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Id: 175102
Autor: Alcalá, José A; González, Gabriel; Aristizabal, José A; Callejas-Aguilera, José E; Rosas, Juan M.
Título: Discrimination Reversal Facilitates Contextual Conditioning in Rats' Appetitive conditioning / La inversión de la discriminación facilita el condicionamiento contextual en una preparación de condicionamiento apetitivo con ratas
Fonte: Psicológica (Valencia, Ed. impr.);39(1):64-87, ene. 2018. tab, graf.
Idioma: en.
Resumo: Two experiments were conducted with the goal of exploring the effect of experiencing associative interference upon concurrent learning about conditioned stimuli and contexts in rats' appetitive conditioning. During the first training phase, two groups of rats received a conditioned stimulus (CS1) followed by food, whereas another conditioned stimulus (CS2) was presented alone. During a second training phase, discrimination was reversed in group R, while it remained the same in group D. A new conditioned stimulus (CS3) was concurrently trained followed by food during this second Phase (Experiment 1). Reversal discrimination did not facilitate concurrent conditioning of the new stimulus, but there was a trend towards facilitation of contextual conditioning, measured by magazine entries in the absence of stimuli, that was confirmed in Experiment 2. These results suggest that the interference treatment may facilitate context conditioning under circumstances and with boundaries that are yet to be established

Se realizaron dos experimentos con el objetivo de explorar el efecto de experimentar una interferencia asociativa sobre el aprendizaje concurrente acerca de estímulos condicionados y contextos en condicionamiento apetitivo con ratas. Durante la primera fase de entrenamiento, dos grupos de ratas recibieron un estímulo condicionado (CS1) seguido de comida, mientras otro (CS2) se presentaba solo. Durante la segunda fase de entrenamiento, la discriminación se invirtió en el grupo R, mientras se mantuvo constante en el grupo D. Durante esta segunda fase, un estímulo condicionado nuevo (CS3) fue presentado seguido de comida (Experimento 1). La inversión de la discriminación no facilitó el aprendizaje concurrente acerca del nuevo estímulo, pero sí hubo una tendencia hacia la facilitación del condicionamiento contextual, medido a partir de la respuesta de entrada en el comedero en ausencia de estimulación, que se confirmó en el Experimento 2. Estos resultados sugieren que los tratamientos de interferencia pueden facilitar el condicionamiento contextual en circunstancias y con limitaciones que están aún por determinarse
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Id: 171370
Autor: Quezada, Vanetza E; Laborda, Mario A; Díaz, Marcela C; Navarro, Víctor M; Mallea, Jorge; Repetto, Paula; Orellana, Gricel; Betancourt, Ronald.
Título: Extinction cues do not reduce recovery of extinguished conditioned fear in humans
Fonte: Int. j. psychol. psychol. ther. (Ed. impr.);18(1):39-53, ene. 2018. tab, graf.
Idioma: en.
Resumo: We evaluated whether an extinction cue can reduce (or prevent) the recovery of previously extinguished fear conditioning using an ABC renewal design in humans. Two experiments were carried out. In Experiment 1, two groups were presented with geometric shapes as conditioned stimulus (CS), followed by a small electric shock as unconditioned stimulus (US) during the acquisition phase. Conditioned fear was measured as ratings of US expectancy and changes in skin conductance response (SCR). During the extinction phase, both groups received presentations of the CS without the US, while an extinction cue (EC) was presented. Both groups were tested in both the extinction context (extinction test) and a new context (renewal test) immediately and 48 hours after the end of the extinction phase (spontaneous recovery). Half of the subjects were tested in the presence of the EC (Group Extinction cue) while the other half were tested in the presence of a neutral cue (Group Neutral cue). The results suggested that the EC reduced the recovery of fear produced by a context change, but that this reduction was not maintained over time. Experiment 2 increased the salience of the EC and the contexts, however, results showed that the EC was unable to reduce the renewal of fear conditioning. These results are discussed as a function of the experimental manipulations performed, and their theoretical and practical implications (AU)

