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Texto completo SciELO Chile
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Id: lil-774433
Autor: Zúñiga-González, Paz; Zúñiga, Gustavo E; Pizarro, Marisol; Casanova-Katny, Angélica.
Título: Soluble carbohydrate content variation in Sanionia uncinata and Polytrichastrum alpinum, two Antarctic mosses with contrasting desiccation capacities
Fonte: Biol. Res;49:1-9, 2016. ilus, graf.
Idioma: en.
Projeto: FONDECYT; . INACH FR; . FONDECYT.
Resumo: BACKGROUND: Cryptogamic vegetation dominates the ice-free areas along the Antarctic Peninsula. The two mosses Sanionia uncinata and Polytrichastrum alpinum inhabit soils with contrasting water availability. Sanionia uncinata grows in soil with continuous water supply, while P. alpinum grows in sandy, non-flooded soils. Desiccation and rehydration experiments were carried out to test for differences in the rate of water loss and uptake, with non-structural carbohydrates analysed to test their role in these processes. RESULTS: Individual plants of S. uncinata lost water 60 % faster than P. alpinum; however, clumps of S. uncinata took longer to dry than those of P. alpinum (11 vs. 5 h, respectively). In contrast, rehydration took less than 10 min for both mosses. Total non-structural carbohydrate content was higher in P. alpinum than in S. uncinata, but sugar levels changed more in P. alpinum during desiccation and rehydration (60-50 %) when compared to S. uncinata. We report the presence of galactinol (a precursor of the raffinose family) for the first time in P. alpinum. Galactinol was present at higher amounts than all other non-structural sugars. CONCLUSIONS: Individual plants of S. uncinata were not able to retain water for long periods but by growing and forming carpets, this species can retain water the longest. In contrast individual P. alpinum plants required more time to lose water than S. uncinata, but as moss cushions they suffered desiccation faster than the later. On the other hand, both species rehydrated very quickly. We found that when both mosses lost 50 % of their water, carbohydrates content remained stable and the plants did not accumulate non-structural carbohydrates during the desiccation prosses as usually occurs in vascular plants. The raffinose family oligosaccarides decreased during desiccation, and increased during rehydration, suggesting they function as osmoprotectors.
Descritores: Bryopsida/metabolismo
Metabolismo dos Carboidratos/fisiologia
Carboidratos/análise
Água/metabolismo
-Análise de Variância
Regiões Antárticas
Desidratação
Dissacarídeos/análise
Células Germinativas Vegetais
Fatores de Tempo
Água/análise
Responsável: CL1.1 - Biblioteca Central


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Texto completo SciELO Costa Rica
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Id: lil-715436
Autor: Vargas, Isabel Beatriz de; Droste, Annette.
Título: In vitro propagation of Cyathea atrovirens (Cyatheaceae): spore storage and sterilization conditions / Propagación in vitro de Cyathea atrovirens (Cyatheaceae): almacenamiento de esporas y condiciones de esterilización
Fonte: Rev. biol. trop;62(1):359-368, ene.-mar. 2014. tab.
Idioma: en.
Resumo: Cyathea atrovirens occurs in a wide range of habitats in Brazil, Paraguay, Uruguay and Argentina. In the Brazilian State of Rio Grande do Sul, this commonly found species is a target of intense exploitation, because of its ornamental characteristics. The in vitro cultura is an important tool for propagation which may contribute toward the reduction of extractivism. However, exogenous contamination of spores is an obstacle for the success of aseptic long-term cultures. This study evaluated the influence of different sterilization methods combined with storage conditions on the contamination of the in vitro cultures and the gametophytic development of C. atrovirens, in order to establish an efficient propagation protocol. Spores were obtained from plants collected in Novo Hamburgo, State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. In the first experiment, spores stored at 7oC were surface sterilized with 0.5, 0.8 and 2% of sodium hypochlorite (NaClO) for 15 minutes and sown in Meyer's culture medium. The cultures were maintained in a growth room at 26±1ºC for a 12-h photoperiod and photon flux density of 100μmol/m²/s provided by cool white fluorescent light. Contamination was assessed at 60 days, and gametophytic development was scored at 30, 60, 120 and 130 days of in vitro culture, analyzing 300 individuals for each treatment. There was no significant difference in culture contamination among the different sodium hypochlorite concentrations tested, and all treatments allowed for the development of cordiform gametophytes at 130 days of culture. In the second experiment, spores stored at 7 and -20°C were divided into two groups. Half of the spores were surface sterilized with 2% of NaClO for 15 minutes and the other half was not sterilized. All spores were sown in Meyer's medium supplemented with one of the following antibiotics: nystatin, Micostatin® and actidione. The culture conditions and the procedures used for evaluating contamination and gametophytic development were the same described for the first experiment. No contamination was observed in spores stored at -20°C and treated with NaClO and actidione. In all treatments, cordiform gametophytes presenting antheridia were observed at 120 days. The percentages of these gametophytes increased from 120 to 130 days and no significant differences were observed among treatments. Archegonia were observed on cordiform gametophytes at 130 days. The findings provide data relevant to in vitro propagation procedures of this species, which may increase the availability of plants for ornamental purposes, therefore contributing to the reduction of the exploitation of endangered tree ferns species. Rev. Biol. Trop. 62 (1): 299-308. Epub 2014 March 01.

