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Pesquisa : Dactylis [Palavras]
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[PMID]:29455152
[Au] Autor:Jiménez MD; de Torre R; Mola I; Casado MA; Balaguer L
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Ecology, Complutense University, Madrid, Spain. Electronic address: jimenezmd@bio.ucm.es.
[Ti] Título:Local plant responses to global problems: Dactylis glomerata responses to different traffic pollutants on roadsides.
[So] Source:J Environ Manage;212:440-449, 2018 Apr 15.
[Is] ISSN:1095-8630
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:The growing number of road vehicles is a major source of regional and global atmospheric pollution increasing concentrations of CO in the air, and levels of metals in air and soil. Nevertheless, the effects of these pollutants on plants growing at roadsides are poorly documented. We carried out an observational study of unmanipulated plants growing by the road, to identify the morpho-physiological responses in a perennial grass Dactylis glomerata. Firstly, we wanted to know the general effect of traffic intensity and ambient CO and its interactions on different plant traits. Accordingly, we analyzed the photosynthetic response by field A/Ci Response Curves, SLA, pigment pools, foliar nitrogen, carbohydrates and morphological traits in plants at three distances to the road. Secondly, we wanted to know if Dactylis glomerata plants can accumulate metals present on the roadside (Pb, Zn, Cu, and Sr) in their tissues and rhizosphere, and the effect of these metals on morphological traits. The MANCOVA whole model results shown: 1) a significant effect of road ambient CO concentration on morphological traits (not affected by traffic intensity, P >0.05), that was mainly driven by a significant negative relationship between the inflorescence number and ambient CO ; 2) a positive and significant relationship between ambient CO and the starch content in leaves (unaffected by traffic intensity); 3) a reduction in J (electron transport rate) at high traffic intensity. These lines of evidences suggest a decreased photosynthetic capacity due to high traffic intensity and high levels of ambient CO . In addition, Pb, Cu, Zn and Sr were detected in Dactylis glomerata tissues, and Cu accumulated in roots. Finally, we observed that Dactylis glomerata individuals growing at the roadside under high levels of CO and in the presence of metal pollutants, reduced their production of inflorescences.
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW
[Em] Mês de entrada:1802
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180309
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180309
[St] Status:In-Process


  2 / 414 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:29407735
[Au] Autor:Kuperman RG; Checkai RT; Simini M; Sunahara GI; Hawari J
[Ad] Endereço:US Army Edgewood Chemical Biological Center, RDCB-DRT-M E5641, 5183 Blackhawk Road, Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD 21010-5424, USA. Electronic address: roman.g.kuperman.civ@mail.mil.
[Ti] Título:Energetic contaminants inhibit plant litter decomposition in soil.
[So] Source:Ecotoxicol Environ Saf;153:32-39, 2018 May 30.
[Is] ISSN:1090-2414
[Cp] País de publicação:Netherlands
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Individual effects of nitrogen-based energetic materials (EMs) 2,4-dinitrotoluene (2,4-DNT), 2-amino-4,6-dinitrotoluene (2-ADNT), 4-amino-2,6-dinitrotoluene (4-ADNT), nitroglycerin (NG), and 2,4,6,8,10,12-hexanitrohexaazaisowurtzitane (CL-20) on litter decomposition, an essential biologically-mediated soil process, were assessed using Orchard grass (Dactylis glomerata) straw in Sassafras sandy loam (SSL) soil, which has physicochemical characteristics that support "very high" qualitative relative bioavailability for organic chemicals. Batches of SSL soil were separately amended with individual EMs or acetone carrier control. To quantify the decomposition rates, one straw cluster was harvested from a set of randomly selected replicate containers from within each treatment, after 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, and 8 months of exposure. Results showed that soil amended with 2,4-DNT or NG inhibited litter decomposition rates based on the median effective concentration (EC50) values of 1122 mg/kg and 860 mg/kg, respectively. Exposure to 2-ADNT, 4-ADNT or CL-20 amended soil did not significantly affect litter decomposition in SSL soil at ≥ 10,000 mg/kg. These ecotoxicological data will be helpful in identifying concentrations of EMs in soil that present an acceptable ecological risk for biologically-mediated soil processes.
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1802
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180225
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180225
[St] Status:In-Process