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  3 / 18 IBECS  
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Id: 160215
Autor: Polín, Eduardo; Pérez, Vicente.
Título: The effect of varied reinforcement on acquisition and extinction speed / Efecto del reforzamiento variado en la velocidad de adquisición y extinción
Fonte: Psicothema (Oviedo);29(1):83-90, feb. 2017. tab, graf.
Idioma: en.
Resumo: Background: The objective of the present study was to compare both the acquisition speed and the resistance to extinction of a simple discrimination in pigeons, depending on whether the reinforcing consequence included different conditioned reinforcer stimuli or always the same. Method: The study was conducted with four experimentally naive female pigeons, which were trained to respond to a «go-no go» procedure in four Skinner boxes with coupled touchscreens. The subjects were divided into two conditions with two subjects each. In the Experimental condition, the reinforcement of correct trials was performed by the presentation of one of four previously trained conditioned reinforcers followed by food, while in the Control condition the conditioned reinforcer stimulus was always the same. After acquiring the discrimination, all the subjects were exposed to the extinction phase. Results: The subjects of the Experimental condition needed about half of the sessions that the subjects of the Control condition needed to acquire the discrimination. In addition, subjects of the Experimental condition continued responding for more sessions than Control subjects in the extinction phase, although there were no differences in the resistance to extinction. Conclusions: Acquisition speed is greater when a variety of conditioned reinforcers is applied (AU)

Antecedentes: el presente estudio tenía como objetivo comparar tanto la velocidad de adquisición como la resistencia a la extinción de una discriminación simple en palomas en función de si la consecuencia reforzante comprendía distintos estímulos reforzadores condicionados o siempre el mismo. Método: el estudio se realizó con cuatro palomas hembra experimentalmente ingenuas entrenadas para responder a un procedimiento «go-no go» en cuatro cajas de Skinner con pantallas táctiles acopladas. Los sujetos fueron divididos en dos condiciones con dos sujetos cada una. En la condición Experimental el reforzamiento de los ensayos correctos se realizó mediante la presentación de alguno de los cuatro reforzadores condicionados previamente seguido de comida, mientras que en la condición Control el reforzador condicionado era siempre el mismo. Tras adquirir la discriminación, todos los sujetos pasaron a la fase de extinción. Resultados: los sujetos de la condición Experimental necesitaron aproximadamente la mitad de sesiones para adquirir la discriminación que los de la condición Control. Además, los sujetos de la condición Experimental continuaron respondiendo durante más sesiones que los de la condición Control durante la fase de extinción, aunque ambos presentaron la misma resistencia. Conclusiones: la velocidad de adquisición es mayor cuando se aplica una variedad de reforzadores condicionados (AU)
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Id: 157594
Autor: López Medina, Miguel Ángel; Rodríguez Valverde, Miguel; Hernández López, Mónica.
Título: Transfer of conditioned fear-potentiated startle across equivalence classes. An exploratory study
Fonte: Int. j. psychol. psychol. ther. (Ed. impr.);16(3):249-263, oct. 2016. tab, graf.
Idioma: en.
Resumo: Research on fear conditioning is key to understanding the genesis and maintenance of anxiety disorders. A still scarce but growing evidence shows that fear-conditioned arousal reactions may transfer amongst physically dissimilar but symbolically related (e.g. equivalent) stimuli. The limited investigation published to date has relied on skin conductance responses as its main measure. Thus far, no published studies have analyzed this phenomenon using more emotionally sensitive psychophysiological measures, like fear-potentiated startle. Twenty-seven participants underwent a matching-to-sample procedure for the formation of two four-member equivalence classes (A1-B1-C1-D1 and A2-B2-C2-D2). Then, one element from each class was used in a differential aversive conditioning procedure (CS+: B1; CS-: B2) with electric shock as the UCS. Eye-blink startle (measured as EMG activity of the orbicularis oculi muscle after a burst of white noise), skin conductance responses, and shock-risk self-report ratings were collected. Results show no evidence of transfer of functions with any of the psychophysiological measures. A weak, inconclusive effect was observed for self-reported ratings (AU)

