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Id: biblio-859552
Autor: Soares, Marcelo de Oliveira; Souza, Leonardo Peres de.
Título: Osmoregulation in tropical zoanthid Protopalythoa variabilis (Cnidaria: Anthozoa) / Osmorregulação no zoantídeo tropical Protopalythoa variabilis (Cnidaria: Anthozoa)
Fonte: Acta sci., Biol. sci;35(1):123-127, Jan.-Mar. 2013. tab, ilus.
Idioma: en.
Resumo: This study evaluated the physiological, morphological and ethological effects of salinity variations on the tropical zoanthid Protopalythoa variabilis. This zoanthid was submitted to different salinity levels to probe the hypothesis of osmoregulation. Specimens collected in beach rocks from Northeastern Brazil were taken alive to the laboratory in their original water. The osmoregulatory ability of P. variabilis can be determined by measuring the hemolymph osmolality under various salinity conditions and comparing with the osmolality of the medium. The zoanthid P. variabilis is a "weak regulator", as it only osmoregulates within a narrow range of external salinity values, and its hemolymph osmolality drops, approximately in parallel with the isosmotic line, when the medium salinity falls below a certain limit. Ethological and morphological modifications under different salinities are discussed. This experiment shows for the first time the importance of osmotic regulation in the tropical zoanthid P. variabilis.

Este estudo avaliou os efeitos fisiológicos, morfológicos e etológicos no zoantídeo tropical Protopalythoa variabilis em diferentes níveis de salinidade. Para testar a hipótese de osmorregulação, o zoantídeo foi submetido a diferentes variações de salinidade. Os indivíduos foram coletados em recifes de arenito no Nordeste brasileiro e foram levados vivos para o laboratório na água em que foram recolhidos. A capacidade osmorregulatória de P. variabilis foi determinada pela medição da osmolaridade da hemolinfa em diferentes condições de salinidade e comparadas com a osmolaridade do meio. O zoantídeo P. variabilis é um "regulador fraco" visto que osmorregula dentro de uma estreita faixa de valores de salinidade externa e quando a salinidade do meio cai abaixo de um certo limite, ocorre redução da osmolaridade da hemolinfa, aproximadamente em paralelo com a linha isosmótica. As mudanças etológicas e morfológicas em diferentes salinidades são discutidas. Este experimento demonstra pela primeira vez a importância da regulação osmótica no zoantídeo tropical P. variabilis.
Descritores: Antozoários/fisiologia
Recifes de Corais
Salinidade
Responsável: BR513.1 - Biblioteca Central


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Id: lil-759883
Autor: Wilke, Diego Veras.
Título: Estudo do potencial anticâncer de substâncias obtidas do zoantídeo protopalythoa variabilis Duerden, 1898 (cnidaria, anthozoa) encontrado no litoral cearense / Study of the potential anticancer substances obtained from zoanthid Protopalythoa variabilis Duerden, 1898 (cnidaria, anthozoa) found in Ceará.
Fonte: Fortaleza; s.n; 2009.
Idioma: pt.
Tese: Apresentada a Universidade Federal do Ceará para obtenção do grau de Doutor.
Resumo: O câncer é um dos principais problemas mundiais de saúde e uma das causas mais importantes de morbidade e mortalidade em crianças e adultos. Apesar do sucesso no tratamento de diversos tipos de tumor, ainda não se chegou ao fármaco ideal e as terapias existentes nem sempre alcançam resultados satisfatórios além de induzir muitos efeitos colaterais. A pesquisa em produtos naturais marinhos (PNM), embora recente, tem revelado uma enorme diversidade de estruturas químicas, muitas vezes inéditas e com potente atividade biológica. Moléculas citotóxicas, com potencial aplicação na quimioterapia do câncer, são frequentemente isoladas dos organismos marinhos e dos quatro fármacos oriundos de PNM comercializados atualmente, dois são utilizados na quimioterapia do câncer. Além dos metabólicos secundários, o estudo de polissacarídeos modificadores da resposta biológica para imunoterapia adjuvante também vem surgindo como uma área bastante promissora. Os cnidários juntamente com esponjas, ascídias, moluscos e algas compõem o grupo de representantes marinhos quimicamente mais prolíficos. O zoantídeo Protopalythoa variabilis (Cnidaria, Anthozoa) é encontrado no litoral do mundo inteiro, porém o seu potencial farmacológico nunca foi investigado anteriormente. O potencial antitumoral de substâncias obtidas do P. variabilis encontrado no litoral cearense foi avaliado neste trabalho. O fracionamento guiado pela citotoxicidade de 4 linhagens de células tumorais (HL-60, leucemia; HTC-8, cólon; SF-295, sistema nervoso central e MDA-MB-435, melanoma) do extrato hidroalcoólico bruto (EHB) rendeu uma mistura de α-aminoácidos lipídicos (1a/1b) inéditos a partir da fração hexano e 5 frações (AcOEt-P-1-5) contendo sinais compatíveis com esteróides...
Descritores: Antozoários
Citotoxicidade Imunológica
Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais
Imunização
Limites: Seres Humanos
Responsável: BR6.1 - BCS - Biblioteca de Ciências da Saúde