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[PMID]:29471524
[Au] Autor:Dillard SL; Roca-Fernández AI; Rubano MD; Elkin KR; Soder KJ
[Ad] Endereço:USDA-Agricultural Research Service, Pasture Systems and Watershed Management Research Unit, University Park, PA, USA.
[Ti] Título:Enteric methane production and ruminal fermentation of forage brassica diets fed in continuous culture.
[So] Source:J Anim Sci;, 2018 Feb 17.
[Is] ISSN:1525-3163
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:The aim of the current study was to determine nutrient digestibility, VFA production, N metabolism, and CH4 production of canola (Brassica napus L.), rapeseed (B. napus L.), turnip (B. rapa L.), and annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) fed with orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.) in continuous culture. Diets were randomly assigned to fermentors in a 4 × 4 Latin square design using 7 d for adaptation and 3 d for collection. Diets were: 1) 50% orchardgrass + 50% annual ryegrass (ARG); 2) 50% orchardgrass + 50% canola (CAN); 3) 50% orchardgrass + 50% rapeseed (RAP); and 4) 50% orchardgrass + 50% turnip (TUR). Feedings (82 g DM/d) occurred 4 times daily throughout 4, 10-d periods at 730, 1030, 1400, and 1900 h. Methane samples were collected every 10 min using a photoacoustic gas analyzer (LumaSense Technologies, Inc.; Santa Clara, CA) during the last 3 d of the experiment. Effluent samples were collected on d 8, 9, and 10, composited by fermentor, and analyzed for VFA and pH as well as DM, OM, CP, and fiber fractions for determination of nutrient digestibility. Forage samples were analyzed for CP, NDF, ADF, minerals, and glucosinolate (GLS) concentrations. Data were analyzed using the GLIMMIX procedure of SAS. Apparent DM, OM, and NDF digestibilities and true DM and OM digestibilities were similar (P > 0.28) among diets (45.1, 63.2, 44.1, 67.1, and 87.2%, respectively). Total VFA (87.2 mol/100 mol), pH (6.47) and acetate (A: 44.6 mol/100 mol) were also not different (P > 0.20) among diets. The A:P (P = propionate) ratio was greater (P < 0.01) in ARG and CAN than RAP and TUR. Daily CH4 production was greater (P < 0.01) in ARG than all other diets (68.9 vs. 11.2 mg/d). Methane, whether expressed as g per g of OM, NDF, digestible OM, or digestible NDF fed was greatest (P < 0.01) in ARG but similar (P > 0.18) among brassica diets. A significant negative correlation was observed between total GLS and CH4 production. However, when multiple regression analysis on CH4 production was completed, neither total GLS nor individual GLS were a significant component of the model. Addition of brassicas provided similar nutrient digestibility to ARG while reducing daily CH4 production, potentially making brassicas an alternative for ARG in pasture-based ruminant diets.
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1802
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180222
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180222
[St] Status:Publisher
[do] DOI:10.1093/jas/sky030


  4 / 414 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28850837
[Au] Autor:Romero-Morte J; Rojo J; Rivero R; Fernández-González F; Pérez-Badia R
[Ad] Endereço:Institute of Environmental Sciences (Botany), University of Castilla-La Mancha, E-45071 Toledo, Spain.
[Ti] Título:Standardised index for measuring atmospheric grass-pollen emission.
[So] Source:Sci Total Environ;612:180-191, 2018 Jan 15.
[Is] ISSN:1879-1026
[Cp] País de publicação:Netherlands
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Grass pollen is the main cause of pollen allergy in Europe, and-given its marked allergenic potential and elevated airborne concentrations-constitutes a major public health risk. This study sought to identify the grass species triggering allergies during the highest-risk periods, and to measure the contribution of each species to airborne grass pollen concentrations. This type of research is particularly useful with a view to optimising the prevention and diagnosis of pollen allergies and developing the most effective immunological treatments. To that end, a total of 28 species potentially responsible for allergies were analysed. In order to assess the potential contribution of these species to overall airborne pollen concentrations, an index was designed (Pollen Contribution Index) based on the following parameters for each species: flowering phenology, pollen grain size (polar and equatorial axes), abundance of the species in the area and pollen production. The species contributing most to airborne pollen concentrations were, in order: Dactylis glomerata subsp. hispanica, Lolium rigidum, Trisetum paniceum and Arrhenatherum album. These species all shared certain features: small grain size (and thus greater buoyancy in air), high pollen production and considerable abundance. This Index was applied to a case study in a Mediterranean-climate area of the central Iberian Peninsula, but could equally be applied to other areas and other allergenic pollens. Findings showed that a small number of species were responsible for most airborne grass pollen.
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1708
[Cu] Atualização por classe:180103
[Lr] Data última revisão:
180103
[St] Status:In-Process