Cyathea atrovirens (Langsd. & Fisch.) Domin (Cyatheaceae) se presenta en una amplia gama de hábitats en Brasil, Paraguay, Uruguay y Argentina. Debido a sus características ornamentales, la especie es objeto de intensa explotación. El cultivo in vitro es una herramienta importante para la propagación lo que puede contribuir a la reducción del impacto de las actividades extractivas. Sin embargo, la contaminación exógena de esporas es un obstáculo para el éxito de cultivos asépticos a largo plazo. Este estudio evaluó la influencia de diferentes métodos de esterilización en combinación con las condiciones de almacenamiento sobre la contaminación de los cultivos in vitro y el desarrollo gametofítico de C. atrovirens. En el primer experimento, las esporas almacenadas a 7°C se esterilizaron superficialmente con 0.5, 0.8 y 2% de hipoclorito de sodio (NaClO) durante 15 minutos y se sembraron en medio de cultivo de Meyer. Aunque no hubo diferencia en la contaminación de lós cultivos entre las concentraciones de hipoclorito de sodio de las diferentes pruebas, en el tratamiento con 2% NaClO se observó un mayor porcentaje de gametofitos cordiformes a los 130 días. En el segundo experimento, las esporas almacenadas a 7 y -20°C fueron divididas en dos grupos. La mitad de las esporas se esterilizaron con 2% de NaClO durante 15 minutos y la otra mitad no fue esterilizada. Todas las esporas se sembraron en medio de Meyer suplementado con uno de los siguientes antibióticos: nistatina, Micostatin® o actidiona. No se observó contaminación de las esporas almacenadas a -20°C y tratadas con NaClO y actidiona. En todos los tratamientos, se observaron gametofitos cordiformes con anteridios y arquegonios. Los resultados proporcionan datos relevantes para la propagación in vitro de C. atrovirens, que pueden aumentar la disponibilidad de las plantas para fines ornamentales, contribuyendo así a la reducción de la exploración de las especies de helechos arborescentes en peligro de extinción.
Descritores: Gleiquênias/crescimento & desenvolvimento
Células Germinativas Vegetais/crescimento & desenvolvimento
Germinação/fisiologia
Esterilização/métodos
-Meios de Cultura
Gleiquênias/classificação
Gleiquênias/efeitos dos fármacos
Células Germinativas Vegetais/efeitos dos fármacos
Germinação/efeitos dos fármacos
Esporos/crescimento & desenvolvimento
Fatores de Tempo
Tipo de Publ: Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Responsável: CR1.1 - BINASSS - Biblioteca Nacional de Salud y Seguridad Social