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Id: lil-749691
Autor: Campos, FF.; Garcia, JE.; Luna-Finkler, CL.; Davolos, CC.; Lemos, MVF.; Pérez, CD..
Título: Alcanivorax dieselolei, an alkane-degrading bacterium associated with the mucus of the zoanthid Palythoa caribaeorum (Cnidaria, Anthozoa) / Alcanivorax dieselolei, uma bactéria degradadora de alcanos associada ao muco do zoantídeo Palythoa caribaeorum (Cnidaria, Anthozoa)
Fonte: Braz. j. biol;75(2):431-434, 05/2015. graf.
Idioma: en.
Resumo: Analyses of 16S rDNA genes were used to identify the microbiota isolated from the mucus of the zoanthid Palythoa caribaeorum at Porto de Galinhas on the coast of Pernambuco State, Brazil. This study is important as the first report of this association, because of the potential biotechnological applications of the bacterium Alcanivorax dieselolei, and as evidence for the presence of a hydrocarbon degrading bacterium in a reef ecosystem such as Porto de Galinhas.

Análises dos genes 16S rDNA foram empregadas para identificar a microbiota isolada do muco do zoantídeo Palythoa caribaeorum de Porto de Galinhas, litoral do estado de Pernambuco, Brasil. Este estudo é importante pelo ineditismo dessa associação, pelas relevantes aplicações biotecnológicas da bactéria Alcanivorax dieselolei e pela indicação da presença de uma bactéria degradadora de hidrocarbonetos em um ecossistema recifal como o de Porto de Galinhas.
Descritores: Alcanivoraceae/genética
Antozoários/microbiologia
Muco/microbiologia
-Alcanivoraceae/fisiologia
DNA Bacteriano/genética
Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase
/genética
RNA, RIBOSOMAL, ABNORMALITIES, MULTIPLES/genética
Limites: Animais
Tipo de Publ: Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Responsável: BR1.1 - BIREME


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Id: lil-688466
Autor: Abeytia, Rosalinda; Guzmán, Héctor M.; Breedy, Odalisca.
Título: Species composition and bathymetric distribution of gorgonians (Anthozoa: Octocorallia) on the Southern Mexican Pacific coast / Composición de especies y distribución batimétrica de gorgonios (Anthozoa: Octocorallia) en la costa sur del Pacífico mexicano
Fonte: Rev. biol. trop;61(3):1157-1166, sep. 2013. graf, tab.
Idioma: en.
Resumo: Gorgonians are important components of coastal ecosystems, as they provide niches, natural compounds with medical applications and are used as bioindicators. Species composition and assemblage structure of gorgonians (Anthozoa: Octocorallia) were studied along a bathymetric profile in the Southern Mexican Pacific coast. Species composition was based on specimens collected within a depth range of 0-70m in 15 sites. The relative abundance of species was determined in six sites at four depths (5, 10, 20 and 25m) using three 10m2 transects at each depth level. Twenty-seven species of gorgonians belonging to six genera and three families were registered. The species composition varied with depth: 11 species were distributed between 0-25m depth, while 17 species were found between 40-70m depth interval. The shallow zone is characterized by a relatively large abundance of gorgonians, dominated by colonies of Leptogorgia cuspidata and L. ena. In contrast, the deepest zone was characterized by relatively low abundance of gorgonians, dominated by L. alba, the only species observed in both depth intervals. The similarity analysis showed differences in the composition and abundance of species by depth and site, suggesting that the main factor in determining the assemblage structure is depth. Results of this study suggest that the highest richness of gorgonian species in the study area may be located at depths of 40-70m, whereas the highest abundances are found between 5 and 10m depth. This study represents a contribution to the poorly known eastern Pacific gorgonian biota.

