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Texto completo SciELO Espanha
Id: 192689
Autor: Arévalo Manso, Juan José; Diéguez de la Mata, Olga; Navarro Ruiz, Juan Ignacio; Gallardo Correa, María Jesús; Vega Méndez, Enrique.
Título: Próxima escasez de enfermeras en España: el problema del que no se habla / The coming shortage of nurses in Spain: an unnoticed problema
Fonte: Index enferm;28(4):235-239, oct.-dic. 2019. ilus, tab, graf.
Idioma: es.
Resumo: OBJETIVO PRINCIPAL: Estimar la diferencia entre la oferta y la demanda de enfermeras en España en 2020, 2030, 2040 y 2050. METODOLOGÍA: Se han utilizado las proyecciones de población total, de población mayor de 65 años y de población entre 15 y 64 años para los años 2020, 2030, 2040 y 2050 facilitadas por Eurostat. Se ha estimado la oferta y la demanda de enfermeras extrapolando las ratios de 2016 a las cifras de población proyectadas para esos años. Resultados principales: se estima que en España la diferencia entre oferta y demanda de enfermeras podría ser de +21.024 (en 2020), +4.724 (en 2030), -23.155 (en 2040) y -39.510 (en 2050). Conclusión principal: Nuestras estimaciones sugieren que a partir de 2030 podría producirse escasez de profesionales de enfermería en España. Actualmente, pese a existir suficientes profesionales, dicha escasez se manifiesta de forma puntual en algunos puntos del país

OBJECTIVE: to estimate the gap between the supply and demand of nurses in Spain for 2020, 2030, 2040 and 2050. METHODS: we used the last population projections for total population and two age groups (ages 15 to 64, and older than 64) by Eurostat. Nurses supply and demand was estimated by extrapolating the 2016 nurses/population ratios for 2020, 2030, 2040 and 2050. RESULTS: we have estimated a gap of nurses of +21.024 (2020), +4.724 (2030), -23.155 (2040) and -39.510 (2050). CONCLUSIONS: These figures suggets that there may be a shortage of nurses in Spain from 2030. However, despite there are currently enough professionals, sometimes there is a shortage of nurses in certain areas in Spain
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Id: 192454
Autor: Segredo Pérez, Alina María.
Título: Desarrollo organizacional. Una mirada desde el ámbito académico / Organisational DEVELOPMENT: A view from the academic field
Fonte: Educ. med. (Ed. impr.);17(1):3-8, ene.-mar. 2016.
Idioma: es.
Resumo: La sociedad moderna está obligada a competir dentro de un mercado cuya dinámica está pautada fundamentalmente por el desarrollo vertiginoso de la ciencia y la técnica. La clave de una gestión acertada en las organizaciones educacionales, fundamentalmente en los sistemas de salud, está en las personas que participan en ella; en la actualidad, los altos niveles de competitividad exigen nuevas formas de compromiso, de ver los hechos, de decidir y dirigir, de pensar y sentir, así como de gestionar las relaciones humanas en las organizaciones de una forma más efectiva. Los estudios del capital humano en la gestión académica cada vez cobran mayor importancia y están encaminados a hacer más eficientes los sistemas y procesos de gestión, ya que de esta forma se impulsa el rendimiento y desarrollo de la organización educacional. Por lo antes expuesto, es que este trabajo tiene el objetivo de reflexionar sobre el desarrollo organizacional dando una mirada desde el ámbito académico y destacando el papel que desempeña el capital humano en las organizaciones. Se concluye que la gestión del capital humano para el desarrollo organizacional en educación médica es necesario en busca del logro de una mayor calidad y pertinencia de los procesos que lleva a cabo la institución, lo que se convierte en condición indispensable en el mundo actual. En estos tiempos cambiantes en que los valores evolucionan rápidamente y los recursos se vuelven escasos, cada vez es más necesario comprender aquello que influye sobre el rendimiento de las personas en el trabajo