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[PMID]:29223336
[Au] Autor:Zhao X; Bushman BS; Zhang X; Robbins MD; Larson SR; Robins JG; Thomas A
[Ad] Endereço:USDA-ARS Forage and Range Research Laboratory, 695 North 1100 East, Logan, UT 84322-6300, USA; Department of Grassland Science, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu, China.
[Ti] Título:Association of candidate genes with heading date in a diverse Dactylis glomerata population.
[So] Source:Plant Sci;265:146-153, 2017 Dec.
[Is] ISSN:1873-2259
[Cp] País de publicação:Ireland
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Flowering occurs in response to cues from both temperature and photoperiod elicitors in cool-season, long-day forage grasses, and genes involved in sensing the elicitors and inducing downstream flowering responses have been associated with heading date and flowering time in perennial forage grasses as well as cereal grasses. In this study we test for association between orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.) heading date and polymorphisms in the CONSTANS (DgCO1), FLOWERING TIME (DgFT1), a VRN1 like MADS-box (DgMADS), and PHOTOPERIOD (DgPPD1-like) containing genes. A diverse population of 150 genotypes was measured for heading date across three years, genotyped, and candidate genes sequenced. Although pairwise population kinship values were generally low, the genotypes fit into a two-group structure model. Linkage disequilibrium decayed rapidly, reaching r levels below 0.2 within the 500bp of each gene. SNPs significantly associated with heading date were detected in equal-dose and tetraploid dosage models. The DgCO1 gene had the most significant polymorphisms and those with the largest effects, while DgMADS had several significant polymorphisms in its first intron with smaller effects. These polymorphisms can be used for further validation, selection, and development of breeding lines of orchardgrass.
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1712
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171210
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171210
[St] Status:In-Process


  6 / 414 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:29166861
[Au] Autor:Feng G; Huang L; Li J; Wang J; Xu L; Pan L; Zhao X; Wang X; Huang T; Zhang X
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Grassland Science, College of Animal Science and Technology, Sichuan Agricultural University, Chengdu, China.
[Ti] Título:Comprehensive transcriptome analysis reveals distinct regulatory programs during vernalization and floral bud development of orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.).
[So] Source:BMC Plant Biol;17(1):216, 2017 Nov 22.
[Is] ISSN:1471-2229
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:BACKGROUND: Vernalization and the transition from vegetative to reproductive growth involve multiple pathways, vital for controlling floral organ formation and flowering time. However, little transcription information is available about the mechanisms behind environmental adaption and growth regulation. Here, we used high-throughput sequencing to analyze the comprehensive transcriptome of Dactylis glomerata L. during six different growth periods. RESULTS: During vernalization, 4689 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) significantly increased in abundance, while 3841 decreased. Furthermore, 12,967 DEGs were identified during booting stage and flowering stage, including 7750 up-regulated and 5219 down-regulated DEGs. Pathway analysis indicated that transcripts related to circadian rhythm, photoperiod, photosynthesis, flavonoid biosynthesis, starch, and sucrose metabolism changed significantly at different stages. Coexpression and weighted correlation network analysis (WGCNA) analysis linked different stages to transcriptional changes and provided evidence of inner relation modules associated with signal transduction, stress responses, cell division, and hormonal transport. CONCLUSIONS: We found enrichment in transcription factors (TFs) related to WRKY, NAC, AP2/EREBP, AUX/IAA, MADS-BOX, ABI3/VP1, bHLH, and the CCAAT family during vernalization and floral bud development. TFs expression patterns revealed intricate temporal variations, suggesting relatively separate regulatory programs of TF modules. Further study will unlock insights into the ability of the circadian rhythm and photoperiod to regulate vernalization and flowering time in perennial grass.
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1711
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171123
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171123
[St] Status:In-Process
[do] DOI:10.1186/s12870-017-1170-8


