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Texto completo SciELO Chile
Texto completo
Id: biblio-983951
Autor: Khan, Aziz; Pan, Xudong; Najeeb, Ullah; Tan, Daniel Kean Yuen; Fahad, Shah; Zahoor, Rizwan; Luo, Honghai.
Título: Coping with drought: stress and adaptive mechanisms, and management through cultural and molecular alternatives in cotton as vital constituents for plant stress resilience and fitness
Fonte: Biol. Res;51:47, 2018. tab, graf.
Idioma: en.
Projeto: National Natural Science Foundation of China.
Resumo: Increased levels of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere and associated climatic variability is primarily responsible for inducing heat waves, flooding and drought stress. Among these, water scarcity is a major limitation to crop productivity. Water stress can severely reduce crop yield and both the severity and duration of the stress are critical. Water availability is a key driver for sustainable cotton production and its limitations can adversely affect physiological and biochemical processes of plants, leading towards lint yield reduction. Adaptation of crop husbandry techniques suitable for cotton crop requires a sound understanding of environmental factors, influencing cotton lint yield and fiber quality. Various defense mechanisms e.g. maintenance of membrane stability, carbon fixation rate, hormone regulation, generation of antioxidants and induction of stress proteins have been found play a vital role in plant survival under moisture stress. Plant molecular breeding plays a functional role to ascertain superior genes for important traits and can offer breeder ready markers for developing ideotypes. This review highlights drought-induced damage to cotton plants at structural, physiological and molecular levels. It also discusses the opportunities for increasing drought tolerance in cotton either through modern gene editing technology like clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR/Cas9), zinc finger nuclease, molecular breeding as well as through crop management, such as use of appropriate fertilization, growth regulator application and soil amendments.
Descritores: Estresse Fisiológico/fisiologia
Adaptação Fisiológica/fisiologia
Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/fisiologia
Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/fisiologia
Gossypium/fisiologia
Secas
-Estresse Fisiológico/genética
Adaptação Fisiológica/genética
Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética
Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética
Gossypium/genética
Aclimatação/genética
Tipo de Publ: Revisão
Responsável: CL1.1 - Biblioteca Central


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Texto completo SciELO Chile
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Id: biblio-1011416
Autor: Wang, Xinbo; Ren, Yongzhe; Li, Jingjing; Wang, Zhiqiang; Xin, Zeyu; Lin, Tongbao.
Título: Knock-down the expression of TaH2B-7D using virus-induced gene silencing reduces wheat drought tolerance
Fonte: Biol. Res;52:14, 2019. graf.
Idioma: en.
Projeto: National Key Research and Development Program of China; . Natural Science Foundation of Henan province; . State Key Laboratory Program.
Resumo: BACKGROUND: Drought is a major abiotic stress affecting global wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) production. Exploration of drought-tolerant genes is essential for the genetic improvement of drought tolerance in wheat. Previous studies have shown that some histone encoding genes are involved in plant drought tolerance. However, whether the H2B family genes are involved in drought stress response remains unclear. METHODS: Here, we identified a wheat histone H2B family gene, TaH2B-7D, which was significantly up-regulated under drought stress conditions. Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) technology was used to further verify the function of TaH2B-7D in wheat drought tolerance. The phenotypic and physiological changes were examined in the TaH2B-7D knock-down plants. RESULTS: In the TaH2B-7D knock-down plants, relative electrolyte leakage rate and malonaldehyde (MDA) content significantly increased, while relative water content (RWC) and proline content significantly decreased compared with those in the non-knocked-down plants under drought stress conditions. TaH2B-7D knock-down plants exhibited severe sagging, wilting and dwarf phenotypes under drought stress conditions, but not in the non-knocked-down plants, suggesting that the former were more sensitive to drought stress. CONCLUSION: These results indicate that TaH2B-7D potentially plays a vital role in conferring drought tolerance in wheat.
Descritores: Proteínas de Plantas/genética
Estresse Fisiológico/genética
Triticum/genética
Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética
Inativação Gênica
Secas
-Fenótipo
Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo
Estresse Fisiológico/fisiologia
Triticum/metabolismo
Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética
Fenômenos Fisiológicos Vegetais/genética
Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real
Responsável: CL1.1 - Biblioteca Central


