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[PMID]: 29524690
[Au] Autor:Zhai R; Hu J; Saddler JN
[Ad] Address:School of Environmental and Biological Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, 200 Xiaolingwei Street, Nanjing 210094, China; Forest Products Biotechnology and Bioenergy Group, Department of Wood Science, Faculty of Forestry, The University of British Columbia, 2424 Main Mall, Vancouver, BC, Canada.
[Ti] Title:The inhibition of hemicellulosic sugars on cellulose hydrolysis are highly dependant on the cellulase productive binding, processivity, and substrate surface charges.
[So] Source:Bioresour Technol;258:79-87, 2017 Dec 06.
[Is] ISSN:1873-2976
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:In this study, the influence of major hemicellulosic sugars (mannose and xylose) on cellulose hydrolysis and major enzyme activities were evaluated by using both commercial enzyme cocktail and purified cellulase monocomponents over a "library" of cellulosic substrates. Surprisingly, the results showed that unlike glucose, mannose/xylose did not inhibit individual cellulase activities but significantly decreased their hydrolytic performance on cellulose substrates. When various enzyme-substrate interactions (e.g. adsorption/desorption, productive binding, and processive moving) were evaluated, it appeared that these hemicellulosic sugars significantly reduced the productive binding and processivity of Cel7A, which in turn limited cellulase hydrolytic efficacy. Among a range of major cellulose characteristics (e.g. crystallinity, degree of polymerization, accessibility, and surface charges), the acid group content of the cellulosic substrates seemed to be the main driver that determined the extent of hemicellulosic sugar inhibition. Our results provided new insights for better understanding the sugar inhibition mechanisms of cellulose hydrolysis.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
[St] Status:Publisher

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[PMID]: 29458100
[Au] Autor:Zhang L; Hu Y; Duan X; Tang T; Shen Y; Hu B; Liu A; Chen H; Li C; Liu Y
[Ad] Address:College of Food Science, Sichuan Agricultural University, Yaan 625014, China.
[Ti] Title:Characterization and antioxidant activities of polysaccharides from thirteen boletus mushrooms.
[So] Source:Int J Biol Macromol;113:1-7, 2018 Feb 16.
[Is] ISSN:1879-0003
[Cp] Country of publication:Netherlands
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Water-soluble polysaccharides were extracted from the caps and stipes of thirteen boletus mushrooms representing five different species collected in Southwest China. Investigations of their structures and antioxidant activities allowed an evaluation of structure-function relationships. The polysaccharides were composed mainly of the monosaccharides arabinose, xylose, mannose, glucose and galactose. Most samples displayed a broad molecular weight range, with significant differences observed between the molecular weight ranges of the polysaccharides from the caps and the stipes. FT-IR spectral analysis of the polysaccharides revealed that most of polysaccharides from boletus mushrooms (except Boletus edulis) contained a pyranose ring. The antioxidant activities of the polysaccharides in stipes showed a significant correlation with their monosaccharide composition, and were also related to their molecular weight and anomeric configuration. Suillellus luridus collected in Pingwu, Mianyang, Sichuan, China had remarkably superior antioxidant activity and might be developed as a natural antioxidant.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
[St] Status:Publisher

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[PMID]: 29458099
[Au] Autor:Fahey LM; Nieuwoudt MK; Harris PJ
[Ad] Address:School of Biological Sciences, The University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland 1142, New Zealand. Electronic address: lfah338@aucklanduni.ac.nz.
[Ti] Title:Using near infrared spectroscopy to predict the lignin content and monosaccharide compositions of Pinus radiata wood cell walls.
[So] Source:Int J Biol Macromol;113:507-514, 2018 Feb 17.
[Is] ISSN:1879-0003
[Cp] Country of publication:Netherlands
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy coupled with partial least squares (PLS-1) regression was used to predict the lignin contents and monosaccharide compositions of milled wood of Pinus radiata. The effects of particle size and moisture content were investigated by collecting NIR spectra of four sample types: large (<0.422mm) and small (<0.178mm) particles, in both ambient and dry conditions. PLS-1 models were constructed using mixtures of compression wood (CW) and opposite wood (OW) that provided a linear range of cell-wall compositions. Our results show that lignin contents and monosaccharide compositions of pure CWs and OWs can be successfully predicted using NIR spectra of all four sample types. However, large particles in ambient conditions have the most efficient preparation and the standard error (SE) values for lignin (2.10%), arabinose (0.34%), xylose (1.33%), galactose (2.54%), glucose (6.98%), mannose (1.48%), galacturonic acid (0.22%), glucuronic acid (0.06%), and 4-O-methylglucuronic acid (0.25%) were achieved.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
[St] Status:Publisher