Modern society is forced to compete in a market in which the dynamics are mainly driven by the rapid development of science and technology. The key to successful management in educational organisations, primarily in the health system, is in the people who participate in it. At present, high levels of competitiveness require new forms of commitment; to see the facts, to decide and direct, of thinking and feeling, and for managing human relations in organisations more effectively. Studies of human capital in academic management are becoming increasingly important and are directed at streamlining the management systems and processes, and as such boost the performance and development of the educational organisation. Taking into account the above, this work aims to reflect on the role of human capital in the academic management for the development of the organization. Concluding that the human capital management for organisational development in medical education is necessary in pursuit of achieving greater quality and relevance of the processes carried out by the institution, which are indispensable in the modern world. In these changing times in which values are evolving rapidly and resources become scarce, it is increasingly necessary to understand what influences the performance of people at work
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Id: 192072
Autor: Chinelato, Renata Silva de Carvalho; Tavares, Susana Maria de Oliveira e Mota; Ferreira, Maria Cristina; Valentini, Felipe.
Título: The effect of perception of organizational politics on professionals' engagement: the moderating role of the psychological safety climate / Percepción de las políticas organizacionales, clima de seguridad psicológica y compromiso con el trabajo: Un análisis cruzado usando modelos jerárquicos lineales
Fonte: An. psicol;36(2):348-360, mayo 2020. tab, graf.
Idioma: en.
Resumo: The purpose of this research was to empirically test the hypothesis that the organizational psychological safety climate and the perception of organizational politics predict the extent to which employees feel engaged in their work. Using hierarchical linear modeling and data collected from 1,244 employees in 64 organizations, organizational level psychological safety climate and employee-level perception of organizational politics predicted employee work engagement. There was also significant cross-level interaction, so that the negative effect of the perception of organizational politics was amplified in organizations with a positive psychological safety climate. In other words, organizational psychological safety benefits the work engagement of individuals more when they perceive the existence of low organizational politics. The results offer insight into the mechanisms by which the perceived organizational context may influence employees' work engagement and highlight the importance for the perceived organizational consistency in the promotion of work engagement within their organization. Human Resource professionals and managers should promote frequent meetings with the workers and apply other practices that can boost a safe climate for the employees

El propósito de esta investigación fue probar empíricamente la hipótesis de que el clima de seguridad psicológica de la organización y la percepción de las políticas de la organización predicen hasta qué punto los empleados se sienten comprometidos con su trabajo. El uso de modelos jerárquicos lineales y los datos recopilados de 1,244 empleados en 64 organizaciones mostraron que el clima de seguridad psicológica a nivel organizativo y la percepción de la política organizacional a nivel de los empleados predijo el compromiso con el trabajo de los empleados. También hubo una inesperada interacción significativa entre los niveles, de modo que el efecto negativo de la percepción de las políticas organizacionales se amplificó en organizaciones con un clima de seguridad psicológica positivo. En otras palabras, la seguridad psicológica organizacional beneficia más el compromiso de los individuos cuando ellos perciben la existencia de políticas organizacionales bajas. Los resultados ofrecen información sobre los mecanismos por los cuales el contexto organizativo percibido puede influir en el compromiso laboral de los empleados y resaltar la importancia de la coherencia organizativa percibida en la promoción del compromiso laboral dentro de su organización
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Id: 191836
Autor: Flores-Domínguez, Carmina; Meraz Avila, Diego; Benardete Harari, Denise Niza.
Título: La mujer en la medicina del siglo XXI / Women in 21st century's medicine
Fonte: Educ. med. (Ed. impr.);20(5):325-328, sept.-oct. 2019.
Idioma: es.
Resumo: El número de mujeres que estudian medicina ha ido incrementando del 6 al casi 50% en los últimos 20 años, siguen siendo pocas las que llegan a ocupar puestos de alta responsabilidad y toma de decisiones, ya que se enfrentan a problemáticas sociales, culturales y personales, la inclusión de la mujer al mercado laboral ha hecho que la discriminación de género se transforme en una forma indirecta y discreta. Las mujeres han desarrollado mejores y más eficientes vías de comunicación con pares, pacientes y familiares, lo cual hace que las instituciones con mujeres al mando, mejoren sus relaciones y su eficiencia en relaciones públicas. Las mujeres líderes aseguran a las generaciones más jóvenes que lo han logrado gracias a 3 actitudes: excelencia académica personal, trabajo duro y cuidado al construir su femineidad en un entorno hostil. Para conseguir que la integración total del género femenino sea posible, es necesario que los involucrados en la formación de recursos humanos en salud, así como las instituciones busquen eliminar los obstáculos a los que se puede enfrentar. La resiliencia y el cambio de políticas son lo que podrá ayudar al posicionamiento de las mujeres en posiciones de liderazgo