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Id: lil-644091
Autor: García J., Dora Janeth.
Título: Plantas como fábricas de proteínas recombinantes humanas / Plant molecular farming
Fonte: Cult. cuid. enferm;7(2):38-49, dic.2010.
Idioma: es.
Resumo: Las plantas han sido empleadas por cientos de años para propósitos medicinales. Actualmente la biotecnología vegetal se ha expandido masivamente, el desarrollo de herramientas de ingeniería genética, biología molecular, cultivo de tejidos y técnicas de fermentación han permitido el crecimiento de las células y microorganismos bajo condiciones controladas, dando origen a la producción de materiales de alto potencial clínico e industrial. “Plant molecular farming” es una nueva rama de la biotecnología donde las plantas, por medio de la ingeniería genética, son modificadas para producir proteínas terapéuticas como vacunas, citocinas, anticuerpos, factores de crecimiento y enzimas disminuyendo riesgos de contaminación, tiempos y costos de producción.

Plants have been used for centuries for medical purposes. Currently, plant biotechnology has expanded the development of genetic engineering tools, molecular biology, tissue culture and fermentation techniques have allowed the growth of cells and organisms under controlled conditions, enabling the production of materials for clinical and industrial potential. “Plant molecular farming” is a new branch of biotechnology where the plants through genetic engineering are modified to produce therapeutic proteins such as vaccines, cytokines, antibodies, growth factors and enzymes while reducing contamination risks, time and productions costs.
Descritores: Agrobacterium tumefaciens
Biotecnologia
Engenharia Genética
Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas
Proteínas Recombinantes
Limites: Humanos
Tipo de Publ: Revisão
Responsável: CO637.9 - Secciónal Pereira


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Texto completo SciELO Brasil
Zanuncio, José C
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Id: biblio-886855
Autor: RAMALHO, FRANCISCO S; PACHÚ, JÉSSICA K S; LIRA, ALINE C S; MALAQUIAS, JOSÉ B; BRITO, BÁRBARA D S; ZANUNCIO, JOSÉ C; FERNANDES, FRANCISCO S.
Título: Effects of temperature on the feeding behavior of Alabama argillacea (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) on Bt and non-Bt cotton plants
Fonte: An. acad. bras. ciênc;89(4):2955-2969, Oct.-Dec. 2017. tab, graf.
Idioma: en.
Resumo: ABSTRACT The host acceptance behavior and environmental factors as temperature affect the feeding behavior of Lepidoptera pests. Thus, they must be considered in studies about the risk potential of resistance evolution. The current study sets the differences in the feeding behavior of neonate Alabama argillacea (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) larvae exposed to Bt and non-Bt cotton plants, under different temperatures and time gap after hatching. Two cotton cultivars were used: the Bt (DP 404 BG - bollgard) and the non-transformed isoline, DP 4049. We found that the feeding behavior of neonate A. argillacea is significantly different between Bt and non-Bt cotton. Based on the number of larvae with vegetal tissue in their gut found on the plant and in the organza as well as on the amount of vegetal tissue ingested by the larvae. A. argillacea shows feeding preference for non-Bt cotton plants, in comparison to that on the Bt. However, factors such as temperature and exposure time may affect detection capacity and plant abandonment by the larvae and it results in lower ingestion of vegetal tissue. Such results are relevant to handle the resistance of Bt cotton cultivars to A. argillacea and they also enable determining how the cotton seeds mix will be a feasible handling option to hold back resistance evolution in A. argillacea populations on Bt cotton, when it is compared to other refuge strategies. The results can also be useful to determine which refuge distribution of plants is more effective for handling Bt cotton resistance to A. argillacea.
Descritores: Temperatura
Gossypium/parasitologia
Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia
Lepidópteros/fisiologia
-Bioensaio
Controle Biológico de Vetores
Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas
Gossypium/genética
Lepidópteros/classificação
Limites: Animais
Responsável: BR1.1 - BIREME