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[PMID]: 29454944
[Au] Autor:Dong J; Li H; Min W
[Ad] Address:College of Food Science and Engineering, Jilin Agricultural University, Changchun 130118, China.
[Ti] Title:Preparation, characterization and bioactivities of Athelia rolfsii exopolysaccharide-zinc complex (AEPS-zinc).
[So] Source:Int J Biol Macromol;113:20-28, 2018 Feb 15.
[Is] ISSN:1879-0003
[Cp] Country of publication:Netherlands
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:A new Athelia rolfsii exopolysaccharides (AEPS) were purified by Sephacryl S-300 and S-200. The physicochemical characteristics of AEPS fractions were assayed by HPGPC and GC methods. The structures of AEPS and AEPS­zinc complex were characterized by SEM, FTIR and NMR. Moreover, the bioactivities of complex were also evaluated by experiments in vitro and in vivo. AEPSI consisted of glucose, galacturonic acid, talose, galactose, mannose and xylose, the relative contents of them were 24.74, 19.60, 33.65, 8.77, 7.97 and 5.28%, respectively. AEPSII consisted of glucose, inositol, galacturonic acid, ribitol, gluconic acid, talose and xylose, whose relative contents were 36.06, 21.21, 12.78, 11.07, 6.58, 5.45 and 6.82%, respectively. The Mw and Mn of AEPSI were 6.1324×10 and 1.4218×10 Da, those of AEPSII were 517 and 248Da. SEM observations showed that microstructures of AEPS and AEPS­zinc complex were obviously different both in size and shape. FTIR and NMR analysis indicated that AEPS might chelate with zinc ion through hydroxy and carboxy group. In vitro experiments showed that AEPS­zinc complex had a good bioavailability, in vivo experiments showed that it had good effect on improving zinc deficiency and antioxidant activities, which suggested that it could be used as zinc supplementation with high antioxidant activities.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
[St] Status:Publisher

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[PMID]: 29408416
[Au] Autor:Geng L; Zhang Q; Wang J; Jin W; Zhao T; Hu W
[Ad] Address:Key Laboratory of Experimental Marine Biology, Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266071, China; Lab for Marine Biology and Biotechnology, Qingdao National Lab for Marine Sci. & Tech, Qingdao 266071, China; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, Chi
[Ti] Title:Glucofucogalactan, a heterogeneous low-sulfated polysaccharide from Saccharina japonica and its bioactivity.
[So] Source:Int J Biol Macromol;113:90-97, 2018 Feb 02.
[Is] ISSN:1879-0003
[Cp] Country of publication:Netherlands
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Crude polysaccharide obtained from Saccharina japonica using acid hydrolysis and precipitation was separated into sulfated fuco-oligosaccharide (HDF1) and heteropolysaccharide (HDF2). To further explore the bioactive fraction, HDF2 was successfully separated using membrane filtration into HDF2A and HDF2B, which differed in chemical composition and molecular weight. The bioactivity of all the fractions was tested in vitro, including immunomodulatory activity in RAW 264.7 cells and the protective activity in aristolochic acid (AA)-induced NRK-52E cell injury. HDF1 and HDF2B (low-molecular weight sulfated fucans/fuco-oligosaccharides) did not increase the nitric oxide production in RAW 264.7 cells, whereas HDF2 and HDF2A exhibited potential immunomodulatory activity. All the tested compounds showed different degrees of protective activity in AA-induced injury; HDF2A exhibited superior protective activity. Through chemical analysis, HPLC analysis, and IR spectroscopy and MS, it was determined that HDF2A was a galactose-enriched heteropolysaccharide- glucofucogalactan with a distinctive 2:1 ratio of galactose to fucose. In addition, HDF2A also contained a high amount of glucose and minor amounts of mannose, rhamnose, and xylose, with a low content of sulfate. Thus, HDF2A, a complex heterogeneous polysaccharide mixture with a unique monosaccharide composition, could be studied for further structural characterization and pharmaceutical applications.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180310
[Lr] Last revision date:180310
[St] Status:Publisher

