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[PMID]: 29506032
[Au] Autor:Tiwari S; Dickinson N; Saville DJ; Wratten SD
[Ad] Address:Bio-Protection Research Centre, Lincoln University, Lincoln, New Zealand.
[Ti] Title:Host Plant Selection by the Wheat Bug, Nysius huttoni (Hemiptera: Lygaeidae) on a Range of Potential Trap Plant Species.
[So] Source:J Econ Entomol;, 2018 Feb 27.
[Is] ISSN:1938-291X
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:The wheat bug, Nysius huttoni L. is an endemic New Zealand pest. The seedlings of forage brassicas are highly susceptible to direct feeding damage by this insect, and this can reduce plant establishment. Prophylactic use of pesticides is the usual practice for N. huttoni management. These practices have been linked to environmental pollution, biodiversity loss, and pollinator population declines in brassicas and other crops. Habitat management of the bug utilizing potential trap crops can be a better option for its management. A series of choice, no-choice, and paired-choice tests were conducted in a controlled-temperature room to evaluate the pest's preferences on seedlings of eight plant species. Kale plants (Brassica oleracea) were used as a potentially susceptible control, and seven non-kale plants were compared with kale as potential trap-plant species. These were: Lobularia maritima (L.) Desvaux (alyssum), Triticum aestivum L. (wheat), Phacelia tanacetifolia Bentham (phacelia), Fagopyrum esculentum Moench (buckwheat), Coriandrum sativum L. (coriander), Trifolium repens L. (white clover), and Medicago sativa L. (lucerne). In choice tests, wheat was the most suitable followed by alyssum, buckwheat, and phacelia, all significantly more favored than kale. In no-choice tests, alyssum was significantly more favored than kale and the other plant species except wheat and phacelia. First feeding damage was recorded on alyssum in both the above test conditions. For paired-choice tests including kale, wheat, and alyssum were significantly more suitable than brassica. These findings are important for developing agro-ecological management strategies. Alyssum followed by wheat were the most suitable trap plants for N. huttoni. These two plant species can be deployed in and around brassica fields either independently or as in a multiple trap-cropping system to reduce bug damage, minimizing or avoiding pesticides, and delivering a range of ecosystem services.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180305
[Lr] Last revision date:180305
[St] Status:Publisher
[do] DOI:10.1093/jee/toy017

  2 / 1738 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29502840
[Au] Autor:Budryn G; Galazka-Czarnecka I; Brzozowska E; Grzelczyk J; Mostowski R; Zyzelewicz D; Cerón-Carrasco JP; Pérez-Sánchez H
[Ad] Address:Institute of Food Technology and Analysis, Faculty of Biotechnology and Food Sciences, Lodz University of Technology, Poland. Electronic address: grazyna.budryn@p.lodz.pl.
[Ti] Title:Corrigendum to "Evaluation of estrogenic activity of red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) sprouts cultivated under different conditions by content of isoflavones, calorimetric study and molecular modelling" [Food Chem. 245 (2018) 324-336].
[So] Source:Food Chem;253:323, 2018 Jul 01.
[Is] ISSN:0308-8146
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Pt] Publication type:PUBLISHED ERRATUM
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180305
[Lr] Last revision date:180305
[St] Status:In-Data-Review

  3 / 1738 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29287378
[Au] Autor:Budryn G; Galazka-Czarnecka I; Brzozowska E; Grzelczyk J; Mostowski R; Zyzelewicz D; Cerón-Carrasco JP; Pérez-Sánchez H
[Ad] Address:Institute of Food Technology and Analysis, Faculty of Biotechnology and Food Sciences, Lodz University of Technology, Poland. Electronic address: grazyna.budryn@p.lodz.pl.
[Ti] Title:Evaluation of estrogenic activity of red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) sprouts cultivated under different conditions by content of isoflavones, calorimetric study and molecular modelling.
[So] Source:Food Chem;245:324-336, 2018 Apr 15.
[Is] ISSN:0308-8146
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Isoflavones have an affinity for estrogen receptors (ERs) including beneficial affinity for ERß. Widely used soy is a source of poorly absorbed isoflavones glycosides. Red clover contains mostly easily absorbed free aglycones. Red clover sprouts were cultivated under different conditions (white light, UVA or UVB for 12 or 24 h a day at 18 or 25 °C) to maximise the content of isoflavones, especially of high affinity for ERß. The affinity of isoflavones to ERs was evaluated by molecular modelling and isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). The richest source of isoflavones, especially formononetin were sprouts cultivated for 10 days under continuous white light and at 25 °C (562 mg/100 g of fresh mass). Formononetin and the above sprouts has been shown to have a high affinity for ERß. Red clover sprouts can be considered as a source of phytoestrogens with high biological activity and as a dietary supplement reducing menopausal symptoms.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1712
[Cu] Class update date: 180305
[Lr] Last revision date:180305
[St] Status:In-Process