The number of women studying Medicine has been increasing from 6 to almost 50% in the last 20 years. However, only a few of these women can achieve high responsibility positions and decision making, in the clinical and academic area, since they face social, cultural, and personal problems. Nowadays women have developed better and more efficient ways of communicating with peers, patients and family members, which means that institutions with women in charge improve relations and efficiency in public relations. Women leaders assure younger generations that they have achieved it thanks to three attitudes: personal academic excellence, hard work and care in building their femininity in a hostile environment. In order to achieve total integration of the feminine gender, it is still necessary that those involved in the training of human resources in health, as well as the Institutions, look forward to eliminating the obstacles that may be faced. Although the outlook may seem daunting, it is precisely resilience and policy change that may help to position women in leadership positions, eliminate biases and ideologies to prepare for the very near future
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Id: 190203
Autor: Vázquez, José Juan; Panadero, Sonia; Isabel Pascua, Isabel.
Título: The particularly vulnerable situation of women living homeless in Madrid (Spain)
Fonte: Span. j. psychol;22:e52.1-e52.9, 2019. tab.
Idioma: en.
Resumo: People in homeless situation are one of the major embodiments of the phenomenon of social exclusion, and women living homeless are considered a particularly vulnerable group. This paper examines different variables that may affect the situation of vulnerability experienced by women living homeless in Madrid (Spain). The study was carried out using data obtained from a representative sample of homeless men in Madrid (n = 158) and a sample of homeless women in Madrid of a similar size (n = 138). The information was gathered using a structured interview in shelters or other facilities for people in a homeless situation, on the street and in other places not initially designed for sleeping. The results show that woman living homeless are highly vulnerable compared to the domiciled population and, in some respects, to homeless men as well, especially in the number of times homeless (χ2 = 10.314; p < .01), in the time working with a contract and/or self-employed (t = 5.754; p < .001), and in the use of sedatives (χ2= 14.741; p < .001). It is however noted that homeless women show in some aspects greater strengths than homeless men. Such strengths could serve as a supporting point for their social inclusion processes. The analysis of issues that differentiate women in a homeless situation from their male counterparts could be useful for developing public policies and care resources adapted to the specific characteristics and needs of women living homeless

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Id: 190189
Autor: González-Suhr, Carolina; Salgado, Sergio; Elgueta, Herman; Alcover, Carlos-María.
Título: Does visual aesthetics of the workplace matter? analyzing the assessment of visual aesthetics as antecedent of affective commitment and job crafting
Fonte: Span. j. psychol;22:e38.1-e38.12, 2019. tab, graf.
Idioma: en.
Resumo: In this work, two objectives were addressed. First, the visual aesthetics assessment of the workplace was explored for the first time as a potential antecedent of the proactive behaviors of job crafting. Second, the potential mediating role of the affective organizational commitment in this relationship was analyzed. To address these purposes, a field study was conducted with a sample of 428 workers. Following a set of hypotheses, the results of the measurement model, χ2 (df) = 494.288 (215); CFI = .920; TLI = .906; RMSEA = .066, showed that the visual aesthetics assessment of the workplace was significantly correlated with three of the four dimensions of job crafting (r = .19 with ISO-JR, r = .15 with IC-JD and; r = .17 with IST-JR; p < .001) and with affective organizational commitment (r = .27, p < .001). In addition, through a structural equation model, χ2(df) = 494.895 (219); CFI = .921; TLI = .909; RMSEA = .065, positive and significant indirect effects were found from the visual aesthetic assessment of the workplace to the same three dimensions of job crafting, all through the affective organizational commitment: .17 with ISO-JR, .25 with IC-JD and, .23 with IST-JR; 95% CI [.097, .276], [.161, .361] and [.161, .361], respectively. The results obtained provide useful evidence for researchers and managers about the value of providing an aesthetically satisfactory workplace, which would enhance the affective commitment of employees and, consequently, positively affect the proactive behaviors of job crafting