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[PMID]: 29370193
[Au] Autor:Kalita D; Holm DG; LaBarbera DV; Petrash JM; Jayanty SS
[Ad] Address:San Luis Valley Research Center, Department of Horticulture and Landscape Architecture, Colorado State University, Center, United States of America.
[Ti] Title:Inhibition of α-glucosidase, α-amylase, and aldose reductase by potato polyphenolic compounds.
[So] Source:PLoS One;13(1):e0191025, 2018.
[Is] ISSN:1932-6203
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disease that is becoming a serious global health problem. Diabetes has been considered to be one of the major risks of cataract and retinopathy. Synthetic and natural product inhibitors of carbohydrate degrading enzymes are able to reduce type 2 diabetes and its complications. For a long time, potatoes have been portrayed as unhealthy for diabetic patients by some nutritionist due to their high starch content. However, purple and red potato cultivars have received considerable attention from consumers because they have high levels of polyphenolic compounds that have potent antioxidant activities. In this study, we screened the total phenolics (TP) and total anthocyanins (TA) and analyzed the phenolic and anthocyanin compounds in selected potato cultivars and advanced selections with distinct flesh colors (purple, red, yellow and white). Purple and red potato cultivars had higher levels of TP and TA than tubers with other flesh colors. Chlorogenic acid is the predominant phenolic acid, and major anthocyanin is composed of the derivatives of petunidin, peonidin, malvidin and pelargonidin. We tested the potential inhibitory effect of potato extracts on the activities of α-amylase and α-glucosidase, which were targeted to develop antidiabetic therapeutic agents. We also measured inhibitory effect of potato extracts on aldose reductase (AR) which is a key enzyme that has been a major drug target for the development of therapies to treat diabetic complications. Purple flesh tubers extract showed the most effective inhibition of α-amylase, α-glucosidase, and aldose reductase with IC50 values 25, 42, and 32 µg/ml, respectively. Kinetic studies showed that anthocyanins are noncompetitive inhibitors of these enzymes, whereas phenolic acids behaved as mixed inhibitors for α-amylase and α-glucosidase and noncompetitive inhibitors for AR. This study supports the development of a positive and healthful image of potatoes, which is an important issue for consumers.
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Aldehyde Reductase/antagonists & inhibitors
Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology
Polyphenols/pharmacology
Solanum tuberosum/chemistry
alpha-Amylases/antagonists & inhibitors
alpha-Glucosidases/drug effects
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Anthocyanins/analysis
Anthocyanins/pharmacology
Chromatography, Liquid
Mass Spectrometry
Polyphenols/analysis
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, N.I.H., EXTRAMURAL; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (Anthocyanins); 0 (Enzyme Inhibitors); 0 (Polyphenols); EC 1.1.1.21 (Aldehyde Reductase); EC 3.2.1.1 (alpha-Amylases); EC 3.2.1.20 (alpha-Glucosidases)
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180309
[Lr] Last revision date:180309
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:180126
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0191025