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Texto completo SciELO Chile
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Id: lil-668694
Autor: Gan, Xiaohong; Xie, Dan; Cao, Lingling.
Título: Sporogenesis and development of gametophytes in an endangered plant, Tetracentron sinense Oliv
Fonte: Biol. Res;45(4):393-398, 2012. ilus.
Idioma: en.
Projeto: fund of natural science of education department, Sichuan Province, China; . National Natural Science Fund of China.
Resumo: The sporogenesis and development of gametophytes in Tetracentron sinense Oliv. were studied with light microscopy. The anther has four microsporangia; its primary anther wall consists of an epidermis, an endothecium, one or two middle layers and one glandular tapetum. Simultaneous cytokinesis follows meiosis, forming a tetrahedral tetrad. Mature pollen grains are two-celled at the time of anther dehiscence. Its ovule is anatropous, bitegmic and crassinucellate; the development of the female gametophyte is of the monosporic 8-nucleate Polygonum type. Significantly, some striking features were first found in T. sinense: (1) anther dehiscence occurs soon after the endothecium fibrously thickens and the intersporangial septum degenerates; (2) tapetum degeneration is retarded, persisting up to the stage of two-celled pollen grain; (3) a few cellular events such as the vacuolization and the contraction and deformation of the pollen mother cell (PMC) and microspore are not normal at the PMC, dyad and tetrad stages. The abnormalities during male reproduction might be one of important factors resulting in the poor natural regeneration of T. sinense.
Descritores: Magnoliopsida/embriologia
Gametogênese Vegetal/fisiologia
Células Germinativas Vegetais/crescimento & desenvolvimento
Pólen/embriologia
-Magnoliopsida/citologia
Células Germinativas Vegetais/citologia
Reprodução/fisiologia
Tipo de Publ: Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Responsável: CL1.1 - Biblioteca Central


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Texto completo SciELO Costa Rica
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Id: lil-657824
Autor: Martinez, Alicia E; Chiocchio, Viviana; Tai Em, Lo; Rodriguez, María A; Godeas, Alicia M.
Título: Mycorrhizal association in gametophytes and sporophytes of the fern Pteris vittata (Pteridaceae) with Glomus intraradices
Fonte: Rev. biol. trop;60(2):857-865, June 2012. ilus.
Idioma: en.
Resumo: Ferns, which are usually colonizing different environments and their roots frequently present mycorrhization, have two adult stages in their life cycle, the sporophytic and the gametophytic phase. This paper describes the experimental mycorrhizal association between Pteris vittata leptosporangiate fern and a strain of Glomus intraradices during the life cycle of the fern, from spore germination to the development of a mature sporophyte. The aim of this study was to compare the colonization pattern of in vitro cultures of G. intraradices along the fern life cycle with those found in nature. For this, mature spores were obtained from fertile P. vittata fronds growing in walls of Buenos Aires city, Argentina. Roots were stained and observed under the light microscope for arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization. Approximately, 75 fern spores were cultured in each pot filled with a sterile substrate and G. intraradices (BAFC N° 51.331) as inoculum on the surface. After germination took place, samples were taken every 15 days until the fern cycle was completed. In order to determine colonization dynamics each sample was observed under optical and confocal microscope after staining. Gametophyte was classified as Adiantum type. Male and female gametangia were limited to the lower face, mycorrhizal colonization started when they were differentiated and took place through the rhizoids. Spores and vesicles were not found in this cycle stage. Paris-type mycorrhizal colonization was established in the midrib and in the embrionary foot. It was colonized by external mycelium. When the first root was developed soil inoculum colonized de novo this structure and Arum-type colonization was observed. This study proves that the type of colonization is determined by the structure of the host, not by the fungus. Both the gametophyte and embryo foot have determined growth and Paris-type colonization, while, sporophyte roots have undetermined growth and Arum-type colonization. The structures found in vitro cultures were highly similar to those found under natural conditions. Rev. Biol. Trop. 60 (2): 857-865. Epub 2012 June 01.