La composición de especies y estructura de la comunidad de gorgonáceos se determinó a lo largo de un perfil batimétrico en la costa suroeste del Pacífico Mexicano. La composición de especies se realizó a través de una revisión y recolecta de especímenes entre 0 y 70m de profundidad en 15 sitios de muestreo. La caracterización de la estructura de la comunidad se realizó en seis sitios, en los cuales se colocaron tres transectos de 10m² cada uno a 5, 10, 20 y 25m de profundidad. Se encontraron 27 especies de gorgonáceos pertenecientes a seis géneros y tres familias; aunque seis especies requieren ser confirmadas. La mayor riqueza de especies se registró entre 40 y 70m. La estructura de la comunidad entre 5 y 25m de profundidad mostró la existencia de dos zonas con la misma composición de especies pero con diferente abundancia relativa: una somera entre 5 y 10m de profundidad, caracterizada por una mayor abundancia de gorgonáceos y dominado por colonias de Leptogorgia cuspidata y Leptogorgia ena y una zona profunda entre 20 y 25m de profundidad, caracterizada por una baja abundancia de gorgonáceos y dominada por colonias de Leptogorgia alba.
Descritores: Antozoários/classificação
Ecossistema
-Biodiversidade
México
Densidade Demográfica
Limites: Animais
Tipo de Publ: Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Responsável: CR1.1 - BINASSS - Biblioteca Nacional de Salud y Seguridad Social


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Id: lil-675454
Autor: Reyes-Bonilla, Héctor; Escobosa-González, Laura Elena; Cupul-Magaña, Amílcar L.; Medina-Rosas, Pedro; Calderón-Aguilera, Luis E..
Título: Estructura comunitaria de corales zooxantelados (Anthozoa: Scleractinia) en el arrecife coralino de Carrizales, Pacífico Mexicano / Community structure of zooxanthellate corals (Anthozoa: Scleractinia) in Carrizales coral reef, Pacific coast, Mexico
Fonte: Rev. biol. trop;61(2):583-594, Jun. 2013. ilus, graf, tab.
Idioma: es.
Resumo: Coral reefs in the Mexican Pacific and notably those of the continental coastline of Colima state are still poorly studied. Fortunately, recent efforts have been carried out by researchers from different Mexican institutions to fill up these information gaps. The aim of this study was to determine the ecological structure of the rich and undisturbed coral building communities of Carrizales by using the point transect interception method (25m-long). For this, three survey expeditions were conducted between June and October 2005 and September 2006; and for comparison purposes, the reef was subdivided according to its position in the bay, and depth (0 to 5m, and 6 to 10m). Thirteen coral species were observed in the area, with Pocillopora verrucosa as the most abundant, contributing up to 32.8% of total cover, followed by Porites panamensis and Pocillopora capitata with 11% and 7%, respectively. Other species, Pocillopora damicornis, Pavona gigantea, Pocillopora eydouxi and Pocillopora inflata accounted for 1.5% to 2% of coral cover whereas the remaining five species had cover of less than 1%. Seven of the observed species represented new records for Colima state coast- line: Pocillopora eydouxi, P. inflata, P. meandrina, Pavona duerdeni, P. varians, Psammocora stellata and P. contigua. This last species is a relevant record, because it has never been observed before in the Eastern Pacific. Although there was no significant difference (ANOVA, p=0.478) neither in the abundance between the sides of the bay, nor between the depths considered, and the shallow zone observed the higher coral cover. Live coral cover was up to 61%, one of the highest ever reported for the Mexican Pacific, including the Gulf of California. The observed values of diversity (H´=0.44±0.02), uniformity (J´=0.76±0.02), and taxonomic distinctness index (Δ*=45.87±3.16), showed that currently this is the most important coral reef of Colima coastline. Currently, this region does not show any disturbance effects, but the increasing economic development of Manzanillo, as one of the main commercial ports of Mexico, its proximity to the reef, and the burgeoning number of tourists, may have some ecosystem impacts, for which management and conservation plans for Colima coastline are highly recommended.

