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Id: lil-686612
Autor: Cherifi, Fatah; Laraba-Djebari, Fatima.
Título: Isolated biomolecules of pharmacological interest in hemostasis from Cerastes cerastes venom
Fonte: J. venom. anim. toxins incl. trop. dis;19:11-11, maio 2013.
Idioma: en.
Resumo: Biomolecules from Cerastes cerastes venom have been purified and characterized. Two phospholipases isolated from Cerastes cerastes venom share 51% of homology. CC2-PLA2 exhibits antiplatelet activity that blocks coagulation. CCSV-MPase, a non-hemorrhagic Zn2+-metalloproteinase, significantly reduced the plasmatic fibrinogen level and hydrolyzes only its Bß chain. Serine proteinases such as RP34, afaâcytin and CC3-SPase hydrolyze the fibrinogen and are respectively α, αß and αß fibrinogenases. In deficient human plasma, afaâcytin replaces the missing factors VIII and IX, and activates purified human factor X into factor Xa. It releases serotonin from platelets and directly aggregates human (but not rabbit) blood platelets. RP34 proteinase also had no effect on both human and rabbit blood platelet aggregation. CC3-SPase revealed a pro-coagulant activity. However, the insolubility of the obtained clot indicates that CC3-SPase does not activate factor XIII. In addition, CC3-SPase clotting activity was carried out with human plasmas from volunteer patients deficient in clotting factors. Results showed that CC3-SPase shortens clotting time of plasma deficient in factors II and VII but with weaker clotting than normal plasma. The clotting time of plasma deficient in factor II is similar to that obtained with normal plasma; suggesting that CC3-SPase is able to replace both factors IIa and VII in the coagulation cascade and thus could be involved in the blood clotting process via an extrinsic pathway. These results imply that CC3-SPase and afaâcytin could repair hemostatic abnormalities and may replace some factors missing in pathological deficiency. Afaâcytin also exhibits α fibrinase property similar to a plasmin-like proteinase. Despite its thrombin-like characteristics, afaâcytin is not inhibited by plasmatic thrombin inhibitors. The procoagulant properties of afaâcytin might have potential clinical applications.(AU)
Descritores: Venenos de Víboras/isolamento & purificação
Viperidae/sangue
Hemostasia/fisiologia
-Peptídeo Hidrolases
Plaquetas/fisiologia
Metaloproteases
Fosfolipases A2
Tipo de Publ: Revisão
Responsável: BR33.1 - Divisão Técnica de Biblioteca e Documentação


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Id: lil-686611
Autor: Akani, Godfrey C; Ebere, Nwabueze; Franco, Daniel; Eniang, Edem A; Petrozzi, Fabio; Politano, Edoardo; Luiselli, Luca.
Título: Correlation between annual activity patterns of venomous snakes and rural people in the Niger Delta, southern Nigeria
Fonte: J. venom. anim. toxins incl. trop. dis;19:1-8, maio 2013. tab, graf.
Idioma: en.
Resumo: Background: Venomous snakes are among the most serious health hazards for rural people in tropical regions of the world. Herein we compare the monthly activity patterns of eight venomous snake species (Elapidae and Viperidae) with those of rural people in the Niger Delta area of southern Nigeria, in order to identify the periods of highest potential risk for persons, and the human group actually at greater risk of snakebite. Results: We documented that above-ground activity of all venomous snakes peaked in the wet season, and that high snake activity and high human activity were most highly correlated between April and August. In addition, we documented that women and teenagers were at relatively higher risk of encountering a venomous snake than adult males, despite they are less often in the field than men. Conclusions: Our results suggest that future programs devoted to mitigate the social and health effects of snakebites in the Niger Delta region should involve especially women and teenagers, with ad-hoc education projects if appropriate. We urge that international organizations working on social and health problems in the developing world, such as IRD, DFID, UNDP, should provide advice through specific programs targeted at especially these categories which have been highlighted in comparatively potential higher threat from snakebites than adult men.(AU)
Descritores: População Rural
Mordeduras de Serpentes/etnologia
Viperidae
Elapidae
-Estações do Ano
Nigéria
Limites: Seres Humanos
Animais
Masculino
Feminino
Adolescente
Responsável: BR33.1 - Divisão Técnica de Biblioteca e Documentação