Los helechos presentan dos etapas en su ciclo de vida, una fase esporofítica y una gametofítica. Estos por lo general pueden colonizar diferentes ambientes y frecuentemente presentan raíces micorrizadas. Este estudio describe la asociación experimental entre Pteris vittata, un helecho leptosporangiado y una cepa de Glomus intraradices durante el ciclo de vida del helecho, desde la germinación de las esporas hasta el desarrollo del esporofito maduro. El objetivo de este estudio fue comparar los patrones de colonización de G. intraradices a lo largo de todo el ciclo de vida del helecho con los tipos encontrados en la naturaleza. Las esporas maduras fueron obtenidas de frondes fértiles de P. vittata que crecen sobre las paredes de la ciudad de Buenos Aires, Argentina. Las raíces se tiñeron y fueron observadas bajo microscopio óptico para el estudio de la colonización micorrízica. Aproximadamente 75 esporas de helecho se cultivaron en macetas con un sustrato estéril y con un inóculo de G. intraradices (N° 51.331 BAFC) en la superficie. Después de la germinación, se tomaron muestras cada 15 días hasta que se completó el ciclo de vida del helecho. Con el fin de determinar la dinámica de la colonización, cada muestra se observó con el microscopio óptico y el microscopio de confocal luego de la tinción correspondiente. El gametofito fue clasificado como del tipo “Adiantum”. Los gametangios femeninos y masculinos se desarrollaron en la cara inferior del mismo. La micorrización comenzó cuando los gametangios estaban ya diferenciados y la colonización se produjo a través de los rizoides. Las esporas y las vesículas no se encontraron en esta fase del ciclo. La micorrizacion tipo Paris se observó sobre la línea de la nervadura central. El pie del esporofito fue colonizado por el micelio externo. Cuando la raíz se desarrolló, se colonizó “de novo”, y se observó una colonización de tipo Arum. Este estudio demuestra que el tipo de colonización está determinado por la estructura del helecho y no por el hongo. Tanto el gametofito como el pie del embrión tienen crecimiento definido y colonización tipo Paris, mientras que las raíces del esporofito presentan un crecimiento indeterminado y una colonización tipo Arum. Las estructuras que se encontraron bajo cultivo coinciden con las que se encontraron en condiciones naturales.
Descritores: Glomeromycota/fisiologia
Micorrizas/fisiologia
Pteris/microbiologia
-Células Germinativas Vegetais/microbiologia
Esporos
Tipo de Publ: Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Responsável: CR1.1 - BINASSS - Biblioteca Nacional de Salud y Seguridad Social


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Texto completo SciELO Costa Rica
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Id: lil-637810
Autor: Martínez, Olga G.
Título: Gametófitos y esporófitos jóvenes de cuatro especies de helechos del género Pteris (Pteridaceae) naturalizadas en América
Fonte: Rev. biol. trop;58(1):89-102, mar. 2010. ilus, tab.
Idioma: es.
Resumo: Gametophytes and young sporophytes of four species of the fern genus Pteris (Pteridaceae) naturalized in the American continent. The pantropical fern genus Pteris L. has about 250 species of which 60 occur in the American continent. We studied the morphogenesis of the gametophyte, and the morphology of the young sporophytes of four species: P. cretica, P. ensiformis, P. multifida and P.vittata, together with a palynological analysis that includes the ability of spores to germinate. Gametophytes were obtained trough in vitro culture techniques with agar-gellified Knudson medium. Young sporophytes were placed in earth-sand (3:1) sterile substrate. We used light and SEM microscopy. Triletes spores predominate, but monolete, tetralete, and other types of apertura are often found. The viability of spores is not affected by the variation, so the term spore polymorphism is applied to the condition occurring among these species. Spore polymorphism is similar in P. cretica and P. multifida. Germination occurs following the Vittaria type, 3-7 days after the sowing. Filamentous, 3-5 celled gametophytes were found in P. cretica, P. multifida and P. vittata, and 7-9 celled in P. ensiformis. Development of gametophytes takes place following Adiantum type and eratopteris type. The symmetry of the laminae differ in gametophytes, those of P. ensiformis and P. multifida are similar and differ from the other two species, P. cretica and P. vittata. Gametophytes of P. ensiformis, P. multifida and P. vittata are bisexual and protandric, while male gametophytes were found in P. cretica. Antheridia correspond to the common leptosporangiate type; they are cylindric in P. vittata and ovoid in the other three species. Archegonia necks have 4 rows of 4 cells each. The sporophytes complete their development 3 months after sowing, and have indument close to the adult plants. P. cretica shows obligated apogamy. Rev. Biol. Trop. 58 (1): 89-102. Epub 2010 March 01.