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  5 / 18 IBECS  
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Id: 149078
Autor: Zyablitseva, Evgeniya A; Kositsyn, Nikolay S; Shul'gina, Galina I.
Título: The Effects of Agonists of Ionotropic GABA A and Metabotropic GABA B Receptors on Learning
Fonte: Span. j. psychol;12(1):12-20, mayo 2009. graf.
Idioma: en.
Resumo: The research described here investigates the role played by inhibitory processes in the discriminations made by the nervous system of humans and animals between familiar and unfamiliar and significant and nonsignificant events. This research compared the effects of two inhibitory mediators of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA): 1) phenibut, a nonselective agonist of ionotropic GABAA and metabotropic GABAB receptors and 2) gaboxadol a selective agonist of ionotropic GABAA receptors on the process of developing active defensive and inhibitory conditioned reflexes in alert non-immobilized rabbits. It was found that phenibut, but not gaboxadol, accelerates the development of defensive reflexes at an early stage of conditioning. Both phenibut and gaboxadol facilitate the development of conditioned inhibition, but the effect of gaboxadol occurs at later stages of conditioning and is less stable than that of phenibut. The earlier and more stable effects of phenibut, as compared to gaboxadol, on storage in memory of the inhibitory significance of a stimulus may occur because GABAB receptors play the dominant role in the development of internal inhibition during an early stage of conditioning. On the other hand this may occur because the participation of both GABAA and GABAB receptors are essential to the process. We discuss the polyfunctionality of GABA receptors as a function of their structure and the positions of the relevant neurons in the brain as this factor can affect regulation of various types of psychological processes (AU)

Este trabajo investiga el papel de los procesos inhibitorios en la discriminación realizada por el sistema nervioso de los humanos y los animales entre sucesos familiares y no familiares y significativos y no significativos. Se comparó los efectos de dos mediadores inhibitorios del ácido gamma-aminobutírico (GABA): 1) Phenibut, un agonista no selectivo de los receptores del GABAA ionotrópico y del GABAB metabotrópico y 2) gaboxadol, un agonista selectivo de los receptores del GABAA ionotrópico, sobre el desarrollo de reflejos condicionados de defensa activa e inhibitorios en conejos en alerta y no inmovilizados. Se encontró que el phenibut, pero no el gaboxadol, acelera el desarrollo de reflejos defensivos en una etapa temprana del condicionamiento. Tanto el phenibut como el Gaboxadol facilitaron el desarrollo de la inhibición condicionada, pero el efecto del gaboxadol ocurre en etapas tardías del condicionamiento y es menos estable que el del phenibut. Los efectos más estables y más tempranos del phenibut, en comparación con el gaboxadol, sobre el almacenaje en la memoria de la significación inhibitoria de un estímulo pueden deberse a que los receptores del GABAB tienen el papel dominante en el desarrollo de la inhibición interna durante la fase inicial del condicionamiento. Por otro lado esto puede deberse a que la participación de los receptores tanto del GABAA como del GABAB son esenciales para el proceso. Comentamos la multifuncionalidad de los receptores del GABA como función de su estructura y de las posiciones de las neuronas relevantes en el cerebro, dado que este factor puede afectar la regulación de varios tipos de procesos psicológicos (AU)
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  6 / 18 IBECS  
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Id: 133605
Autor: Espino, O; Sánchez-Curbelo, I; Ramírez, G. M.
Título: Reasoning with exceptive conditionals: the case of 'Except If' / Razonamiento con condicionales exceptivos: El caso de ôexcepto si''
Fonte: Psicológica (Valencia, Ed. impr.);36(1):99-122, 2015. tab.
Idioma: en.
Resumo: In this paper we outline a mental model theory (Johnson-Laird & Byrne, 1991, 2002) of reasoning about the conditional except if. We report two experiments showing that the exceptive conditional except if exerted certain forms of semantic modulation and determined the inferences that individuals draw in an inference task (Experiment 1) and in a truth table task (Experiment 2). In Experiment 1 we found that there were no reliable differences between the percentage of modus ponens and modus tollens with the conditional except if but that the differences were reliable with the conditional if not, then. In Experiment 2, participants selected the possibilities 'A & not-B' and 'not-A & B' more frequently than the possibilities 'A & B' and 'not-A & not-B' with the conditional 'B except if A', but they selected the possibility 'not-A & B' more frequently than other possibilities ('A & not-B', 'A & B', 'not-A & not-B') with the conditionals 'B if not-A' and 'if not-A, B'. The implications of these results are discussed in the context of recent psychological and linguistic theories in respect of the meaning of except if (AU)