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[PMID]: 29520599
[Au] Autor:Borah D; Nainamalai S; Gopalakrishnan S; Rout J; Alharbi NS; Alharbi SA; Nooruddin T
[Ad] Address:Department of Microbiology, School of Life Sciences, Bharathidasan University, Tiruchirappalli, Tamil Nadu, 620024, India.
[Ti] Title:Biolubricant potential of exopolysaccharides from the cyanobacterium Cyanothece epiphytica.
[So] Source:Appl Microbiol Biotechnol;, 2018 Mar 08.
[Is] ISSN:1432-0614
[Cp] Country of publication:Germany
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:Exopolysaccaharides (EPS) are carbohydrate polymers secreted by microbial cells, as a protective layer termed sheath or capsule. Their composition is variable. Optimisation of nutrient factors and the effect of some simple stresses on the ability of Cyanothece epiphytica to produce EPS were tested. Of the tested stresses, exposure to ozone for 50 s at 0.06 mg/L resulted in a relatively high EPS yield, without any damage to cell structure. EPS was characterised physicochemically. Chemically, it was found to be composed of pentoses arabinose and xylose; hexoses glucose, galactose and mannose; and the deoxyhexose fucose sugars which were sulphated and with different functional groups. EPS from C. epiphytica was found to be a good hydrophobic dispersant, an excellent emulsifier as well as a flocculant. Its potential as a biolubricant with characteristics better than the conventional lubricant 'grease' was revealed through analysis. This study gave the clue for developing a commercial technology to produce a less expensive and more environment-friendly natural lubricant from the cyanobacterium C. epiphytica for tribological applications.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180309
[Lr] Last revision date:180309
[St] Status:Publisher
[do] DOI:10.1007/s00253-018-8892-x

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[PMID]: 29460422
[Au] Autor:Lian J; Bao Z; Hu S; Zhao H
[Ad] Address:Carl R. Woese Institute for Genomic Biology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois.
[Ti] Title:Engineered CRISPR/Cas9 system for multiplex genome engineering of polyploid industrial yeast strains.
[So] Source:Biotechnol Bioeng;, 2018 Feb 20.
[Is] ISSN:1097-0290
[Cp] Country of publication:United States
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:The CRISPR/Cas9 system has been widely used for multiplex genome engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. However, its application in manipulating industrial yeast strains is less successful, probably due to the genome complexity and low copy numbers of gRNA expression plasmids. Here we developed an efficient CRISPR/Cas9 system for industrial yeast strain engineering by using our previously engineered plasmids with increased copy numbers. Four genes in both a diploid strain (Ethanol Red, 8 alleles in total) and a triploid strain (ATCC 4124, 12 alleles in total) were knocked out in a single step with 100% efficiency. This system was used to construct xylose-fermenting, lactate-producing industrial yeast strains, in which ALD6, PHO13, LEU2, and URA3 were disrupted in a single step followed by the introduction of a xylose utilization pathway and a lactate biosynthetic pathway on auxotrophic marker plasmids. The optimized CRISPR/Cas9 system provides a powerful tool for the development of industrial yeast based microbial cell factories.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180308
[Lr] Last revision date:180308
[St] Status:Publisher
[do] DOI:10.1002/bit.26569