  4 / 1738 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29489845
[Au] Autor:Wakelin S; Tillard G; van Ham R; Ballard R; Farquharson E; Gerard E; Geurts R; Brown M; Ridgway H; O'Callaghan M
[Ad] Address:AgResearch Ltd, Lincoln Science Centre, Christchurch, New Zealand.
[Ti] Title:High spatial variation in population size and symbiotic performance of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii with white clover in New Zealand pasture soils.
[So] Source:PLoS One;13(2):e0192607, 2018.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Biological nitrogen fixation through the legume-rhizobia symbiosis is important for sustainable pastoral production. In New Zealand, the most widespread and valuable symbiosis occurs between white clover (Trifolium repens L.) and Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii (Rlt). As variation in the population size (determined by most probable number assays; MPN) and effectiveness of N-fixation (symbiotic potential; SP) of Rlt in soils may affect white clover performance, the extent in variation in these properties was examined at three different spatial scales: (1) From 26 sites across New Zealand, (2) at farm-wide scale, and (3) within single fields. Overall, Rlt populations ranged from 95 to >1 x 108 per g soil, with variation similar at the three spatial scales assessed. For almost all samples, there was no relationship between rhizobia population size and ability of the population to fix N during legume symbiosis (SP). When compared with the commercial inoculant strain, the SP of soils ranged between 14 to 143% efficacy. The N-fixing ability of rhizobia populations varied more between samples collected from within a single hill country field (0.8 ha) than between 26 samples collected from diverse locations across New Zealand. Correlations between SP and calcium and aluminium content were found in all sites, except within a dairy farm field. Given the general lack of association between SP and MPN, and high spatial variability of SP at single field scale, provision of advice for treating legume seed with rhizobia based on field-average MPN counts needs to be carefully considered.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180228
[Lr] Last revision date:180228
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0192607

  5 / 1738 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29350443
[Au] Autor:Herbert DB; Ekschmitt K; Wissemann V; Becker A
[Ad] Address:Institute of Botany, Justus Liebig University, Giessen, Germany.
[Ti] Title:Cutting reduces variation in biomass production of forage crops and allows low-performers to catch up: A case study of Trifolium pratense L. (red clover).
[So] Source:Plant Biol (Stuttg);, 2018 Jan 19.
[Is] ISSN:1438-8677
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Re-growth of fodder plants after grazing and mowing drives the profitability of their cultivation and is therefore an important target trait for plant breeding and agricultural engineering. However, for some fodder plants little is known about their re-growth dynamics in response to grazing or mowing. We analysed the native response of plant architecture, leaf morphology and growth performance to experimental cutting in wild Trifolium pratense L. (red clover) plants. A total of 150 potted clover plants were established under controlled field conditions, and half of the plants were cut to 5 cm 3 months after sowing. Each plant was measured every week for 5 months. The cut and subsequently re-grown plants carried fewer main branches (-20%), as well as fewer (-13%) and smaller (-32%) leaves than the control plants. However, the cut plants produced an average of 17% more accumulated leaf area (cut + re-grown leaf area) than the control plants. This discrepancy was explained by variation in the growth strategy of the plants, where the cut plants invariably expressed a second growth phase, while almost half of the untreated plants did not. Our results suggest that cutting acted as an artificial trigger initiating a second growth phase in the cut plants and thereby contributed to yield increase. Exploiting this mechanism may set new goals for breeding and optimisation of the mowing regime.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1801
[Cu] Class update date: 180227
[Lr] Last revision date:180227
[St] Status:Publisher
[do] DOI:10.1111/plb.12695