En esta investigación presentamos una adaptación de la teoría de modelos mentales (Johnson-Laird & Byrne, 1991, 2002) que trata de explicar cómo las personas razonan con el condicional excepto si. Se realizaron dos experimentos que mostraron que el condicional exceptivo excepto si ejerce ciertos tipos de modulación semántica y determina las inferencias que los individuos elaboran en una tarea de inferencia (Experimento 1) y de tablas de verdad (Experimento 2). En el Experimento 1 encontramos que no hay diferencias entre el porcentaje de Modus Ponens y Modus Tollens en el condicional excepto si pero sí son significativas para el condicional si no, entonces. En el Experimento 2, los participantes seleccionaron más frecuentemente las posibilidades 'A y no-B' y 'no-A y B' que las posibilidades 'A y B' y 'no-A y no-B' en el condicional 'B excepto si A', mientras que con el condicional 'B si no A' y 'si no A, B' seleccionaron más frecuentemente la posibilidad 'no-A y B' que las otras posibilidades ('A y no-B', 'A y B', 'no-A y no-B'). Las implicaciones de estos resultados se discuten en el contexto de las teorías psicológicas y lingüísticas recientes referentes al significado de excepto si (AU)
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Id: 119647
Autor: Vila, Javier; López Romero, Luis; Alvarado, Angélica.
Título: La recuperación espontánea como un promedio dinámico de las experiencias anteriores el condicionamiento instrumental humano / Spontaneous Recovery as a Dynamic Average of Previous Experiences in Human Instrumental Conditioning
Fonte: Int. j. psychol. psychol. ther. (Ed. impr.);10(3):403-413, oct. 2010. tab, graf, ilus.
Idioma: es.
Resumo: this study proposes a model that can explains the spontaneous recovery (SR) in humans and it was derived from studies in animal foraging. In one experiment it was showed that SR observed after extinction can be interpreted as an integration of previous learning experiences. This model suggests that during SR the organisms made a dynamic average of experiences accounting them subjective value and temporal distance, according with the temporal weighting rule (TWR). The results showed that participants that learned an instrumental task in two phases (acquisition-extinction), after a retention interval (RI) chose the experience with a greater subjective value as a function of four values of the RI (0, 0.5, 1 and 24h) showing an recency-primacy effect according to the TWR. This study analyze how the TWR can predict the development and magnitude of SR in human learnig tasks, and discusses the implications of the present results for the study of SR (AU)

Se propone un modelo que explica la recuperación espontánea (RE) en humanos a partir de estudios en forrajeo con animales. En un experimento se demostró que la RE observada después de la extinción puede ser interpretada como una integración de las experiencias anteriores de aprendizaje. Se sugiere que en la RE los organismos realizan un promedio dinámico de las experiencias, de acuerdo con la Regla de Peso Temporal (RPT). Los resul- tados obtenidos mostraron que los participantes después de aprender una tarea instrumental en dos fases (adquisición-extinción) eligieron la experiencia con un mayor valor subjetivo después de un intervalo de retención IR en función de cuatro valores del intervalo (0, 0,5, 1 y 24h), mostrando un efecto recencia-primacia de acuerdo con la RPT. Se analiza como la RPT puede predecir el desarrollo y magnitud de la RE en tareas de aprendizaje con humanos, y se discuten las repercusiones de los resultados para el estudio de la RE (AU)
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Id: 116274
Autor: Meulders, Ann; Boddez, Yannick; Vansteenwegen, Debora; Baeyens, Frank.
Título: Unpredictability and context conditioning: does the nature of the US matter?
Fonte: Span. j. psychol;16(1):e46.1-e46.9, ene.-dic. 2013. ilus, tab.
Idioma: en.
Resumo: Using a conditioned suppression task, we examined the minimal conditions to establish context conditioning as induced by unpredictability of an unconditioned stimulus (US). We investigated whether a biologically significant US is necessary to produce such context conditioning effects. In this between-subjects experiment, we manipulated the nature of the US and US-unpredictability. In the Paired condition, the conditioned stimulus (CS) was always followed by the US, whereas in the Unpaired condition, the CS and the US were presented explicitly unpaired, that is, the CS was never followed by the US. Half of the participants received an aversive, biologically significant human scream, and the other half received a more neutral, biologically non-significant sound as US. Results show more contextual suppression in the Unpaired condition than in the Paired condition. We conclude that in an expectancy-based conditioning task, US-unpredictability, but not a biologically potent US, is crucial to establish context conditioning (AU)