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Id: lil-763324
Autor: Lima, Pedro Henrique Santana de; Haddad Junior, Vidal.
Título: A snakebite caused by a bushmaster (Lachesis muta): report of a confirmed case in State of Pernambuco, Brazil
Fonte: Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop;48(5):636-637, Sept.-Oct. 2015. graf.
Idioma: en.
Resumo: ABSTRACTWe report a case of envenomation caused by a bushmaster ( Lachesis muta) in a male child in State of Pernambuco, Brazil. The victim showed discrete local manifestations, but presented altered blood coagulation 2 hours after the bite. Ten ampoules of bothropic-lachetic antivenom therapy were administered, and 48 hours later, the patient showed discrete edema, pain, and ecchymosis around the bite and normal blood coagulation. The patient was discharged 5 days after the envenomation. The prompt administration of specific treatment was important for the favorable outcomes observed.
Descritores: Antivenenos/uso terapêutico
Mordeduras de Serpentes/terapia
Venenos de Serpentes/envenenamento
Viperidae
-Testes de Coagulação Sanguínea
Brasil
Limites: Adolescente
Animais
Seres Humanos
Masculino
Responsável: BR1.1 - BIREME


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Id: lil-724669
Autor: Shivanthan, Mitrakrishnan Chrishan; Yudhishdran, Jevon; Rajapakse, Senaka.
Título: Hump-nosed viper bite: an important but under-recognized cause of systemic envenoming
Fonte: J. venom. anim. toxins incl. trop. dis;20, 04/02/2014.
Idioma: en.
Resumo: Hump-nosed viper bites are common in the Indian subcontinent. In the past, hump-nosed vipers (Hypnale species) were considered moderately venomous snakes whose bites result mainly in local envenoming. However, a variety of severe local effects, hemostatic dysfunction, microangiopathic hemolysis, kidney injury and death have been reported following envenoming byHypnale species. We systematically reviewed the medical literature on the epidemiology, toxin profile, diagnosis, and clinical, laboratory and postmortem features of hump-nosed viper envenoming, and highlight the need for development of an effective antivenom.
Descritores: Antivenenos/análise
Envenenamento/complicações
Medicina na Literatura
Mordeduras de Serpentes
-Viperidae/classificação
Limites: Animais
Responsável: BR68.1 - Biblioteca Virginie Buff D'Ápice


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Id: lil-677981
Autor: Vello, Fernando Domínguez.
Título: Diabetes y clínica homeopática / Diabetes and homeopathic clinic
Fonte: Homeopatia Méx;82(682):18-26, ene.-feb. 2013.
Idioma: es.
Resumo: Dentro de la terapéutica médica homeopática ortodoxa lo más importante es la individualidad del paciente, la totalidad de sus síntomas y la elección medicamentosa con base en ello. La diabetes mellitus es calificada por la medicina convencional como una patología de tipo irreversible; sin embargo, siguiendo los principios homeopáticos, para un tratamiento exitoso se debe de tomar en cuenta al enfermo o paciente, y no a la enfermedad o al padecimiento. Asimismo, desde el punto de vista homeopático se buscará el equilibrio integral de los pacientes al presentar un enfoque más amplio, así como una mirada centrada en el individuo enfermo en su conjunto sin perder la importancia del diagnóstico nosológico. Diversos autores han publicado terapéuticas con indicaciones características de algunos medicamentos homeopáticos para cuadros clínicos específicos; en este artículo se realiza una revisión de los más importantes, como Henry Clay Allen, León Vannier, James Tyler Kent, John Henry Clarke y Bernardo Vijnovsky, entre otros, con el fin de proporcionarle ai lector una gama de posibilidades que van de los síntomas orgánicos hasta los mentales, semejantes a los c1asificados dentro del diagnóstico de la diabetes mellitus.

