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Texto completo SciELO España
Id: 189560
Autor: Miró, Òscar; Galicia, Miguel.
Título: Sobre las fuentes de conocimiento del consumo de drogas y sus consecuencias / No disponible
Fuente: Rev. esp. salud pública;93:0-0, 2019. tab, graf.
Idioma: es.
Resumen: No disponible
Responsable: ES1.1
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Id: 180992
Autor: Medín, María Inés; Granda Orive, José Ignacio de.
Título: Debate 1: Reducción del daño e IQOS. En contra / Debate 1: Reduction of harm and IQOS. Against
Fuente: Prev. tab;20(3):83-84, jul.-sept. 2018. tab.
Idioma: es.
Resumen: No disponible
Responsable: ES1.1
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  3 / 30 IBECS  
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Id: 171635
Autor: Rodríguez, S; Arenas, M; Gutierrez, C; Richart, J; Perez-Calatayud, J; Celada, F; Santos, M; Rovirosa, A.
Título: Recommendations of the Spanish brachytherapy group (GEB) of Spanish Society of Radiation Oncology (SEOR) and the Spanish Society of Medical Physics (SEFM) for high-dose rate (HDR) non melanoma skin cancer brachytherapy
Fuente: Clin. transl. oncol. (Print);20(4):431-442, abr. 2018. ilus, tab, graf.
Idioma: en.
Resumen: Clinical indications of brachytherapy in non-melanoma skin cancers, description of applicators and dosimetry recommendations are described based on the literature review, clinical practice and experience of Spanish Group of Brachytherapy and Spanish Society of Medical Physics reported in the XIV Annual Consensus Meeting on Non Melanoma Skin Cancer Brachytherapy held in Benidorm, Alicante (Spain) on October 21st, 2016. All the recommendations for which consensus was achieved are highlighted in blue. Regular and small surfaces may be treated with Leipzig, Valencia, flap applicators or electronic brachytherapy (EBT). For irregular surfaces, customized molds or interstitial implants should be employed. The dose is prescribed at a maximum depth of 3-4 mm of the clinical target volume/planning target volume (CTV/PTV) in all cases except in flaps or molds in which 5 mm is appropriate. Interstitial brachytherapy should be used for CTV/PTV >5 mm. Different total doses and fraction sizes are used with very similar clinical and toxicity results. Hypofractionation is very useful twice or 3 times a week, being comfortable for patients and practical for Radiotherapy Departments. In interstitial brachytherapy 2 fractions twice a day are applied (AU)

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  4 / 30 IBECS  
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Id: 171316
Autor: Chen, F; Hu, P; Liang, N; Xie, J; Yu, S; Tian, T; Zhang, Jingxin; Deng, G; Zhang, Jiandong.
Título: Concurrent chemoradiotherapy with weekly nedaplatin versus radiotherapy alone in elderly patients with non-small-cell lung cancer
Fuente: Clin. transl. oncol. (Print);20(3):294-301, mar. 2018. tab, graf.
Idioma: en.
Resumen: Purpose. We conduct this study to compare the efficacy and toxicity of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) concurrent weekly nedaplatin (NDP) versus IMRT alone in the stage III/IV non-surgical elderly patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods. 117 patients were enrolled into our study. The patients were assigned into two different groups: radiotherapy (RT) group and chemoradiotherapy (CRT) group. Patients in RT group were treated with IMRT at a single daily dose of 2 Gy for 5 days per week, totally 52-66 Gy. The CRT group, IMRT concurrent weekly NDP at a dose of 25 mg/m2. Results. In CRT group, the median survival was 11.0 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 8.894-13.106 months) and in RT group, it was 7.0 months (95% CI 5.771-8.229 months). The 1-year, 2-year, 3-year, survival rates in the combined treatment arm were higher than the radiation therapy arm (46.8 vs 25.9%, 25.1 vs 11.8%, 14.7 vs 8.0%; p < 0.001). The Cox's multiple regression analysis showed that CRT had significantly better overall survival than RT (HR 0.523; 95.0% CI 0.338-0.807; p = 0.003). The objective response rate provided that 73.3% treated with CRT compared with 51.1% (p = 0.018) received RT alone. Of the hematologic toxicities, leukocytes (35.0 vs 0%; p < 0.001), neutrophils (33.3 vs 0%; p < 0.001) were significantly more common in the CRT group than the RT group. Conclusions. We first discovered that NDP concurrent IMRT for treating stage III/IV non-surgical elderly patients with NSCLC was good curative effect of better objective response rate and well-tolerated. However, within the low number of patients, only stage IV gained a survival benefit (AU)