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Texto completo SciELO Brasil
Id: 76369
Autor: Kamenetzky, Giselle Vanesa; Cuenya, Lucas; Pedrón, Valeria; Elisabeth Mustaca, Alba.
Título: Condicionamiento de lugar en ratas y etanol / Place conditioning in rats and ethanol
Fonte: Int. j. psychol. psychol. ther. (Ed. impr.);7(3):321-333, 2007. ilus.
Idioma: es.
Resumo: Uno de los procedimientos usados con animales no humanos para conocer el valor hedónicode las drogas es el condicionamiento de lugar (CL) en el cual se evalúa la preferencia oaversión hacia un contexto asociado previamente con una droga, inferido por el tiempode permanencia en ese lugar, en comparación con otro asociado a un vehículo (salina). Eneste trabajo informaremos sobre distintos aparatos, procedimientos, medidas dependientesutilizadas en el CL y los resultados principales hallados con el uso de etanol. Finalmentese presenta un experimento de CL con ratas en el cual se utilizó un diseño intra-intersujeto.Consistió en tres fases: (1) pre-test, preferencia de las ratas hacia dos contextos: lugarnegro (LN) y lugar blanco (LB); (2) condicionamiento, cada animal del grupo experimentalrecibió ensayos alternados de etanol (dosis 0.5 g/kg) asociados al contexto no preferidoy solución salina al preferido; los del grupo control, recibieron salina asociado a amboscontextos; (3) post-test igual al pre-test. En ambas pruebas se midió el tiempo de permanenciade las ratas en cada contexto. Los animales tratados con etanol revirtieron lapreferencia de lugar, mientras los del grupo salina no la modificaron. De este estudio seinfiere que bajo la dosis utilizada, el etanol tiene un valor hedónico positivo(AU)

One of the most common procedures used toassess the hedonic value of a drug is the conditioned place (CP) which explores thepreference or the aversion towards a previously drug paired context. In this paper wereport on the different apparatus, procedures and dependant measures used on CP and themain results found using ethanol. Finally we present a CP between-within subjects experimenton rats. The experiment consisted in three phases: (1) Pre-Test, we measured the animal'spreference towards both contexts black place (BP) and white place (WP); (2) Conditioning,each animal received ethanol (dose: 0.5g/kg, i.p.) paired with the non preferred contextand saline paired with the preferred context on alternate trials. A control group receivedvehicle in both contexts; (3) Post-Test same as pre-test. In both tests the time spent in eachcontext was measured. The ethanol treated group reversed its place preference, whereasthe saline group kept its initial preference. From this study we inferred that under thisdose, ethanol has a positive hedonic value(AU)
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  10 / 18 IBECS  
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Id: 72563
Autor: Rodríguez García, María Teresa; Pérez Fernández, Vicente; García García, Andrés; Bohórquez Zayas, Cristóbal; Gutiérrez Domínguez, María Teresa.
Título: Competencia entre estímulos condicionales propioceptivos y exteroceptivos en una tarea de discriminación condicional / Competence between propioceptive and exteroceptive conditional stimuli in a conditional discrimination task
Fonte: Psicothema (Oviedo);21(3):390-396, jul.-sept. 2009. ilus, graf.
Idioma: es.
Resumo: Se realizó un experimento con sujetos humanos de edades comprendidas entre los 7 y los 53 años en el que se utilizó un procedimiento de discriminación condicional con muestras compuestas formadas por estímulos exteroceptivos (figuras geométricas coloreadas) y propioceptivos (diferentes formas de señalar tales figuras). De esta forma, los sujetos fueron entrenados a emitir una conducta diferencial ante cada muestra y a elegir la comparación correcta. Posteriormente se evaluó la ejecución de los sujetos tanto en una discriminación condicional con muestra simple para cada uno de los componentes del anterior estímulo compuesto (sólo conducta y sólo figuras coloreadas) como mediante un procedimiento de competencia. Los resultados indicaron que los estímulos exteroceptivos adquirieron mayor control sobre la conducta de elección que los estímulos propioceptivos. Se discuten los resultados en relación con la importancia que la discriminación de la propia conducta puede tener en la génesis del control discriminativo bidireccional (AU)

An experiment was carried out with humans as subjects, aged between 7 and 53, in which a conditional discrimination procedure with compound samples made up by exteroceptive (colored geometric shapes) and proprioceptive stimuli (different ways of pointing at them) was used.Thus, subjects were trained to perform differently in the presence of each sample, and later to choose the correct comparison. They were then evaluated in a conditional discrimination with unitary samples for each one of the components of the previous compound stimulus (only behavior and only colored shapes). For this, a competition procedure was designed. Results showed that the exteroceptive stimuli exerted more influence over the chosen behavior than the proprioceptive stimuli. Results are discussed in relation to the importance that one's own behavior discrimination may have in the origins of bidirectional discriminative control (AU)
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