El conocimiento ecológico de corales arrecifales en el Pacífico mexicano es escaso, por lo que el objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar la estructura de la comunidad de corales hermatípicos en el arrecife de Carrizales, Colima, mediante el uso de transectos y buceo autónomo (junio y octubre 2005, septiembre 2006). De las 13 especies de corales encontradas, Pocillopora verrucosa fue la más abundante y siete representan nuevos registros, sobresaliendo Psammocora contigua, primer registro para el Pacífico Oriental. No hubo diferencias significativas de abundancia entre profundidades, pero la zona somera presenta una mayor cobertura. Este sitio presenta una de las riquezas y cobertura de coral más alta (61%) en el Pacífico Mexicano y valores de diversidad (H´=0.44±0.02), uniformidad (J´=0.76±0.02), y de diferenciación taxonómica (Δ*=45.87±3.16) relativamente altos. Actualmente la región no presenta grandes perturbaciones pero el creciente desarrollo económico de Manzanillo, uno de los principales puertos comerciales del país, además del creciente número de turistas, podrían afectar al arrecife, por lo que se sugiere implementar medidas de protección con el fin de mantener al arrecife más importante del litoral de Colima.
Descritores: Antozoários/classificação
Biodiversidade
Recifes de Corais
-Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos
México
Densidade Demográfica
Dinâmica Populacional
Limites: Animais
Tipo de Publ: Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Responsável: CR1.1 - BINASSS - Biblioteca Nacional de Salud y Seguridad Social


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Id: lil-659565
Autor: Bernal-Sotelo, Katherine; Acosta, Alberto.
Título: The relationship between physical and biological habitat conditions and hermatypic coral recruits abundance within insular reefs (Colombian Caribbean)
Fonte: Rev. biol. trop;60(3):995-1014, Sept. 2012. ilus, graf, mapas, tab.
Idioma: en.
Resumo: Little evidence exists on the dependence between the presence and abundance of juvenile hermatypic corals and the conditions of their habitats, despite that juveniles contribute with the understanding of the community structure and its reproductive success. To assess this, the abundance of nine species of juvenile corals was correlated with eight macro-habitat (location of the reef on shelf, depth) and micro-habitat (type and inclination of the substrate, exposure to light, texture and amount of sediment accumulated on bottom, potential growth area for juveniles) conditions. Sampling was conducted in four insular coral reefs in the Colombian Caribbean: two oceanic and two continental reefs (influenced by large rivers), covering a total of 600m2 and the distribution of corals on a vertical gradient. Contingency tables and coefficients (magnitude) and multiple correspondence analyses were used to evaluate the dependency ratios for each species. The results showed that Agaricia tenuifolia displayed the most robust pattern of dependence (two high and two moderate), significant for juveniles present at a high frequency in continental reefs, devoid of potential area for juvenile growth (surrounded by macroalgae), and covering horizontal substrates exposed to light. The juveniles were associated with a habitat of moderate to high bottom accumulation of extremely fine sediment. Porites astreoides presented four moderate dependencies; ocean reefs between 2-16m depths, a high frequency of juveniles on horizontal substrates, exposed to light, non-sedimented and occupied by competitors. Siderastrea siderea displayed three moderate dependences for juveniles in cryptic zones, inclined substrate and devoid of competitors. A. lamarcki, Leptoseris cucullata and A. agaricites presented two moderate dependences; these species share high abundance of juveniles in habitats with no sediment, exposed to light and occupied by competitors (except A. agaricites). The P. porites, Favia fragum and Montastraea cavernosa species had a moderate dependence with high incidence of juveniles in ocean reefs and microhabitats exposed to light. For the nine species, results indicate that the presence (colonization), abundance and survival of juveniles, depend on certain species-specific particularities of the habitat. However, the juveniles show high tolerance and plasticity to a range of habitat variables, given their independence and low dependence observed in over 50% of the variables assessed.