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Id: 169819
Autor: Oropesa, AL; Moreno, JJ; Gómez, LJ.
Título: Lesiones histopatológicas en peces originadas por la exposición a contaminantes emergentes: recopilando y analizando datos / Histopathological lesions in fish caused by exposure to emerging pollutants: collecting and analysing data
Fuente: Rev. toxicol;34(2):99-108, jul.-dic. 2017. graf.
Idioma: en; es.
Resumen: Los contaminantes emergentes son compuestos de diferente origen y naturaleza química cuya presencia en el medio ambiente, o las posibles consecuencias de la misma, han pasado en gran parte inadvertidas. Son compuestos de los cuales se posee poca información sobre su impacto en los distintos compartimentos ambientales y que, por tanto, precisan investigación. El creciente énfasis en la evaluación y monitoreo de los contaminantes en los ecosistemas acuáticos ha revelado la necesidad de utilizar biomarcadores apropiados, siendo las lesiones histopatológicas una herramienta cada vez más utilizada. El presente trabajo recoge una revisión bibliográfica sobre la presencia de contaminantes emergentes en el medio acuático, así como, de las lesiones histopatológicas originadas en peces como consecuencia de la exposición a estos compuestos. Se puede indicar que los fármacos son el grupo de contaminantes emergentes mayoritariamente detectado en el compartimento acuático (incluyendo aguas superficiales y sedimentos). Son el 17α-etinilestradiol (estrógeno sintético) y el nonilfenol (surfactante) los contaminantes emergentes más ampliamente estudiados en peces desde el punto de vista Histopatológico; y también se observa que existe predominancia de ciertas lesiones en cuanto al órgano estudiado y la exposición a determinados grupos de contaminantes emergentes. Por todo ello, se puede considerar a las lesiones histopatológicas como un buen biomarcador de exposición a contaminantes emergentes y de los efectos originados por ellos. Las lesiones histopatológicas pueden: alterar las funciones reguladas por los órganos afectados, las cuales están relacionadas con procesos biológicos importantes; reflejar cambios subclínicos originados por la exposición a bajas concentraciones de tóxicos (particularmente importante en el caso de los contaminantes emergentes) así como permanecer en el tiempo si las condiciones ambientales no varían (AU)

Emerging pollutants are compounds of different origin a chemical nature, which a presence in the environment, or their posible consequences, have largely gone unnoticed. They are compounds of which relatively little is known about their impact in the different environmental compartments, therefore, they need investigation. The increasing emphasis on the assessment and monitoring of contaminants in the aquatic ecosystems has revealed the need to use appropiate biomarkers, being the histopathological lesions a tool increasingly used. In the current work a review of the literatura on the presence of the emerging pollutants in the aquatic compartment, as well as, of the histopathological lesions caused by exposure to these compounds in fish was performed. It can be indicated that pharmaceutical compounds are the group of emerging pollutants mainly detected in the quatic environment (including superficial water and sediments). 17alpha-ethinylestradiol (synthetic estrogen) and nonylphenol (surfactant) are the most widely emerging pollutants studied in fish from a Histopathological point of view; and also it is observed that there is a predominance of certain lesions in terms of the organ studied and exposure to certain groups of emerging pollutants. For all that, histopathological lesions can be considered as a good biomarker of exposure and effects of emerging pollutants. Histopathological lesions can: disturb functions regulated by the affected organs that can be related with important biological processes; reflect subclinical changes caused by exposure to low concentrations of toxics (paticularly important in the case of emerging pollutants) as well as remain in time if the environmental conditions do not vary (AU)
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  6 / 30 IBECS  
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Id: 165219
Autor: Zapatero, A; Roch, M; Büchser, D; Castro, P; Fernández-Banda, L; Pozo, G; Liñán, O; Martin de Vidales, C; Cruz-Conde, A; García-Vicente, F.
Título: Reduced late urinary toxicity with high-dose intensity-modulated radiotherapy using intra-prostate fiducial markers for localized prostate cancer
Fuente: Clin. transl. oncol. (Print);19(9):1161-1167, sept. 2017. tab, graf.
Idioma: en.
Resumen: Background/purpose. To evaluate the impact of intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) with intra-prostate fiducial markers image-guided radiotherapy (IGRT) on the incidence of late urinary toxicity compared to 3D conformal radiotherapy (3DCRT) for patients with prostate cancer (PC). Methods and materials. We selected 733 consecutive patients with localized PC treated with dose-escalation radiotherapy between 2001 and 2014. Eligibility criteria were radiation dose >72.0 Gy, no pelvic RT and minimum follow-up 24 months. 438 patients were treated with 3DCRT and 295 with IMRT. Acute and late urinary complications were assessed using the EORTC/RTOG and CTCAEs v3.0 definition. The Cox regression model was used to compare grade ≥2 urinary toxicity between both techniques. The median follow-up was 75 months (range 24-204). Results. The median isocenter radiation dose was 78.7 Gy for 3DCRT and 80.7 Gy for IMRT/IGRT (p < 0.001). The 5-year incidence of late grade ≥2 urinary toxicity was 6.4% for IMRT and 10.8% for 3DCRT [hazard ratio (HR) 0.575, p = 0.056]. The corresponding 5-year estimates of late grade ≥2 hematuria were 2% for IMRT and 5.3% for 3DCRT (HR 0.296, p = 0.024). On multivariate analysis, the antecedent of prior transurethral resection of the prostate was also a strong predictor of a higher risk of urinary complications (HR 2.464, p = 0.002) and of hematuria (HR 5.196, p < 0.001). Conclusion. Compared with 3DCRT, high-dose IMRT/IGRT is associated with a lower rate of late urinary complications in spite of higher radiation dose (AU)