For the orthodox homeopathic medical therapeutics the most important feature is the patient's individuality, aIl symptoms and the drug choice on this basis. Diabetes mellitus is skilled in traditional medicine as an irreversible type pathology, however, following homeopathic principles, in order to get a successful treatment we must to take into account the sick or patient and not the disease or condition. Also from the homeopathic scope, fuIl balance will be sought for patients to present a more comprehensive and focused look at the individual patient as a whole without losing the importance of nosological diagnosis. Several authors have reported therapeutic with indications characteristics of some homeopathic medicines for specific clinical conditions; this article carried out a review of the most important such as Henry Clay Allen, Leon Vannier, James Taylor Kent, John Henry Clarke and Bernardo Vijnovsky, among others, with the order to provide the reader with a range of possibilities based from organic to mental symptoms similar to those ranked in the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus.
Descritores: Chimaphila umbellata
Diabetes Mellitus
Phosphoricum Acidum
Phosphorus (Homeopatia)
Syzygium
Uranium Nitricum
-Ignatia amara
Lycopodium clavatum
Viperidae
Limites: Seres Humanos
Tipo de Publ: Revisão
Responsável: BR926.1 - Biblioteca Artur de Almeida Rezende Filho


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Id: lil-658989
Autor: Gomes, C A; Almeida-Santos, S M.
Título: Microhabitat use by species of the genera Bothrops and Crotalus (Viperidae) in semi-extensive captivity
Fonte: J. venom. anim. toxins incl. trop. dis;18(4):393-398, 2012. ilus.
Idioma: en.
Resumo: Many factors influence microhabitat including climate and the occurrence of predators, prey and suitable shelters. The influence of predators in a semi-extensive breeding system is minimized due to frequent monitoring of the area. This situation enables the independent analysis of such other variables as refuges and temperature. Some specimens of the Viperidae family are kept in a semi-extensive breeding system at the Butantan Institute for display and study. These animals are widely distributed in the Atlantic Forest and Cerrado, two biomes with distinct climatic characteristics. We compared the daily activity pattern and microhabitat use of the species Bothrops jararaca and Crotalus durissus terrificus. Our main questions were whether rattlesnakes and lancehead snakes respond to habitat selection differently in similar climatic conditions and if they choose similar microhabitats. Species of the genus Bothrops were frequently found under shelters regardless of the time of day. On the other hand, snakes of the genus Crotalus were frequently found sheltered during the early morning, then migrated to sunnier areas and returned to shelters in late afternoon.
Descritores: Bothrops
Crotalus
Ecossistema
Viperidae
Limites: Animais
Responsável: BR33.1 - Divisão Técnica de Biblioteca e Documentação


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Id: lil-620747
Autor: Araújo, Claudio Carvalho.
Título: Indicações para a prescrição de Lachesis / Indications of Lachesis
Fonte: Rev. homeopatia (Säo Paulo);74(3,n.esp):9-9, 2011.
Idioma: pt.
Resumo: Quem seria o ser humano a ser medicado com Lachesis? A metodologia édescrita, de forma a nos levar a um entendimento (e subsequente acompanhamento) dopaciente Lachesis. Esse método nos levará a uma hipótese e casos clínicos irãoconfirmar ou mesmo ajustar essas primeiras noções do entendimento profundo dessemedicamento. Os principais objetivos são: definir a estrutura psíquica do pacienteLachesis, de forma a tanto prescrever corretamente o medicamento quantoacompanhar a evolução do caso.
Descritores: Viperidae
Limites: Seres Humanos
Responsável: BR926.1 - Biblioteca Artur de Almeida Rezende Filho


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Id: lil-618195
Autor: Stuginski, D R; Sant'Anna, S S; Fernandes, W; Abe, A S.
Título: Circadian pattern of Bothrops moojeni in captivity (Serpentes: Viperidae)
Fonte: J. venom. anim. toxins incl. trop. dis;18(1):97-102, 2012. ilus.
Idioma: en.
Resumo: Members of the subfamily Crotalinae are considered to be essentially nocturnal and most of the data about these snakes have been collected from the field. Information on how nutritional status affects the movement rate and activity patterns is a key point to elucidating the ecophysiology of snakes. In this study, we distributed 28 lancehead Bothrops moojeni into three groups under distinct feeding regimens after a month of fasting. Groups were divided as follows: ingestion of meals weighing (A) 40 percent, (B) 20 percent, or (C) 10 percent of the snake body mass. Groups were monitored for five days before and after food intake and the activity periods and movement rates were recorded. Our results show that B. moojeni is prevalently nocturnal, and the activity peak occurs in the first three hours of the scotophase. After feeding, a significant decrease in activity levels in groups A and B was detected. The current results corroborate previous field data that describe B. moojeni as a nocturnal species with low movement rates. The relationship between motion and the amount of food consumed by the snake may be associated with its hunting strategy.
Descritores: Ritmo Circadiano/fisiologia
Viperidae/fisiologia
Limites: Animais
Responsável: BR33.1 - Divisão Técnica de Biblioteca e Documentação