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Id: biblio-1087255
Autor: Arencibia, Ariel D; D'Afonseca, Vívian; Chakravarthi, Mohan; Castiglione, Stefano.
Título: Learning from transgenics: advanced gene editing technologies should also bridge the gap with traditional genetic selection
Fonte: Electron. j. biotechnol;41:22-29, sept. 2019. ilus.
Idioma: en.
Resumo: We highlight the importance of the mixed genetic approaches (classical and currents) to improve the social perception related to the GMOs acceptance. We pointed out that CRISPR/Cas9 events could carry DNA variability/rearrangements related to somaclonal variations or epigenetic changes that are independent from the editing per se. The transformation of single cells, followed by plant regeneration, is used to generate modified plants, transgenic or genome editing (CRISPR/Cas9). The incidence of undesirable somaclonal variations and/or epigenetic changes that might have occurred during in vitro multiplication and regeneration processes, must be carefully analyzed in replicates in field trials. One remarkable challenge is related to the time lapse that selects the modified elite genotypes, because these strategies may spend a variable amount of time before the results are commercialized, where in all the cases it should be take into account the genotype × environment interactions. Furthermore, this combination of techniques can create an encouraging bridge between the public opinion and the community of geneticists who are concerned with plant genetic improvement. In this context, either transgenesis or genomic editing strategies become complementary modern tools to facing the challenges of plant genetic improvement. Their applications will depend on case-by-case analysis, and when possible will necessary associate them to the schemes and bases of classic plant genetic improvement.
Descritores: Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas
Técnicas de Transferência de Genes
Sistemas CRISPR-Cas
Edição de Genes
-Transformação Genética
Mutagênese
Metilação de DNA
Melhoramento Genético
Epigênese Genética
Tipo de Publ: Revisão
Responsável: CL1.1 - Biblioteca Central


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Id: lil-564619
Autor: Onofre Nodari, Rubens.
Título: Calidad de los análisis de riesgo e inseguridad de los transgénicos para la salud ambiental y humana / Quality of risk analysis and insecurity of transgenic to environmental and human health
Fonte: Rev. peru. med. exp. salud publica;26(1):74-83, ene.-mar. 2009.
Idioma: es.
Resumo: Las plantas transgénicas, en general, cargan genes de resistencia a antibióticos y secuencias que favorecen la transferencia de genes y la inestabilidad. Además es imprevisible el sitio de inserción del transgene, los efectos colaterales y los efectos a los organismos no blancos o en la cadena alimentaria. Tampoco es posible controlar la expresión de los transgenes insertados o la diseminación de los transgenes. Estas características requieren estudios de base científica para la toma de decisión. Los proponentes de la tecnología prefieren utilizar el criterio de equivalencia substancial, que no tiene base científica como será argumentado en este artículo, pero que está siendo aceptado por las agencias reguladoras. Los pocos estudios presentados por los interesados, en general son de calidad muy baja y por eso, difícilmente serían publicados en revistas de prestigio. Ejemplos de estos estudios son aquí discutidos como el bajo número de repeticiones y la corta duración de los ensayos. Así, la sociedad no tiene conocimiento de lo que pasa durante la fase de análisis y aprobación de transgénicos para uso comercial. Estudios de investigadores independientes ya indican daños a salud humana y al medio ambiente. Parte de estos estudios son presentados y discutidos en este artículo. Finalmente, frente a la falta de evaluaciones de riesgo de base científica, se sugiere el empleo del principio precautorio.

In general, transgenic plants carry genes of antibiotic resistance and sequences that promote the transfer of genes and instability. It is also unpredictable the site of insertion of transgenes, the side effects and the effects to non-target organism or animals in the food chain. Nor it is possible to control the expression of the transgenes that are inserted or the spread of them. These features require scientific studies for decision making. Proponents of the technology prefer to use the criterion of substantial equivalence, which doesn't have scientific basis and will be argued in this article, but being accepted by regulatory agencies. In general, the few studies submitted by applicants are very low quality and therefore they wouldn't be published in prestigious journals. Examples of these studies are discussed here as the low number of repetitions and the short duration of trials. Therefore, society is not known of what happens during the review and approval of transgenics for commercial use. Now, there are studies by independent researchers indicate damage to human health and the environment. Part of these studies are presented and discussed in this article. Finally, in the absence of risk assessments on scientific basis, we suggest the use of the precautionary principle.
Descritores: Biodiversidade
Contaminação Biológica
Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas
Abastecimento de Alimentos
Limites: Humanos
Tipo de Publ: Conferência de Consenso
Responsável: PE1.1 - Oficina Universitária de Biblioteca


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Id: lil-337439
Autor: Valle, Silvio(org); Telles, José Luiz(org).
Título: Bioética & biorrisco: abordagem transdisciplinar / Bioethics & biorrisco.
Fonte: Rio de Janeiro; Interciência; 2003. 417 p. ilus, tab.
Idioma: pt.
Descritores: Biotecnologia
Clonagem de Organismos
Bioética
Engenharia Genética
-Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas
Responsável: BR526.1 - Biblioteca de Saúde Pública
BR526.1; 660.65, V181b; BR1.1; 3733.00


