[Em] Entry month:1701
[Cu] Class update date: 170104
[Lr] Last revision date:170104
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:160417
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1136/jramc-2016-000634


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