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Id: 190185
Autor: Crespo, María; Guillén, Ana Isabel; Piccini, Ana Teresa.
Título: Work experience and emotional state in caregivers of elderly relatives
Fonte: Span. j. psychol;22:e34.1-e34.11, 2019. tab.
Idioma: en.
Resumo: This study aims to investigate the influence of work experience variables on the emotional state of worker-caregivers based on stress process model. The emotional state (depression, negative and positive affect and worry-strain), caregiver and care recipient features, caregiving stressors and appraisal, and role strains/work-related variables were assessed in 83 worker-caregivers of elderly dependent relatives. Hierarchical multiple linear regression analyses were performed for each of the four emotional outcome variables. Caregiving overload and positive job experience were the best predictors of depression and positive affect. The predictors of negative affect were reaction to memory and behavior problems, overload and role captivity. The predictors of worry and strain were daily hours of caregiving worries, reaction to memory and behavior problems, overload, role captivity and job-caregiving conflicts. The explained variances for the four models were 58.8%, 40.2%, 62.9% and 78.8%, respectively; the role strain contributions were 8.2%, 13.2%, 7.2% and 6%. The results indicate that the effect of perceived job experiences on caregivers' emotional status is more relevant than objective job conflicts. In addition, caregivers' emotional state is primarily related to the subjective indicators of caregiving stressors, with a lower contribution of work-related variables

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Id: 190040
Autor: Paredes, Borja; Santos, David; Olmo, Samuel Del; Gandarillas, Beatriz; Briñol, Pablo.
Título: La evaluación de candidatos en un proceso de selección de personal: Preferencia por la experiencia sobre el potencial en contextos desfavorables / The evaluation of candidates in a personnel selection: Preference for experience over potential in unfavorable contexts
Fonte: An. psicol;35(3):514-520, oct. 2019. graf.
Idioma: es.
Resumo: La presente investigación tiene como objeto averiguar cómo se responde a distintos perfiles en la evaluación de candidatos de selección en función de contexto organizacional. Se realizó un experimento con una muestra de participantes capacitados en selección de personal. Los participantes recibieron primero un mensaje que describía que el futuro de una organización dada era favorable o desfavorable. Luego, se les pidió a todos los participantes que leyeran la información sobre un posible candidato para dicha organización. El candidato fue descrito en términos de su experiencia previa o en términos de su potencial como profesional. Después de recibir la información sobre la organización y el perfil, se pidió a todos los participantes que evaluaran al candidato para el puesto. Esperábamos que hubiera una mayor preferencia por la experiencia en relación con el potencial, particularmente cuando el contexto era desfavorable. Como se predijo, los resultados mostraron que, en condiciones contextuales desfavorables, las actitudes hacia el candidato fueron más favorables cuando el candidato de trabajo fue presentado en términos de experiencia (vs potencial). En condiciones contextuales favorables, las actitudes hacia el candidato no variaron en función de su perfil