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Leite, Romario Cerqueira
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Id: lil-604664
Autor: Rodrigues, Daniel Sobreira; Maciel, Ricardo; Cunha, Lucas Maciel; Leite, Romário Cerqueira; Oliveira, Paulo Roberto de.
Título: Amblyomma rotundatum (Koch, 1844) (Acari: Ixodidae) two-host life-cycle on Viperidae snakes / Ciclo dioxênico em Amblyomma rotundatum (Koch, 1844) (Acari: Ixodidae)parasitando serpentes da família Viperidae
Fonte: Rev. bras. parasitol. vet;19(3):174-178, July-Sept. 2010. ilus, tab.
Idioma: en.
Resumo: Amblyomma rotundatum is an ixodid tick that infests ectothermic animals and reproduces exclusively by parthenogenesis. This tick has been frequently reported to infest reptiles and amphibians, under natural conditions and sometimes in captivity. It was described in Brazil and several other countries of South, Central and North America. Although many studies have reported aspects of its biology, none of them has used regularly either ophidian as hosts, or controlled temperature, humidity and luminosity for parasitic stages. The objective of this experiment was to study the life cycle of A. rotundatum feeding on Viperidae snakes under room controlled conditions at 27 ± 1 ºC temperature, 85 ± 10 percent relative humidity and 12:12 hours photoperiod for parasitic stages, and under B.O.D incubator conditions at 27 ± 1 ºC temperature, 85 ± 10 percent relative humidity and scotophase for non-parasitic stages. The total duration of the life cycle ranged from 56 to 163 days (mean of 105 days). Two-host life cycle was observed for most of the ixodid population studied.

Amblyomma rotundatum é um carrapato da família Ixodidae, parasito de animais pecilotérmicos, e que se reproduz exclusivamente por partenogênese. Este carrapato é frequentemente relatado infestando répteis e anfíbios em condições naturais e, às vezes, em animais de cativeiro. Ele já foi relatado no Brasil e em vários outros países das Américas do Sul, Central e do Norte. Embora muitos estudos sobre sua biologia tenham sido publicados, nunca foram utilizados ofídios como hospedeiros e, tão pouco, foram realizados ensaios com os estádios parasitários sob condições controladas de temperatura, umidade e iluminação. O objetivo deste experimento foi estudar o ciclo biológico de A. rotundatum se alimentando em serpentes da família Viperidae sob condições ambientais controladas a 27 ± 1 ºC de temperatura, 85 ± 10 por cento de umidade relativa do ar e 12:12 horas de fotoperíodo para estágios parasitários; assim como sob condições iguais a 27 ± 1 ºC de temperatura, 85 ± 10 por cento de umidade relativa do ar e escotofase em estufas de germinação para estádios não parasitários. A duração total do ciclo de vida variou de 56 a 163 dias (média de 105 dias). Observou-se ciclo dioxênico para a a maior parte da população dos ixodídeos em estudo.
Descritores: Ixodidae/crescimento & desenvolvimento
Estágios do Ciclo de Vida
Viperidae/parasitologia
Limites: Animais
Tipo de Publ: Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Responsável: BR1.1 - BIREME