  9 / 16586 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29458497
[Au] Autor:Qu JH; Zhang LJ; Fu YH; Li XD; Li HF; Tian HL
[Ad] Address:College of Biological Engineering, Henan University of Technology, Zhengzhou 450001, Henan Province, PR China.
[Ti] Title:A novel genus of the class Actinobacteria, Longivirga aurantiaca gen. nov., sp. nov., isolated from lake sediment.
[So] Source:Int J Syst Evol Microbiol;68(3):942-946, 2018 Mar.
[Is] ISSN:1466-5034
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:A novel actinobacterial strain, designated X5 , was isolated from the sediment of Taihu Lake in China and was subjected to a polyphasic taxonomic characterization. The strain formed orange-red colonies comprising aerobic, Gram-stain-negative, rod-shaped cells on R2A agar. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that the organism was closely related to the genus Sporichthya and consistently formed a distinct clade along with the members of this genus. The closest phylogenetic neighbour was Sporichthya polymorpha NBRC 12702 with 93.7 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity. The major fatty acids (>10 %) were iso-C16 : 0 (18.7 %), C18 : 1ω9c (18.6 %) and C17 : 1ω8c (14.0 %). The genomic DNA G+C content was 74.4 mol%. The organism contained menaquinone MK-8(H2), MK-9(H4) and an unidentified menaquinone. Polar lipids were composed of phosphatidylglycerol, an unidentified lipid, two unidentified phospholipids and two unidentified aminolipids. The whole-cell sugars contained ribose, xylose, mannose, glucose and galactose. The cell-wall peptidoglycan contained ll-diaminopimelic acid. Based on the physiological, biochemical and chemotaxonomic data, the organism is proposed to represent a novel genus and species, for which the name Longivirga aurantiaca gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is X5 (=CGMCC 4.7317 =NBRC 112237 ).
[Mh] MeSH terms primary: Actinobacteria/classification
Geologic Sediments/microbiology
Lakes/microbiology
Phylogeny
[Mh] MeSH terms secundary: Actinobacteria/genetics
Actinobacteria/isolation & purification
Bacterial Typing Techniques
Base Composition
Cell Wall/chemistry
China
DNA, Bacterial/genetics
Diaminopimelic Acid/chemistry
Fatty Acids/chemistry
Peptidoglycan/chemistry
Phospholipids/chemistry
Pigmentation
RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics
Sequence Analysis, DNA
Vitamin K 2/analogs & derivatives
Vitamin K 2/chemistry
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Nm] Name of substance:0 (DNA, Bacterial); 0 (Fatty Acids); 0 (Peptidoglycan); 0 (Phospholipids); 0 (RNA, Ribosomal, 16S); 11032-49-8 (Vitamin K 2); 523-38-6 (vitamin MK 8); 583-93-7 (Diaminopimelic Acid)
[Em] Entry month:1803
[Cu] Class update date: 180308
[Lr] Last revision date:180308
[Js] Journal subset:IM
[Da] Date of entry for processing:180221
[St] Status:MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.1099/ijsem.0.002615

  10 / 16586 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]: 29401260
[Au] Autor:Perpetuini G; Tittarelli F; Mattarelli P; Modesto M; Cilli E; Suzzi G; Tofalo R
[Ad] Address:Department of BioScience and Technology for Food, Agriculture and Environment, University of Teramo, Via R. Balzarini 1, Teramo 64100, Italy.
[Ti] Title:Intraspecies polymorphisms of Kluyveromyces marxianus strains from Yaghnob valley.
[So] Source:FEMS Microbiol Lett;365(6), 2018 Mar 01.
[Is] ISSN:1574-6968
[Cp] Country of publication:England
[La] Language:eng
[Ab] Abstract:In this study, 29 strains of Kluyveromyces marxianus with peculiar genetic and phenotypic traits previously isolated from a fermented goat milk of Yaghnob valley were investigated for chromosome length polymorphism (CLP) by PFGE, adhesion properties and carbon usage by Biolog analysis. Obtained data showed that strains differed in terms of number and size of chromosome bands. The number of bands ranged from 5 to 7, suggesting a probable genome size from 1.4 to 2.6 Mb. Strains showed a certain level of cell surface hydrophobicity ranging from 32% to 77.7%. Strains were also tested for their ability to form a biofilm on polystyrene plates: planktonic cells ranged from 6.3 cfu/mL to 7.95 cfu/mL, while sessile from 7.11 cfu/mL to 8.6 cfu/mL. The strains able to adhere to polystyrene plates were also able to form a mature MAT. Biolog analysis revealed that almost all strains were able to use putrescine, malic acid, α-D lactose, phenylethylamine, ß-methyl D-gucoside and xylose; 5 strains were able to grow on cellobiose and 3 were able to catabolise α-ketobutyric. The obtained data highlighted a number of interesting features underlying the peculiar capacities of these strains for industrial applications.
[Pt] Publication type:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Entry month:1802
[Cu] Class update date: 180308
[Lr] Last revision date:180308
[St] Status:In-Data-Review
[do] DOI:10.1093/femsle/fny028


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