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Id: lil-182775
Autor: Fontes, Eliana G; Santos, Isabel K. de Miranda; Gama, Maria I. C.
Título: A biosseguranca de plantas cultivadas transgenicas / Biosafety of Cultivated Transgenic Plants
Fonte: In: Teixeira, Pedro; Valle, Silvio. Biosseguranca: uma abordagem multidisciplinar. Rio de Janeiro, FIOCRUZ, 1996. p.313-27.
Idioma: pt.
Descritores: Biotecnologia
Riscos Ocupacionais
Contenção de Riscos Biológicos
Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas
Responsável: BR599.1 - Coordenação Geral de Documentação e Informação (CGDI)
BR599.1; WA 400, BIO, 1996; BR67.1; 613.62, 114


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Texto completo SciELO Brasil
Texto completo
Id: biblio-989445
Autor: Luz, P M C; Specht, A; Paula-Moraes, S V; Malaquias, J V; Ferreira, L F M; Otanásio, P N; Diniz, I R.
Título: Owlet moths (Lepidoptera: Noctuoidea) associated with Bt and non- Bt soybean in the brazilian savanna / Noctuóides (Lepidoptera: Noctuoidea) associados a soja Bt e não-Bt no Cerrado brasileiro
Fonte: Braz. j. biol;79(2):248-256, Apr.-June 2019. tab, graf.
Idioma: en.
Projeto: ICMBio; . CNPq; . Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária.
Resumo: Abstract The use of GMO expressing Bt toxin in soybean production has increased significantly in the last years in Brazil in order to manage the damage caused by lepidopteran pests. In this study, we compared the richness and abundance of owlet moths (Noctuoidea) associated with Bt and non-Bt soybean. We determined the temporal variations as a function of phenology, and correlated the population variations of the most common species with meteorological variables. The research was conducted at the experimental area of Embrapa Cerrados. The collection method used was differentiated being suppressive and absolute. A total of 13 species were collected, of which eight occurred on Bt soybeans. The most representative taxa were Chrysodeixis includens (72.87%), Anticarsia gemmatalis (18.17%) and Spodoptera spp (5.22%). The number of larvae belonging to species targeted by the Bt technology was 10 times lower on Bt than on non-Bt soybeans. Utetheisa ornatrix and Elaphria deltoides were recorded on soybean for the first time, observing larvae of both species in non-Bt soybean and those of U. ornatrix also in Bt soybean. Only A. gemmatalis larvae correlated (p <0.05) negatively with precipitation. This study provided field information on the abundance and species richness of owlet moths on non-Bt soybeans, associated with the effects of Bt soybean. When considering the different levels of infestation between cultivars as a criterion, larvae monitoring is of substantial importance in order to develop the lost control program.

Resumo O uso de OGM que expressam toxina Bt na produção de soja tem aumentado significativamente nos últimos anos no Brasil e são utilizados para conter os danos causados ​​pelos lepidópteros pragas. Neste estudo comparamos a riqueza e a abundância de Noctuoides (Noctuoidea) associados à soja Bt e não-Bt. Determinamos as variações temporais em função da fenologia e correlacionamos às variações populacionais das espécies mais comuns com variáveis ​​meteorológicas. A pesquisa foi conduzida na área experimental da Embrapa Cerrados. O método de coleta utilizado foi diferenciado sendo supressivo e absoluto. Um total de 13 espécies foram coletadas, das quais oito ocorreram em soja Bt. Os taxa mais representativos foram Chrysodeixis includens, Anticarsia gemmatalis e Spodoptera spp. O número de larvas pertencentes às espécies alvo da tecnologia Bt foram 10 vezes menores na soja Bt do que em soja não-Bt . Utetheisa ornatrix e Elaphria deltoides foram registradas na soja pela primeira vez, observando-se larvas de ambas espécies na soja não-Bt e as de U. ornatrix também na soja Bt. Somente as larvas de A. gemmatalis se correlacionaram (p <0,05) negativamente com a precipitação. Este estudo forneceu informações em campo sobre a abundância e riqueza de espécies na soja não- Bt, associada aos efeitos da soja Bt. A importância do monitoramento das lagartas é substancial, a fim de tomar a melhor decisão de controle, considerando-se os diferentes níveis de infestação entre cultivares como critério.
Descritores: Proteínas de Bactérias/genética
Proteínas de Bactérias/farmacologia
Endotoxinas/genética
Endotoxinas/farmacologia
Proteínas Hemolisinas/genética
Proteínas Hemolisinas/farmacologia
-Soja/genética
Soja/parasitologia
Brasil
Controle Biológico de Vetores
Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética
Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/parasitologia
Larva/efeitos dos fármacos
Mariposas/efeitos dos fármacos
Limites: Animais
Responsável: BR1.1 - BIREME