  7 / 414 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:29110238
[Au] Autor:Jiménez-Rosales JD; Améndola-Massiotti RD; Burgueño-Ferreira JA; Ramírez-Valverde R; Topete-Pelayo P; Huerta-Bravo M
[Ad] Endereço:Programa de Posgrado en Producción Animal, Universidad Autónoma Chapingo, Carretera México - Texcoco km 38.5, CP 56230, Chapingo, Estado de México, Mexico.
[Ti] Título:Herbage intake of dairy cows in mixed sequential grazing with breeding ewes as followers.
[So] Source:Trop Anim Health Prod;, 2017 Nov 07.
[Is] ISSN:1573-7438
[Cp] País de publicação:United States
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:This study aimed to evaluate the hypothesis that mixed sequential grazing of dairy cows and breeding ewes is beneficial. During the seasons of spring-summer 2013 and autumn-winter 2013-2014, 12 (spring-summer) and 16 (autumn-winter) Holstein Friesian cows and 24 gestating (spring-summer) and lactating (autumn-winter) Pelibuey ewes grazed on six (spring-summer) and nine (autumn-winter) paddocks of alfalfa and orchard grass mixed pastures. The treatments "single species cow grazing" (CowG) and "mixed sequential grazing with ewes as followers of cows" (MixG) were evaluated, under a completely randomized design with two replicates per paddock. Herbage mass on offer (HO) and residual herbage mass (RH) were estimated by cutting samples. The estimate of herbage intake (HI) of cows was based on the use of internal and external markers; the apparent HI of ewes was calculated as the difference between HO (RH of cows) and RH. Even though HO was higher in CowG, the HI of cows was higher in MixG during spring-summer and similar in both treatments during autumn-winter, implying that in MixG the effects on the cows HI of higher alfalfa proportion and herbage accumulation rate evolving from lower residual herbage mass in the previous cycle counteracted that of a higher HO in CowG. The HI of ewes was sufficient to enable satisfactory performance as breeding ewes. Thus, the benefits of mixed sequential grazing arose from higher herbage accumulation, positive changes in botanical composition, and the achievement of sheep production without negative effects on the herbage intake of cows.
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1711
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171107
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171107
[St] Status:Publisher
[do] DOI:10.1007/s11250-017-1464-8


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[PMID]:28680426
[Au] Autor:Estendorfer J; Stempfhuber B; Haury P; Vestergaard G; Rillig MC; Joshi J; Schröder P; Schloter M
[Ad] Endereço:Research Unit Comparative Microbiome Analysis, Helmholtz Zentrum MünchenNeuherberg, Germany.
[Ti] Título:The Influence of Land Use Intensity on the Plant-Associated Microbiome of L.
[So] Source:Front Plant Sci;8:930, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1664-462X
[Cp] País de publicação:Switzerland
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:In this study, we investigated the impact of different land use intensities (LUI) on the root-associated microbiome of (orchardgrass). For this purpose, eight sampling sites with different land use intensity levels but comparable soil properties were selected in the southwest of Germany. Experimental plots covered land use levels from natural grassland up to intensively managed meadows. We used 16S rRNA gene based barcoding to assess the plant-associated community structure in the endosphere, rhizosphere and bulk soil of . Samples were taken at the reproductive stage of the plant in early summer. Our data indicated that roots harbor a distinct bacterial community, which clearly differed from the microbiome of the rhizosphere and bulk soil. Our results revealed and as the most abundant endophytes independently of land use intensity. Rhizosphere and bulk soil were dominated also by , but the most abundant families differed from those obtained from root samples. In the soil, the effect of land use intensity was more pronounced compared to root endophytes leading to a clearly distinct pattern of bacterial communities under different LUI from rhizosphere and bulk soil vs. endophytes. Overall, a change of community structure on the plant-soil interface was observed, as the number of shared OTUs between all three compartments investigated increased with decreasing land use intensity. Thus, our findings suggest a stronger interaction of the plant with its surrounding soil under low land use intensity. Furthermore, the amount and quality of available nitrogen was identified as a major driver for shifts in the microbiome structure in all compartments.
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1707
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170816
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170816
[St] Status:PubMed-not-MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.3389/fpls.2017.00930


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[PMID]:28579997
[Au] Autor:Jones GB; Alpuerto JB; Tracy BF; Fukao T
[Ad] Endereço:Department of Crop and Soil Environmental Sciences, Virginia Tech, BlacksburgVA, United States.
[Ti] Título:Physiological Effect of Cutting Height and High Temperature on Regrowth Vigor in Orchardgrass.
[So] Source:Front Plant Sci;8:805, 2017.
[Is] ISSN:1664-462X
[Cp] País de publicação:Switzerland
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:Producers of orchardgrass ( L.) hay in the Mid-Atlantic US have experienced a reduction in regrowth vigor and a decline in the persistence of their swards. The common management practice for the region is to harvest the first growth of hay by cutting at 2.5-7.5 cm height in May or June. We hypothesize that high temperature and low cutting height interact to limit the regrowth rate. To test this, orchardgrass plants were cut to either 2.5 or 7.5 cm and then placed into environmentally controlled chambers with a constant temperature of 20 or 35°C. Stubble was harvested on days 0, 1, 3, and 11 following cutting and subjected to metabolite analysis. Photosynthetic parameters were measured in the regrown leaves on days 3 and 11, and regrowth biomass was recorded on day 11. Under optimal growth temperature (20°C), vegetative regrowth upon defoliation was significantly enhanced when more stubble tissue remained. However, this advantage was not observed under heat stress. Defoliation generally decreases the abundance of carbohydrate reserves in stubble. Interestingly, high temperature stimulated the accumulation of starch and ethanol-soluble carbohydrates in plants cut to 7.5 cm. The similar trends were also observed in protein, amino acids, nitrate, and ammonium. These responses were not pronounced in plants cut to 2.5 cm, presumably due to inhibited photosynthesis and photosystem II photochemistry. Overall, we anticipated that heat-activated metabolite accumulation is part of adaptive response to the stress. However, modified allocation of carbohydrate and nitrogen reserves leads to reduced vegetative regrowth upon defoliation. These data suggest that cutting height management for orchardgrass may be more effective for its regrowth vigor and productivity in cool seasons or when cool weather follows hay harvest.
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1706
[Cu] Atualização por classe:170816
[Lr] Data última revisão:
170816
[St] Status:PubMed-not-MEDLINE
[do] DOI:10.3389/fpls.2017.00805