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  7 / 30 IBECS  
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Id: 158891
Autor: Rugolo, Maximiliano; Levin, Laura; Ernesto Lechner, Bernardo.
Título: Flammulina velutipes: an option for 'alperujo' use / Flammulina velutipes: una opción para el aprovechamiento del alperujo
Fuente: Rev. iberoam. micol;33(4):242-247, oct.-dic. 2016. tab, graf.
Idioma: en.
Resumen: Background. Two-phase olive-mill wastes (or 'alperujo') exhibit highly phytotoxic properties, mainly due to phenols. A valuable option for alperujo is its agricultural use, provided that no phytotoxic effects occur. Aims. The present investigation was aimed at evaluating the efficacy of two strains of the lignin-degrading fungus Flammulina velutipes to colonize alperujo in order to produce edible mushrooms and to achieve its detoxification. Methods. Some important cultural characters related to mushroom production (earliness, biological efficiency and quality of basidiomes) were estimated. The production of lignocellulolytic enzymes, phenol removal and detoxification of the substrate was evaluated. Results. High biological efficiencies (70.8%) were obtained at 12ºC with F. velutipes strain BAFC 670/06 in a substrate containing poplar wood shavings and 90% of alperujo. The nature of the substrate did not seem to exert an important influence on pileus and stem morphology; nevertheless shortest stems were observed at higher temperatures. Endo-β-1,4-glucanase, endo-β-1,4-xylanase, laccase and Mn-peroxidase activities were detected in the extracts recovered from the solid-state cultures. Both F. velutipes strains were effective in removing the phenolic compounds. The initial concentration in the substrate with 90% alperujo was reduced in the case of F. velutipes BAFC 1763 by 84.31%, and 40.15% by F. velutipes BAFC 670/06. Germinability experiments on Raphanus sativus, showed that alperujo phytotoxicity was significantly reduced by F. velutipes cultures. Conclusions. The experimented changes by the spent mushroom substrate resulting from F. velutipes cultivation with high amount of alperujo would allow its reuse for agricultural purposes (AU)

Antecedentes. El alperujo, subproducto de las almazaras durante la extracción del aceite de oliva, tiene propiedades fitotóxicas importantes debido a su alto contenido fenólico. Su utilización en la agricultura es una opción válida, pero deben eliminarse sus efectos fitotóxicos. Objetivos. El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar la eficacia de dos cepas del hongo ligninolítico Flammulina velutipes de crecer en sustratos con alto contenido de alperujo, detoxificarlo y producir basidiomas comestibles. Métodos. Se estudiaron las principales características relacionadas con el cultivo para la producción de basidiomas: tiempo de aparición de primordios, eficiencia biológica y calidad. Se evaluó la producción de enzimas lignocelulolíticas, la remoción de compuestos fenólicos y la detoxificación del sustrato. Resultados. Se obtuvieron altos valores de eficiencia biológica (70,8%) a 12ºC con la cepa BAFC 670/06 de F. velutipes en un sustrato compuesto de viruta de álamo y 90% de alperujo. La naturaleza del sustrato al parecer no ejerció influencias importantes en la morfología de los basidiomas, aunque a altas temperaturas los estípites presentaron una menor longitud. Se detectó actividad endo-β-1,4-glucanasa, endo-β-1,4-xilanasa, lacasa y Mn-peroxidasa en extractos recuperados de cultivos en estado sólido. Ambas cepas fueron efectivas en la reducción del contenido de fenoles del sustrato, reducción que alcanzó el 84,31% con F. velutipes BAFC 1763 y el 40,15% con F. velutipes BAFC 670/06. Los ensayos de germinación de semillas de Raphanus sativus mostraron una significativa reducción de la fitotoxicidad del alperujo. Conclusiones. Los cambios experimentados por el sustrato remanente del cultivo de F. velutipes con altas concentraciones de alperujo podrían permitir su reutilización con fines agrícolas (AU)
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Id: 152733
Autor: Muñoz-Quezada, María Teresa; Lucero, Boris; Iglesias, Verónica; Pía Muñoz, María; Achú, Eduardo; Cornejo, Claudia; Concha, Carlos; Grillo, Angela; Brito, Ana María.
Título: Plaguicidas organofosforados y efecto neuropsicológico y motor en la Región del Maule, Chile / Organophosphate pesticides and neuropsychological and motor effects in the Maule Region, Chile
Fuente: Gac. sanit. (Barc., Ed. impr.);30(3):227-231, mayo-jun. 2016. tab.
Idioma: es.
Resumen: Objetivo: Evaluar la exposición a plaguicidas organofosforados y el desempeño neuropsicológico y motor de trabajadores/as agrícolas y no agrícolas de la Región del Maule, Chile. Método: Estudio transversal analítico con 93 trabajadores/as agrícolas expuestos/as a plaguicidas organofosforados y 84 trabajadores/as no agrícolas no expuestos/as. Se administró una batería de cuatro pruebas neuropsicológicas junto con un examen físico neuromotor. Resultados: Los/las trabajadores/as agrícolas expuestos/as tuvieron un menor desempeño en la escala de inteligencia de Wechsler para Adultos (WAIS-IV) en comprensión verbal (Beta=−3,2; p=0,034), en velocidad de procesamiento (Beta=−4,4; p=0,036) y en la escala total (Beta=−4; p=0,016); sensibilidad discriminativa (Beta=1, p=0,009) ajustada por años de educación o edad en comparación con los controles. Conclusiones: Se sugiere el desarrollo de políticas en materia de control, venta y uso de plaguicidas organofosforados, y de intervenciones con la población expuesta respecto a medidas de seguridad (AU)