Existe poca evidencia sobre la dependencia entre la abundancia de juveniles de corales hermatípicos y las condiciones del hábitat. La abundancia de corales juveniles se relacionó con condiciones del hábitat a macro (ubicación del arrecife, profundidad) y microescala (tipo e inclinación del sustrato, exposición a luz, textura y cantidad de sedimento, área de crecimiento potenial de juveniles). El muestreo se realizó en cuatro arrecifes insulares del Caribe colombiano. La dependencia se evaluó usando tablas y coeficientes de contingencia y análisis de correspondencias múltiples. Agaricia tenuifolia mostró las dependencias más robustas, siendo significativas para juveniles presentes frecuentemente en arrecifes continentales, sustrato horizontal expuesto a luz, con competidores. Los juveniles se asociaron con moderado a alto sedimento muy fino acumulado en el fondo. Porites astreoides presentó cuatro dependencias; alta frecuencia en sustrato expuesto a luz, horizontal, sin sedimento, con competidores y en arrecifes oceánicos entre 2-16m. Siderastrea siderea exhibió tres dependencias, para juveniles en lugares crípticos, sustrato inclinado y sin competidores. A. lamarcki, Leptoseris cucullata, A. agaricites, P. porites, Favia fragum y Montastraea cavernosa mostraron el menor número de dependencias, compartiendo alta frecuencia en hábitats sin sedimento, expuestos a luz, con competidores y en arrecifes oceánicos. Los resultados sugieren que la abundancia y sobrevivencia de juveniles dependen de ciertas particularidades especie-específicas del hábitat; sin embargo, los juveniles presentan tolerancia a una amplia gama de variables del hábitat.
Descritores: Antozoários/classificação
Recifes de Corais
Fenômenos Ecológicos e Ambientais
-Região do Caribe
Colômbia
Densidade Demográfica
Limites: Animais
Tipo de Publ: Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Responsável: CR1.1 - BINASSS - Biblioteca Nacional de Salud y Seguridad Social


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Id: lil-659564
Autor: Alcolado-Prieto, Pedro; Caballero Aragón, Hansel; M. Alcolado, Pedro; Lopeztegui Castillo, Alexander.
Título: Reclutamiento de corales pétreos en arrecifes coralinos a diferentes distancias de fuentes de contaminación en La Habana, Cuba / Stony coral recruitment in coral reefs at different distances from pollution sources in Habana, Cuba
Fonte: Rev. biol. trop;60(3):981-994, Sept. 2012. ilus, graf, mapas, tab.
Idioma: es.
Resumo: The effect of pollution on coral recruitment has been insufficiently studied. This research deals with coral recruitment in coastal areas and aimed to determine the variations of density and dominant species of corals recruits in sites at different distances from pollution sources. The composition and structure of stony coral (scleractinian and milleporids) recruit associations were characterized in the fringing reef of Western Havana, Cuba. This reef is influenced by urban pollution from the Almendares River and a sewage outlet located at its mouth. Four sites were sampled on the upper fore reef escarpment at 10m deep every three months between July 2007 and May 2008. A 25cm side quadrat was used to determine the density and taxonomic composition of recruits smaller than 3cm in diameter. Sampling units were placed following a random-systematic pattern. The mean density of recruits was determined both at assemble and species level. Bifactoral ANOVA tests were applied to compare mean densities at both sampling sites and dates. Student-Newman-Keuls test was applied to compare pairs of means. Cluster and nMDS analyses were applied to evaluate between site similarities. The predominant species was Siderastrea siderea followed by S. radians and Porites astreoides. Recruit densities were similar among La Puntilla, Calle 16 and Acuario sites. Lower densities were always found in Malecón. Significant differences in mean stony recruit densities were found both between sites and sampling dates. The statistic analysis did not show significant spatial-temporal interactions. Malecón, the most polluted site, showed the lowest recruit density and the greater presence of species considered as indicators of organic pollution, sedimentation and abrasion. The density of recruit species was higher in October 2007 and lower in May 2008, and it was apparently influenced by reproduction and cold front seasons, respectively. The higher dominance and abundance of S. siderea, S. radians and P. astreoides recruits were apparently due to their high reproductive potential and resistance to disturbances. The identity of dominant species was apparently related to distance from major pollution sources. We highly recommended the replication of this research in other areas of the greater Caribbean region to test the generality of present results and to compare among areas. Future research should take into account the influence of other environmental factors, along with an appraisal of recruit species tolerance to these factors, to better ponder the effect of urban pollution on recruitment. Areas with well assessed pollution regimes are recommended for research.