  10 / 414 MEDLINE  
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[PMID]:28514971
[Au] Autor:Lippolis KD; Cooke RF; Silva LGT; Schubach KM; Brandao AP; Marques RS; Larson CK; Russell JR; Arispe SA; DelCurto T; Bohnert DW
[Ad] Endereço:1Eastern Oregon Agricultural Research Center,Oregon State University,Burns,OR 97720,USA.
[Ti] Título:Effects of organic complexed or inorganic Co, Cu, Mn and Zn supplementation during a 45-day preconditioning period on productive and health responses of feeder cattle.
[So] Source:Animal;11(11):1949-1956, 2017 Nov.
[Is] ISSN:1751-732X
[Cp] País de publicação:England
[La] Idioma:eng
[Ab] Resumo:This experiment evaluated production and health parameters among cattle offered concentrates containing inorganic or organic complexed sources of supplemental Cu, Co, Mn and Zn during a 45-day preconditioning period. In total, 90 Angus×Hereford calves were weaned at 7 months (day -1), sorted by sex, weaning BW and age (261±2 kg; 224±2 days), and allocated to 18 drylot pens (one heifer and four steers per pen) on day 0; thus, all pens had equivalent initial BW and age. Pens were randomly assigned to receive a corn-based preconditioning concentrate containing: (1) Cu, Co, Mn and Zn sulfate sources (INR), (2) Cu, Mn, Co and Zn complexed organic source (AAC) or (3) no Cu, Co, Mn and Zn supplementation (CON). From day 0 to 45, cattle received concentrate treatments (2.7 kg/animal daily, as-fed basis) and had free-choice access to orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.), long-stem hay and water. The INR and AAC treatments were formulated to provide the same daily amount of Co, Cu, Mn and Zn at a 50-, 16-, 8- and ninefold increase, respectively, compared with the CON treatment. On day 46, cattle were transported to a commercial feedlot, maintained as a single pen, and offered a free-choice receiving diet until day 103. Calf full BW was recorded on days -1 and 0, 45 and 46, and 102 and 103 for average daily gain (ADG) calculation. Liver biopsy was performed on days 0 (used as covariate), 22 and 45. Cattle were vaccinated against respiratory pathogens on days 15, 29 and 46. Blood samples were collected on days 15, 29, 45, 47, 49, 53 and 60. During preconditioning, mean liver concentrations of Co, Zn and Cu were greater (P⩽0.03) in AAC and INR compared with CON. No treatment effects were detected (P⩾0.17) for preconditioning feed intake, ADG or feed efficiency. No treatment effects were detected (P⩾0.48) for plasma concentrations of antibodies against Mannheimia haemolytica, bovine viral diarrhea types 1 and 2 viruses. Plasma haptoglobin concentrations were similar among treatments (P=0.98). Mean plasma cortisol concentration was greater (P⩽0.04) in CON compared with INR and AAC. No treatment effects were detected (P⩾0.37) for cattle ADG during feedlot receiving. Hence, INR and AAC increased liver concentrations of Co, Zn and Cu through preconditioning, but did not impact cattle performance and immunity responses during preconditioning and feedlot receiving.
[Pt] Tipo de publicação:JOURNAL ARTICLE
[Em] Mês de entrada:1705
[Cu] Atualização por classe:171018
[Lr] Data última revisão:
171018
[St] Status:In-Process
[do] DOI:10.1017/S1751731117001033



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