Objective: To evaluate organophosphate pesticide exposure and neuropsychological and motor performance in agricultural and non-agricultural workers in the Maule Region in Chile. Method: Analytic cross-sectional study in 93 exposed farm workers and 84 unexposed non-agricultural workers. A battery of four neuropsychological tests was administered together with a neuro-motor physical examination. Results: On the Weschler adult intelligence scale (WAIS-IV), exposed agricultural workers exhibited poorer performance than non-agricultural workers in verbal comprehension (Beta=−3.2; p=0.034) and processing speed (Beta=−4.4; p=0.036) and in the full scale (Beta=−4; p=0.016), as well as in discrimination sensitivity (Beta=1, p=0,009), adjusted by years of schooling and/or age. Conclusions: We suggest the development of policies and regulations for the control, sale and use of organophosphate pesticides and intervention strategies on safety measures aimed at the exposed population (AU)
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Id: 151212
Autor: Montero Luis, A; Hervás, A; Morera, R; Ramos, A.
Título: Toxicidad sobre piel y mucosas: tratamientos de soporte / No disponible
Fuente: Oncología (Barc.);27(7):22-27, jul. 2004.
Idioma: es.
Resumen: No disponible
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  10 / 30 IBECS  
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Id: 149812
Autor: Doll, R.
Título: The aetiology of the Spanish Toxic Syndrome: interpretation of the epidemiological evidence / Etiología del Síndrome Toxico: interpretación de la evidencia epidemiológica
Fuente: Gac. sanit. (Barc., Ed. impr.);14(supl.3):72-88, dic. 2000. tab.
Idioma: en.
Resumen: The disease (the «Spanish Toxic Syndrome») that caused some 20,000 people to be ill in Central and North West Spain in the summer of 1981 had not previously been known to medical science. Research into the cause of the disease has led many people to conclude that there was a toxic substance in some batches of oil that were sold for human consumption by street vendors. Laboratory studies have, however, failed to demonstrate toxicity in any of the samples that were recovered, no specific chemical that might have caused the disease has been identified, and the conclusion that the oil was responsible rests primarily on the epidemiological evidence. The purpose of this report was to review the epidemiological evidence to see whether the conclusion is justified or whether the possibility of some other cause needs to be considered (AU)

La enfermedad (el «Síndrome Tóxico») que tuvo unos 20,000 afectados en el centro y noroeste español durante el verano de 1981 no había sido previamente descrita por la ciencia médica. La investigación de la causa ha llevado a diferentes personas a concluir que existía una substancia tóxica en algunos lotes de aceite que se vendían de forma ambulante. Sin embargo, los estudios de laboratorio no han sido capaces de demostrar toxicidad en las muestras recogidas ni podido identificar agentes químicos que pudieran causar la enfermedad, y la conclusión de que el aceite era el agente responsable se basaba básicamente en la evidencia epidemiológica. El objetivo de este informe fue revisar la evidencia epidemiológica para averiguar si esa conclusión era justificada o si era necesario considerar la posibilidad de alguna otra causa (AU)
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