El efecto de la contaminación sobre el reclutamiento ha sido insuficientemente estudiado. Este trabajo trata el tema del reclutamiento en sitios ubicados a diferentes distancias de dos importantes fuentes de contaminación. Se caracterizó la composición y estructura de las asociaciones de reclutas de corales pétreos (escleractinios y milepóridos) al oeste de la Ciudad de La Habana, Cuba. Esta área está influenciada por la contaminación urbana del río Almendares y del emisario submarino construido en su desembocadura. El objetivo de esta investigación fue determinar las variaciones en la densidad y predominio de las especies de reclutas, en sitios ubicados a diferentes distancias de fuentes de contaminación, en distintas épocas de un año. Se muestreó cada tres meses entre julio 2007- mayo 2008. Se escogieron cuatro sitios de muestreo cerca del borde superior del escarpe del arrecife frontal a 10m de profundidad. Se utilizó un marco cuadrado de 25cm de lado de forma aleatoria-sistémica para determinar la densidad y composición taxonómica de reclutas de corales pétreos (colonias menores de 3cm). Para comparar las densidades medias entre sitios y fechas de muestreo se aplicó un análisis de varianza bifactorial. Para comparar los pares de densidades medias se empleó la prueba de Student-Newman-Keuls. La aplicación de un análisis Clasificación Numérica Jerárquica Aglomerativa (Cluster Analysis) y uno de ordenamiento por Escalado Multidimensional no Métrico (nMDS) mostró una distribución en la que los sitios quedaron agrupados en función de sus distancias de las fuentes contaminantes. Predominó Siderastrea sidérea seguida por Siderastrea radians y Porites asteroides. Durante el año de muestreo, las densidades de reclutas fueron similares entre La Puntilla, Calle 16 y Acuario. Las menores densidades se observaron siempre en Malecón. Se encontraron diferencias significativas entre las densidades medias de los sitios, así como entre de las distintas fechas de muestreo. El análisis de variancia bifactorial no mostró interacción significativa espacio-tiemporal. Malecón, sitio más contaminado, presentó menor reclutamiento y mayor presencia de especies consideradas indicadoras de contaminación orgánica, sedimentación y abrasión. Las densidades fueron mayores en Octubre 2007 y menores en Mayo 2008, al parecer influenciados por las épocas de reproducción y la acción de los frentes fríos respectivamente. El mayor predominio y abundancia de reclutas de S. siderea, S. radians y P. astreoides parece responder a sus elevados potenciales reproductivos y altas resistencias a disturbios. La identidad de las especies dominantes estuvo relacionada aparentemente con las distancias de las principales fuentes de contaminación. Se recomienda replicar esta investigación en otros lugares de la región del Caribe para probar la generalidad de estos resultados. Estudios futuros debieran tener en cuenta la influencia de otros factores ambientales, junto con una valoración de la tolerancia de las especies de reclutas a estos factores, para ponderar mejor el efecto de la contaminación urbana sobre el reclutamiento.
Descritores: Antozoários/fisiologia
Recifes de Corais
Monitoramento Ambiental
Poluentes da Água
-Cuba
Densidade Demográfica
Dinâmica Populacional
Estações do Ano
Limites: Animais
Responsável: CR1.1 - BINASSS - Biblioteca Nacional de Salud y Seguridad Social


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Id: lil-657799
Autor: Mónaco, Carlos del; Haiek, Gerard; Narciso, Samuel; Galindo, Miguel.
Título: Massive bleaching of coral reefs induced by the 2010 ENSO, Puerto Cabello, Venezuela
Fonte: Rev. biol. trop;60(2):527-538, June 2012. ilus, graf, tab.
Idioma: en.
Resumo: El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) has generated global coral massive bleaching. The aim of this work was to evaluate the massive bleaching of coral reefs in Puerto Cabello, Venezuela derived from ENSO 2010. We evaluated the bleaching of reefs at five localities both at three and five meter depth. The coral cover and densities of colonies were estimated. We recorded living coral cover, number and diameter of bleached and nonbleached colonies of each coral species. The colonies were classified according to the proportion of bleached area. Satellite images (Modis Scar) were analyzed for chlorophyll-a concentration and temperature in August, September, October and November from 2008-2010. Precipitation, wind speed and air temperature information was evaluated in meteorological data for 2009 and 2010. A total of 58.3% of colonies, belonging to 11 hexacoral species, were affected and the greatest responses were observed in Colpophyllia natans, Montastraea annularis and Montastraea faveolata. The most affected localities were closer to the mainland and had a bleached proportion up to 62.73±36.55%, with the highest proportion of affected colonies, whereas the farthest locality showed 20.25±14.00% bleached and the smallest proportion. The salinity in situ varied between 30 and 33ppm and high levels of turbidity were observed. According to the satellite images, in 2010 the surface water temperatura reached 31ºC in August, September and October, and resulted higher than those registered in 2008 and 2009. Regionally, chlorophyll values were higher in 2010 than in 2008 and 2009. The meteorological data indicated that precipitation in November 2010 was three times higher than in November 2009. Massive coral bleaching occurred due to a three month period of high temperatures followed by one month of intense ENSO-associated precipitation. However, this latter factor was likely the trigger because of the bleaching gradient observed. Rev. Biol. Trop. 60 (2): 527-538. Epub 2012 June 01.