El género pantropical Pteris L. tiene 250 especies de la cuales 60 están en el continente Americano. Se estudió la morfogénesis de los gametófitos, y la morfología de los esporófitos jóvenes de cuatro especies: P. cretica, P. ensiformis, P. multifida y P.vittata, junto con un análisis palinológico que incluye la capacidad de las esporas de germinar. Los gametófitos se obtuvieron mediante técnicas de cultivo in vitro. Los esporófitos jóvenes se trasladaron a sustrato estéril de tierra y arena (3:1). Se usó el microscopio de luz y el de barrido (SEM). Se encontraron esporas con diferentes tipos de aperturas. La germinación ocurre entre 3-7 días y corresponde al tipo Vittaria. Se encontraron gametófitos filamentosos formados por 3-5 células en P. cretica, P. multifida y P. vittata y por 7-9 células en P. ensiformis. El desarrollo gametofítico ocurre de dos formas: tipo Adiantum y tipo Ceratopteris. Los gametófitos de P. ensiformis, P. multifida y P. vittata son monoicos y protándricos. P. cretica desarrolla gametófitos anteridiados. Los anteridios corresponden al tipo común de los helechos leptosporangiados, son cilíndricos en P. vittata y ovoides en las otras tres especies. Los cuellos de los arquegonios tienen 4 hileras con 4 células cada una. Los esporófitos se desarrollan después de los 3 meses de su siembra y su indumento es semejante a las plantas adultas. P. cretica presenta apogamia obligada.
Descritores: Células Germinativas Vegetais/crescimento & desenvolvimento
Germinação/fisiologia
Pteris/fisiologia
Esporos/crescimento & desenvolvimento
-Células Germinativas Vegetais/ultraestrutura
Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura
Pteris/classificação
Pteris/ultraestrutura
Esporos/ultraestrutura
Tipo de Publ: Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Responsável: CR1.1 - BINASSS - Biblioteca Nacional de Salud y Seguridad Social


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Texto completo SciELO Brasil
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Id: lil-570543
Autor: Rechenmacher, C; Schmitt, JL; Droste, A.
Título: Spore germination and gametophyte development of Cyathea atrovirens (Langsd. & Fisch.) Domin (Cyatheaceae) under different pH conditions / Germinação de esporos e desenvolvimento gametofítico de Cyathea atrovirens (Langsd. & Fisch.) Domin sob diferentes condições de pH
Fonte: Braz. j. biol;70(4,supl.0):1155-1160, Dec. 2010. ilus, graf, tab.
Idioma: en.
Resumo: Cyathea atrovirens (Langsd. & Fisch.) Domin, an intensely exploited tree fern, is found inside forests in several succession stages, as well as in swamps, roadsides and unused fields in the Rio dos Sinos basin, in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil. This study evaluated the in vitro germination and gametophyte development of C.atrovirens under different pH conditions, as well as spore viability after different storage times at 7 ºC. The lowest germination rate of spores was obtained at pH 7.0. At pH 5.0 to 6.5, laminar gametophyte development started at 20 to 30 days of culture. Antheridia and archegonia were first observed at 35 and 128 days, respectively. Storage at 7 ºC did not affect germination rates. The capability of germination at different pH levels may explain the occurrence of the species in a wide range of habitats. The present study contributes to the understanding of the full life-cycle of C. atrovirens and to the analysis of the influence of abiotic components, providing information for the cultivation, management and conservation of the species.

Cyathea atrovirens (Langsd. & Fisch.) Domin, uma samambaia arborescente alvo de exploração extrativista, é encontrada no interior de florestas em diferentes estádios de sucessão, banhados, margens de estradas e campos abandonados da bacia do rio dos Sinos, no Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, sul do Brasil. Este estudo avaliou a germinação e o desenvolvimento gametofítico in vitro de C. atrovirens sob diferentes condições de pH, bem como a viabilidade de esporos após diferentes períodos de armazenamento a 7 ºC. A menor taxa de germinação de esporos foi obtida no pH 7,0. Entre os pHs 5,0 e 6,5, o início de desenvolvimento laminar dos gametófitos ocorreu entre 20 e 30 dias de cultura. Anterídios e arquegônios foram observados a partir do 35º e do 128º dia, respectivamente. A estocagem a 7ºC não afetou as taxas de germinação. A capacidade de germinação em diferentes pHs pode explicar a ocorrência da espécie em um amplo espectro de hábitats. O presente estudo contribui para a compreensão do ciclo de vida completo de C. atrovirens e para a análise da influência de fatores abióticos, fornecendo subsídios para o cultivo, o manejo e a conservação da espécie.
Descritores: Gleiquênias/crescimento & desenvolvimento
Células Germinativas Vegetais/crescimento & desenvolvimento
Germinação/fisiologia
Esporos/crescimento & desenvolvimento
-Criopreservação
Gleiquênias/citologia
Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio
Fatores de Tempo
Responsável: BR1.1 - BIREME



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