The present research's main goal is to examine the evaluation of a job candidate as a function of his profile and the context of the organization. An experiment was conducted with a sample of participants trained in personnel selection. Participants first received a message describing that the future of a given organization was favorable or unfavorable. Then, all participants were asked to read the information about a potential job candidate for such organization. The candidate was described in terms of his previous experience or in terms of his potential as a professional. After receiving the information about the organization and the profile, all participants were asked to evaluate the job candidate. We expected that there would be a higher preference for experience relative to potential, particularly when the context was unfavorable. As predicted, results showed that under unfavorable contextual conditions, attitudes towards the candidate were more favorable when the job candidate was portrayed in terms of experience (vs potential). Under favorable contextual conditions, attitudes towards the candidate did not vary as a function of his profile
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Id: 190038
Autor: Zúñiga, Diana Carolina; Aguado Garcia, David; Rodriguez Barroso, Jesus; Miguel Calvo, Jesus Maria de.
Título: Ética del trabajo en Ecuador: un análisis de las diferencias en cuatro cohortes generacionales / Work Ethic: analysis of differences between four generational cohorts
Fonte: An. psicol;35(3):496-505, oct. 2019. tab.
Idioma: es.
Resumo: Las organizaciones enfrentan el reto de gestionar una fuerza laboral multigeneracional con características propias que difieren en el valor que le otorgan al trabajo. La incorporación al mercado laboral de las generaciones más jóvenes hace imprescindible el estudio de sus diferentes actitudes hacia el trabajo en comparación con las generaciones antecesoras. El propósito de esta investigación fue analizar a través del constructo de la Ética Protestante las diferencias existentes en las actitudes hacia el trabajo de cuatro generaciones (Baby Boomers, Generación X, Generación Y, y Generación Z). La muestra de 624 participantes ecuatorianos (BB 11.2%; GX 11.2%, GY 58.5% y GZ 19.1%) se agrupó por cohortes. Se aplicó el Cuestionario Multidimensional Ética del Trabajo (MWEP). Los resultados mostraron que los BB y la GX tiene una mayor creencia sobre la importancia del trabajo y más tolerancia a la utilización improductiva del tiempo de trabajo que las generaciones Y y Z. En el aplazamiento de las recompensas la GZ muestra puntuaciones superiores a las obtenidas por los BB, GX y GY. No se encuentran diferencias significativas en las dimensiones de autoconfianza, ocio y moralidad-ética

Enterprises face the challenge of managing a multigenerational workforce which has its characteristics that differ in the value they grant to work. Incorporation of younger generations into the labour market requires to study all their attitudes towards work, contrasting them with previous generations. The purpose of this research was to analyse, through the Protestant Ethic construct, the differences of four age groups in attitudes towards work (Baby Boomers, Generation X, Generation Y, and Generation Z). Cohorts grouped the sample of 624 Ecuadorians (BB 11.2%; Gen X 11.2%, Gen Y 58.5% and Gen Z 19.1%). The Multidimensional Work Ethic Profile (MWEP) was applied. The results showed that BB and Gen X believe more in the importance of work than generations Y and Z. At the same time, BB and Gen X are more tolerant to the unproductive use of time than generations Y and Z. Gen Z has higher scores than BB, Gen X and Gen Y in the postponement of rewards dimension. Besides, there are no meaningful differences in self-reliance, leisure and morality/ethics dimensions
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Id: 189167
Autor: Sora, Beatriz; Caballer, Amparo; García-Buades, Esther.
Título: Validation of a short form of job crafting scale in a Spanish sample
Fonte: Span. j. psychol;21:e51.1-e51.13, 2018. tab.
Idioma: en.
Resumo: Applications of job crafting are widespread in the professional practice. In an attempt to measure this phenomenon, Tims, Bakker and Derks (2012) developed a Job Crafting Scale based on the Job Demand-Resources model (JD-R) and validated it in a Dutch sample. However, its application to other cultural contexts presented some difficulties. The present work aimed to validate a shorter version of scale by Tims et al. (2012) in a Spanish sample (n = 1,647). The data were randomly split in two independent subsamples (Sample 1: Explorative; Sample 2: Confirmative). The exploratory factor analysis showed a three-factor structure. Through a confirmatory factor analysis, the four-dimensionality structure of the original scale was replicated. In fact, the four-factor solution presented better goodness of fit indices than the alternative one-factor model, χ2(48) = 192.70, p < .01; AGFI = .94; NNFI = .93; RMR = .05; RMSEA = .06. Alpha reliabilities were acceptable for increasing structural job resources (α = .75), decreasing hindering job demands (α = .64), increasing social job resources (α = .78) and increasing challenging job demands (α = .77). Convergent validity was appropriate for three of the four dimensions, because each construct's AVE were around .50 and each construct's Composite Reliability were around .70. Decreasing hindering job demands presented more limited values (CR = .65; AVE = .40). In addition, the four job crafting dimensions presented significant correlations with job performance (range -.09 to .42) and personal growth (ranging from -.09 to .45). Finally, the squared correlations between factors were lower than the square root of AVE, which confirmed discriminant validity

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