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Id: lil-598602
Autor: Sánchez, Elda E; Hotle, Doug; Rodríguez-Acosta, Alexis.
Título: Neutralization of bitis parviocula (Ethiopian mountain adder) venom by the south african institute of medical research (SAIMR) antivenom / Neutralização do veneno de Bitis parviocula (serpente da Montanha da Etiópia) pelo antiveneno do Instituto Africano de Pesquisa Médica (SAIMR)
Fonte: Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. Säo Paulo;53(4):213-217, July.-Aug. 2011. ilus, graf, tab.
Idioma: en.
Resumo: BACKGROUND: The Ethiopian mountain adder (Bitis parviocula) is a viperid known only from a few locations in southwestern Ethiopia. METHODS: a total of 30 µg of B. arietans and B. parviocula venoms were run on a 10-20 percent Tricine gel. To assay lethality dose fifty (LD50), five groups of eight mice for each venom were used. Hemorrhagic activity for crude venom was tested. Fibrinogenolytic activity of crude venom was measured using (2.5 mg/mL) of fibrinogen solution and (0.03 mg/mL) of crude venom. Gelatinase activity of the venom was tested on a Kodak X-OMAT TM film. Crude venoms of B. parviocula and B. arietans were tested for their abilities to affect clotting time, clotting rate and platelet function on whole human blood. RESULTS: The (SAIMR) antivenom was confirmed in this study to neutralize the lethal activity of venom from Bitis parviocula. The ED50s of SAIMR antivenom on B. parviocula and B. arietans neutralized half of 18.2 and 66.7 mg of venom, respectively. The hemorrhagic activities (MHDs) of B. parviocula and B. arietans were 0.88 and 1.7 µg, respectively. Bitis arietans and B. parviocula venoms degradated α and β chains at different times. The γ chains remained unaffected. Bitis parviocula venom did not exhibit gelatinase activity, while B. arietans had a MGD of 6.9 µg. At 3 mg/mL, the crude venoms of B. parviocula and B. arietans did not significantly affect clotting time or clotting rate. CONCLUSIONS: The SAIMR antivenom is very effective in neutralizing the venom of B. parviocula and should be considered in treating envenomations by these snakes.

BACKGROUND: Serpente das Montanhas da Etiópia (Bitis parviocula) é um viperídeo conhecido somente em poucas localizações do sudoeste da Etiópia. MÉTODOS: Um total de 30 µg de veneno de B. arietans e B. parviocula foram corridos em gel de 10 a 20 por cento de tricina. Para se estabelecer a quinquagésima dose de letalidade (LD50) foram usados cinco grupos de oito camundongos para cada veneno. A atividade hemorrágica para o veneno cru foi testada. A atividade fibrogenolítica do veneno cru foi medida usando 2,5 mg/mL de solução de fibrinogênio e 0,03 mg/mL de veneno cru. A atividade de gelatinase do veneno foi testada em um filme KODAK X-OMAT TM. Venenos crus de B. parviocula e B. arietans foram testados no que diz respeito à sua capacidade de afetar o tempo de coagulação, a velocidade de coagulação e a função plaquetogênica em sangue humano total. RESULTADO: o antiveneno SAIMR foi confirmado neste estudo no que diz respeito à neutralização da atividade letal do veneno de Bitis parviocula. ED50s do antiveneno SAIMR sobre a B. parviocula e B. arietans neutralizou metade de 18,2 e 66,7 mg respectivamente do veneno. As atividades hemorrágicas (MHDs) de B. parviocula e B. arietans foram respectivamente 0,88 e 1,7 µg. Os venenos de B. arietans e B. parviocula degradaram cadeias α e β em tempos diferentes. A cadeia Γ permaneceu não afetada. O veneno da B. parviocula não mostrou atividade de gelatinase, enquanto o de B. arietans teve um MGD de 6,9 µg. A nível de 3 mg/mL os venenos crus de B. parviocula e B. arietans não afetaram significantemente o tempo e a velocidade de coagulação. CONCLUSÕES: O antiveneno SAIMR é bastante efetivo para neutralizar o veneno da B. parviocula e deveria ser considerado para o tratamento de envenenamentos por estas serpentes.
Descritores: Antivenenos/administração & dosagem
Viperidae
Venenos de Víboras/antagonistas & inibidores
-Etiópia
Fibrinólise
LETHAL DOSE ACADEMIES AND INSTITUTES
Venenos de Víboras/envenenamento
Limites: Animais
Seres Humanos
Camundongos
Ratos
Tipo de Publ: Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Responsável: BR1.1 - BIREME



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