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Id: biblio-1099534
Autor: Amaral, Luana Figueiredo do; Ferreira, Igor Macedo; Santos, Lilian Vieira do Nascimento; Silva, Ana Mara Oliveira e; Fagundes, Andhressa Araújo; Carvalho, Michelle Garcêz de.
Título: Biscoito com especiarias e farinhas de milho e semente de abóbora: desenvolvimento e avaliação da qualidade / Biscuit with spices and corn flours and pumpkin seed: development and quality assessment
Fonte: Demetra (Rio J.);14:e33380, mar. 2019. tab, graf.
Idioma: en; pt.
Resumo: O milho é um dos cereais mais utilizados na produção de alimentos, sendo em sua maioria transgênico. Diante disso, objetivou-se desenvolver e avaliar formulações de biscoitos com farinha não transgênica de milho (FMNT) e farinha de semente de abóbora (FSA), adicionados de especiarias. Inicialmente, foram analisadas quimicamente três marcas de FMT (farinha de milho transgênica) e uma marca de FMNT. Paralelamente, realizou-se pesquisa com 80 consumidores sobre o biscoito proposto, sendo então elaboradas três formulações: F1 (sem FSA), F2 (com 25% FSA) e F3 (com 50% FSA). Cada formulação de biscoito foi avaliada quanto às características microbiológicas, sensoriais e químicas. No que se refere às características das farinhas de milho, a FMNT apresentou maior quantidade de proteínas e capacidade antioxidante. A pesquisa de mercado indicou que as formulações de biscoito propostas têm potencial comercial, e que deveriam ser adicionados orégano e manjericão. Todas as formulações de biscoito estavam seguras microbiologicamente, mas a formulação 2 foi a que apresentou melhor aceitação no que se refere a sabor e impressão global, assim como melhor intenção de compra, além de ser a preferida pelos provadores. O índice de aceitabilidade (IA) indicou a formulação 2 com potencial para consumo e comercialização. Em relação à composição centesimal e química, a formulação 3 apresentou características melhores por conter mais cinzas (7,73), proteínas (34,22), lipídios (28,77), energia (494,43), redução do ferro (23,34) e fenólicos totais (196,40). Diante do exposto, somente a formulação 2 apresenta potencial comercial, uma vez que contém um IA igual ao mínimo estabelecido para comercialização, enquanto que a formulação 3 apresentou melhores características químicas. (AU)

Corn is one of the most used cereals in food production, being mostly transgenic. Therefore, the objective was to develop and evaluate formulations of biscuits with non-transgenic corn flour (NTCF) and pumpkin seed meal (PSM), added with spices. Initially, three brands of TCF (transgenic corn flour), and a brand of NTCF were chemically analyzed. In parallel, a survey was carried out with 80 consumers on the proposed biscuit. Three formulations were formulated: F1 (without PSM), F2 (with 25% PSM) and F3 (with 50% PSM). Each cookie formulation was evaluated for microbiological, sensory and chemical characteristics. Regarding the characteristics of corn flour, NTCF showed a higher amount of protein and antioxidant capacity. Market research has indicated that the proposed biscuit formulations have commercial potential, and that oregano and basil should be added. All biscuit formulations were microbiologically safe; however, formulation 2 was the one that showed the best acceptance for taste, overall impression, purchase intention, and was the preferred formulation by tasters. The acceptability index (IA) indicated formulation 2 with potential for consumption and commercialization. In relation to the centesimal and chemical composition, formulation 3 showed better characteristics as it contained more ash (7.73), proteins (34.22), lipids (28.77), energy (494.43), iron reduction (23.34) and total phenolics (196.40). Considering the above, only formulation 2 has commercial potential, since it contains an acceptance index equal to the minimum established for commercialization, while formulation 3 presented better chemical characteristics. (AU)
Descritores: Alimentos Formulados
Biscoitos
-Grão Comestível
Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas
Farinha
Limites: Humanos
Masculino
Feminino
Adolescente
Adulto
Pessoa de Meia-Idade
Responsável: BR1691.1 - Biblioteca CEH/A



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