  6 / 1738 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29467042
[Au] Autor:Kliem KE; Thomson AL; Crompton LA; Givens DI
[Ad] Address:1Animal Dairy and Food Chain Sciences,School of Agriculture, Policy and Development,University of Reading,Reading,RG6 6AR,UK.
[Ti] Title:Effect of selected plant species within biodiverse pasture on in vitro fatty acid biohydrogenation and tissue fatty acid composition of lamb.
[So] Source:Animal;:1-9, 2018 Feb 22.
[Is] ISSN:1751-732X
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:The effect of botanical diversity on supply of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) to ruminants in vitro, and the fatty acid (FA) composition of muscle in lambs was investigated. Six plant species, commonly grown as part of UK herbal ley mixtures (Trifolium pratense, Lotus corniculatus, Achillea millefolium, Centaurea nigra, Plantago lanceolata and Prunella vulgaris), were assessed for FA profile, and in vitro biohydrogenation of constituent PUFA, to estimate intestinal supply of PUFA available for absorption by ruminants. Modelling the in vitro data suggested that L. corniculatus and P. vulgaris had the greatest potential to increase 18:3n-3 supply to ruminants, having the highest amounts escaping in vitro biohydrogenation. Biodiverse pastures were established using the six selected species, under-sown in a perennial ryegrass-based sward. Lambs were grazed (~50 days) on biodiverse or control pastures and the effects on the FA composition of musculus longissimus thoracis (lean and subcutaneous fat) and musculus semimembranosus (lean) were determined. Biodiverse pasture increased 18:2n-6 and 18:3n-3 contents of m. semimembranosus (+14.8 and +7.2 mg/100 g tissue, respectively) and the subcutaneous fat of m. longissimus thoracis (+158 and +166 mg/100 g tissue, respectively) relative to feeding a perennial ryegrass pasture. However, there was no effect on total concentrations of saturated FA in the tissues studied. It was concluded that enhancing biodiversity had a positive impact on muscle FA profile reflected by increased levels of total PUFA.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180222
[Lr] Last revision date:180222
[St] Status:Publisher
[do] DOI:10.1017/S1751731118000265

  7 / 1738 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29301047
[Au] Autor:Stasek DJ; Radl JN; Crist TO
[Ad] Address:Department of Biology, Miami University, Oxford, OH.
[Ti] Title:The Effects of Dispersal and Predator Density on Prey Survival in an Insect-Red Clover Metacommunity.
[So] Source:J Insect Sci;18(1), 2018 Jan 01.
[Is] ISSN:1536-2442
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Trophic interactions are often studied within habitat patches, but among-patch dispersal of individuals may influence local patch dynamics. Metacommunity concepts incorporate the effects of dispersal on local and community dynamics. There are few experimental tests of metacommunity theory using insects compared to those conducted in microbial microcosms. Using connected experimental mesocosms, we varied the density of the leafhopper Agallia constricta Van Duzee (Homoptera: Cicadellidae) and a generalist insect predator, the damsel bug (Nabis spp., Heteroptera: Nabidae), to determine the effects of conspecific and predator density and varying the time available to dispersal among mesocosms on predation rates, dispersal rates, and leafhopper survival. Conspecific and damsel bug density did not affect dispersal rates in leafhoppers, but this may be due to leafhoppers' aversion to leaving the host plants or the connecting tubes between mesocosms hindering leafhopper movement. Leafhopper dispersal was higher in high-dispersal treatments. Survival rates of A. constricta were also lowest in treatments where dispersal was not limited. This is one of the first experimental studies to vary predator density and the time available to dispersal. Our results indicate that dispersal is the key to understanding short-term processes such as prey survival in predator-prey metacommunities. Further work is needed to determine how dispersal rates influence persistence of communities in multigenerational studies.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Food Chain
Heteroptera
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Animals
Female
Population Density
Trifolium
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180221
[Lr] Last revision date:180221
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:180105
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1093/jisesa/iex100