El Niño ha generado blanqueamientos masivos en todo el mundo. El objetivo del estudio fue evaluar el blanqueamiento masivo de los arrecifes coralinos de Puerto Cabello, Venezuela debido al efecto del ENSO, 2010. En cada arrecife se seleccionaron dos profundidades: tres y cinco metros. Para determinar las concentraciones de clorofila-a y la temperatura en los meses de Agosto a Noviembre 2008 al 2010 se analizaron imágenes de satélite (tipo Modis Scar 1km2 de resolución). La precipitación, la velocidad del viento y la temperatura del aire fueron evaluadas según datos metereológicos del 2009 y 2010. La cobertura coralina y la densidad de colonias fue estimada, se anotó la cobertura de coral vivo de cada especie y el número y diámetro de colonias sanas y con blanqueamiento. Cada colonia fue clasificada según su área con blanqueamiento. Un 58.3% del total de las colonias fueron afectadas, estas pertenecen a 11 especies hexacoralinas. Las localidades con mayor afectación fueron las más cercanas al continente, la cuales presentaron una proporción de blanqueamiento de hasta 62.73±36.55% y un mayor porcentaje de colonias afectadas, mientras que la localidad más lejana presentó un 20.25±14.00% y una menor proporción de colonias afectadas, respectivamente. La salinidad registrada in situ varió entre 30 y 33ppm y se observó un alto nivel de turbidez. Según las imágenes de satélite, en el 2010 se observó una temperatura del agua de hasta 31ºC en los meses de agosto, septiembre y octubre. Los valores de clorofila fueron mayores en 2010 que en 2008 y 2009. Los datos meterorológicos indicaron que los valores de precipitación del 2010 triplicaron los del 2009. El blanqueamiento masivo fue la consecuencia de tres meses de altas temperaturas seguido de un mes de intensas precipitaciones asociadas al ENSO. Sin embargo, este último factor probablemente fue el detonante debido al gradiente observado.
Descritores: Antozoários
Recifes de Corais
El Niño Oscilação Sul/efeitos adversos
Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos
Transtornos da Pigmentação/veterinária
Temperatura Ambiente
-Transtornos da Pigmentação/etiologia
Comunicações Via Satélite
Estações do Ano
Venezuela
Limites: Animais
Responsável: CR1.1 - BINASSS - Biblioteca Nacional de Salud y Seguridad Social


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Texto completo SciELO Costa Rica
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Id: lil-657798
Autor: Zuluaga-Montero, Anabella; M. Sabat, Alberto.
Título: Spatial variability of disease incidence and mortality in the sea fan Gorgonia ventalina in Puerto Rico (Alcyonacea: Goorgoniidae)
Fonte: Rev. biol. trop;60(2):517-526, June 2012. ilus, graf, tab.
Idioma: en.
Resumo: Populations of the common sea fan (Gorgonia ventalina) were decimated by an aspergillosis outbreak throughout the Caribbean two decades ago. Since then, aspergillosis has been considered as the principal cause of mortality in sea fans. However, prevalence and presumably incidence of this disease have been declining in the Caribbean since the mid 1990s. Incidence indicates new cases of disease in previously healthy colonies, while prevalence indicates percent of diseased colonies at a given sample. Most coral disease studies use prevalence rather than incidence to assess the temporal dynamics of diseases. Nevertheless, conclusions based only on prevalence should be handled carefully to avoid misinterpretation. This study was carried out at six reefs in Eastern Puerto Rico. We monitored a total of 448 colonies to (1) obtain estimates of incidence and prevalence of disease and other types of lesions, and (2) to determine causes of sea fan mortality plus their spatial and temporal variation. Three transects (10x1m) were haphazardly placed at each study site. At each transect, every colony was numbered and photographed and its height measured to the nearest cm. Transects were monitored at six months intervals and health status of the colonies was recorded. Also, the colonies were divided into height classes (small, medium and large) for incidence, prevalence and mortality analyses. Incidence and prevalence of disease were low in all reefs, suggesting that disease currently plays a minor role in the regulation of sea fans populations. Detachment was the main cause of mortality, and size structure data suggest that recruitment may compensate for mortality rates in two of the reefs. Spatial differences in size structure and density may be related to environmental and physical characteristics at the reef scale that allow sea fans to reach a safe colony size. Rev. Biol. Trop. 60 (2): 517-526. Epub 2012 June 01.