  8 / 1738 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29323411
[Au] Autor:Scott GD; Baddeley JA; Watson CA; Robinson D
[Ad] Address:Crop and Soil Systems, SRUC, Craibstone Estate, Aberdeen, AB21 9YA, UK.
[Ti] Title:Demographic quantification of carbon and nitrogen dynamics associated with root turnover in white clover.
[So] Source:Plant Cell Environ;, 2018 Jan 11.
[Is] ISSN:1365-3040
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:As well as capturing resources, roots lose resources during their lives. We quantified carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) losses associated with root turnover in white clover (Trifolium repens L.). We grew contrasting cultivars for 18 weeks in soil microcosms. Using repeated in situ observations, destructive sampling, and demographic analysis, we measured changes in C and N concentrations in dry matter of 1st- or 2nd-order (terminal) roots to derive C and N fluxes into and out of root cohorts. C and N fluxes from roots during turnover depended on cohort age and order. Ninety per cent of losses occurred from 2nd-order cohorts younger than 18 weeks. Losses were greater from roots of the larger, faster growing cultivar Alice than from the smaller lower yielding cultivar S184. C:N ratios of roots and lost material were similar within each order and between cultivars but smaller in 2nd- compared with 1st-order roots. C and N losses during root turnover could be equivalent to at least 6% of aboveground dry matter production in S184 and 12% in Alice at the field scale. C and N losses associated with root turnover will have potentially significant and previously unrecognized impacts on crop productivity, resource dynamics, and long-term soil fertility.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1801
[Cu] Class update date: 180221
[Lr] Last revision date:180221
[St] Status:Publisher
[do] DOI:10.1111/pce.13142

  9 / 1738 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29459163
[Au] Autor:Xi Y; Song Y; Johnson DM; Li M; Liu H; Huang Y
[Ad] Address:Engineering Research Center of Eco-environment in Three Gorges Reservoir Region, Ministry of Education, China Three Gorges University, Daxue Road 8#, Yichang 443002, PR China.
[Ti] Title:Se enhanced phytoremediation of diesel in soil by Trifolium repens.
[So] Source:Ecotoxicol Environ Saf;154:137-144, 2018 Feb 16.
[Is] ISSN:1090-2414
[Cp] Country of publication:Netherlands
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:A pot-culture experiment was conducted to assess the effects of selenium (Se) (0.5 mg kg ) on Trifolium repens exposed to various levels of diesel (0, 15, 20, 25 g kg ) for 30 days and 60 days. Exposure to diesel for 60 day led to concentration-dependent decreases in root morphogenesis, chlorophyll content and CAT activity, and to dose-dependent increases in MDA content and SOD activity. The residual diesel concentration in soil increased and the removal efficiency decreased with soil diesel concentration. The chlorophyll content and residual diesel concentration after were slightly higher at 30 days than at 60days. Application of Se to soil increased Trifolium repens tolerance to diesel and significantly increased the phytoremediation effect at 60 days, with a removal rate of 36 ±â€¯8%, compared to 28 ±â€¯7% in the control. These results contribute to the ongoing effort to develop an effective phytoremediation system for soils highly contaminated by diesel.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180220
[Lr] Last revision date:180220
[St] Status:Publisher

  10 / 1738 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29452714
[Au] Autor:Stefan A; Van Cauwenberghe J; Rosu CM; Stedel C; Labrou NE; Flemetakis E; Efrose RC
[Ad] Address:Department of Experimental and Applied Biology, NIRDBS-Institute of Biological Research Iasi, Lascar Catargi 47, 700107 Iasi, Romania.
[Ti] Title:Genetic diversity and structure of Rhizobium leguminosarum populations associated with clover plants are influenced by local environmental variables.
[So] Source:Syst Appl Microbiol;, 2018 Feb 03.
[Is] ISSN:1618-0984
[Cp] Country of publication:Germany
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:The identification and conservation of indigenous rhizobia associated with legume plants and their application as biofertilizers is becoming an agricultural worldwide priority. However, little is known about the genetic diversity and phylogeny of rhizobia in Romania. In the present study, the genetic diversity and population composition of Rhizobium leguminosarum symbiovar trifolii isolates from 12 clover plants populations located across two regions in Romania were analyzed. Red clover isolates were phenotypically evaluated and genotyped by sequencing 16S rRNA gene, 16S-23S intergenic spacer, three chromosomal genes (atpD, glnII and recA) and two plasmid genes (nifH and nodA). Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) analysis revealed that red clover plants are nodulated by a wide genetic diversity of R. leguminosarum symbiovar trifolii sequence types (STs), highly similar to the ones previously found in white clover. Rhizobial genetic variation was found mainly within the two clover populations for both chromosomal and plasmid types. Many STs appear to be unique for this region and the genetic composition of rhizobia differs significantly among the clover populations. Furthermore, our results showed that both soil pH and altitude contributed to plasmid sequence type composition while differences in chromosomal composition were affected by the altitude and were strongly correlated with distance.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180217
[Lr] Last revision date:180217
[St] Status:Publisher


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