Las poblaciones de abanicos de mar (Gorgonia ventalina) fueron diezmadas por una epidemia de aspergilosis que afectó gran parte del Caribe, hace más de dos décadas. Desde entonces, a la aspergilosis se le ha considerado como la causa principal de mortalidad en los abanicos de mar. Sin embargo, la prevalencia e incidencia de esta enfermedad han disminuido en el Caribe desde mediados de los años 90. La incidencia se mide como la aparición de nuevos casos de la enfermedad en colonias previamente sanas, mientras que, la prevalencia indica el porcentaje de colonias enfermas en una muestra. La mayoría de los estudios en enfermedades de corales utilizan la prevalencia, en lugar de incidencia para evaluar la dinámica temporal de las enfermedades. No obstante, las conclusiones basadas sólo en prevalencia se deben manejar con precaución, para así evitar interpretaciones erróneas al respecto. En este estudio, 448 colonias de abanicos de mar ubicadas en seis arrecifes al este de Puerto Rico fueron examinadas durante un año, con el fin de: (1) estimar la incidencia y prevalencia de aspergilosis y de otros tipos de lesiones, (2) determinar las causas de mortalidad en abanicos de mar, además de su variación espacial y temporal. Las colonias presentes a lo largo de tres transectos establecidos al azar (10x1m) fueron marcadas y fotografiadas en cada arrecife al inicio del estudio. También, se midió la altura para determinar la categoría de tamaño de cada colonia (pequeña, mediana o grande). Las colonias fueron seguidas a lo largo de un año, y en cada visita se registró su condición de salud. Los resultados indicaron que la incidencia y prevalencia de aspergilosis fueron bajas en todos los arrecifes, lo cual sugiere que actualmente la enfermedad desempeña un rol menor en la regulación de las poblaciones de abanicos. El desprendimiento fue la principal causa de mortalidad, y los datos de estructura de tamaño sugieren que el reclutamiento puede compensar por las tasas de mortalidad en dos de los arrecifes. Las diferencias en densidades y estructuras de tamaño de los abanicos entre los sitios de estudio, pueden estar influenciados por características abióticas propias de cada arrecife. Esto puede permitir que los abanicos de mar alcancen un tamaño seguro para la sobrevivencia de la colonia.
Descritores: Antozoários/microbiologia
Aspergilose/veterinária
-Aspergilose/mortalidade
Incidência
Prevalência
Porto Rico/epidemiologia
Limites: Animais
Tipo de Publ: Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
Responsável: CR1.1 - BINASSS - Biblioteca Nacional de Salud y Seguridad Social


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Id: lil-657674
Autor: Duque-Alarcón, Angela; Santiago-Vázquez, Lory Z; Kerr, Russell G.
Título: A microbial community analysis of the octocoral Eunicea fusca
Fonte: Electron. j. biotechnol;15(5):15-15, Sept. 2012. ilus, tab.
Idioma: en.
Projeto: National Science Foundation; . Florida Atlantic University. Center of Excellence in Biomedical and Marine Biotechnology; . Natural Sciences and Engineering Council of Canada; . Canada Research Chair Program; . Jeanne and Jean-Louis Lévesque Foundation.
Resumo: While there is a significant and growing body of knowledge describing the microbial communities of marine invertebrates such as sponges, there are very few such studies focused on octocorals. The octocoral Eunicea fusca is common on reefs in various regions of the Caribbean and has been the subject of natural product investigations. As part of an effort to describe the microbial community associated with octocorals, a culture-independent analysis of the bacterial community of E. fusca was conducted. Specifically, a 16S rDNA clone library analysis was performed to provide baseline data. A total of 40 bacteria members from 11 groups were found. In general, Proteobacteria were the dominant group with a total of 24 species and α-Proteobacteria represented the highest percentage of bacteria associated with E. fusca (27.5 percent). Other prominent groups observed were Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, Cyanobacteria, Planctomycetes, delta-Proteobacteria, Lentisphaerae and Nitrospirae. This is the first analysis of bacterial populations associated with the gorgonian E. fusca.
Descritores: Antozoários/genética
Antozoários/microbiologia
-ARN RIBOSOMICO ABNORMALITIES, MULTIPLES
Região do Caribe
DNA Ribossômico
Polimorfismo de Fragmento de Restrição
Análise de Sequência de DNA
Limites: Animais
Responsável: CL1.1 - Biblioteca Central



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