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Texto completo SciELO Chile
Texto completo
Id: biblio-950785
Autor: Kamal, Zul; Ullah, Farhat; Ayaz, Muhammad; Sadiq, Abdul; Ahmad, Sajjad; Zeb, Anwar; Hussain, Abid; Imran, Muhammad.
Título: Anticholinesterse and antioxidant investigations of crude extracts, subsequent fractions, saponins and flavonoids of atriplex laciniata L: potential effectiveness in Alzheimer's and other neurological disorders
Fonte: Biol. Res;48:1-11, 2015. graf, tab.
Idioma: en.
Resumo: BACKGROUND: Atriplex laciniata L. was investigated for phenolic, flavonoid contents, antioxidant, anticholinesterase activities, in an attempt to explore its effectiveness in Alzheimer's and other neurological disorders. Plant crude methanolic extract (Al.MeF), subsequent fractions; n-hexane (Al.HxF), chloroform (Al.CfF), ethyl acetate (Al.EaF), aqueous (Al.WtF), Saponins (Al.SPF) and Flavonoids (Al.FLVF) were investigated for DPPH, ABTS and H2O2 free radical scavenging activities. Further these extracts were subjected to acetylcholinesterase (AChE) & butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) inhibitory activities using Ellman's assay. Phenolic and Flavonoid contents were determined and expressed in mg Gallic acid GAE/g and Rutin RTE/g of samples respectively. RESULTS: In DPPH free radicals scavenging assay, Al.FLVF, Al.SPF and Al.MeF showed highest activity causing 89.41 ± 0.55, 83.37 ± 0.34 and 83.37 ± 0.34% inhibition of free radicals respectively at 1 mg/mL concentration. IC50 for these fractions were 33, 83 and 82 µg/mL respectively. Similarly, plant extracts showed high ABTS scavenging potential, i.e. Al.FLVF (90.34 ± 0.55), Al.CfF (83.42 ± 0.57), Al.MeF (81.49 ± 0.60) with IC50 of 30, 190 and 70 µg/ml respectively. further, H2O2 percent scavenging was highly appraised in Al.FLVF (91.29 ±0.53, IC50 75), Al.SPF (85.35 ±0.61, IC50 70) and Al.EaF (83.48 ± 0.67, IC50 270 µg/mL). All fractions exhibited concentration dependent AChE inhibitory activity as; Al.FLVF, 88.31 ± 0.57 (IC50 70 µg/mL), Al.SPF, 84.36 ± 0.64 (IC50 90 µg/mL), Al.MeF, 78.65 ± 0.70 (IC50 280 µg/mL), Al.EaF, 77.45 ± 0.46 (IC50 270 µg/mL) and Al.WtF 72.44 ± 0.58 (IC50 263 µg/mL) at 1 mg/mL. Likewise the percent BChE inhibitory activity was most obvious in Al.FLVF 85.46 ± 0.62 (IC50 100 µg/mL), Al.CfF 83.49 ± 0.46 (IC50 160 µg/mL), Al.MeF 82.68 ± 0.60 (IC50 220 µg/mL) and Al.SPF 80.37 ± 0.54 (IC50 120 µg/mL). CONCLUSIONS: These results stipulate that A. laciniata is enriched with phenolic and flavonoid contents that possess significant antioxidant and anticholinestrase effects. This provide pharmacological basis for the presence of compounds that may be effective in Alzheimer's and other neurological disorders.
Descritores: Saponinas/metabolismo
Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia
Inibidores da Colinesterase/farmacologia
Doença de Alzheimer/tratamento farmacológico
Saponinas/isolamento & purificação
Ácidos Sulfônicos/metabolismo
Inibidores da Colinesterase/isolamento & purificação
Sequestradores de Radicais Livres/farmacologia
Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos
Concentração Inibidora 50
Medicina Tradicional
Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação
Responsável: CL1.1 - Biblioteca Central

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Texto completo SciELO Brasil
Texto completo
Id: lil-770112
Autor: HAMED, Néjia; NJEH, Fatma; DAMAK, Mohamed; AYADI, Ali; MEZGHANI-JARRAYA, Raoudha; HAMMAMI, Hayet.
Título: MOLLUSCICIDAL AND LARVICIDAL ACTIVITIES OF Atriplex inflata AERIAL PARTS AGAINST THE MOLLUSK Galba truncatula, INTERMEDIATE HOST OF Fasciola hepatica / Atividade moluscicida e larvicida das partes aéreas de Atriplex inflata contra o molusco Galba truncatula, hospedeiro intermediário da Fasciola hepatica
Fonte: Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. Säo Paulo;57(6):473-479, Nov.-Dec. 2015. tab.
Idioma: en.
Resumo: Fasciolosis is a widespread parasitosis of farm live-stock in many developing countries. For this reason, it is necessary to search for new substances against parasitic diseases caused by flukes. Indeed, a wide variety of terrestrial plants have been subjected to chemical and pharmacological screening in order to discover their potential for human medicinal use. The molluscicidal and larvicidal activities of Atriplex inflata were tested on Galba truncatula and Fasciola hepatica larval stages infecting this snail in Tunisia. Phytochemical tests were conducted on extracts in order to establish a meaningful relationship with molluscicidal and larvicidal activities. The molluscicidal activity was evaluated by subjecting snails to sample aqueous solutions. Accordingly, hexane, ethyl acetate, methanol and methanol-water (8:2, v-v) were used as extraction solvents. As a result, hexane and ethyl acetate extracts showed potent activity, according to the World Health Organization, giving LC50 = 7.59 mg/L and 6.69 mg/L for hexane extracts of leaves and fruits, respectively. Ethyl acetate extracts gave LC50 = 5.90 mg/L and 7.32 mg/L for leaves and fruits, successively. Molluscicidal activities of powders were less potent on snails, but active according to the World Health Organization. Hexane and ethyl acetate extracts from leaves and fruits gave potent larvicidal activities with a delay rate exceeding 45.50% (45.50- 98.92%). Phytochemical tests showed that these activities may be attributed to the presence of triterpenoids and/or sterols.

Fasciolose é uma parasitose generalizada que ocorre em animais de fazendas em muitos países em desenvolvimento. Por esta razão, é necessária a busca de novas substâncias contra as doenças parasitárias causadas por vermes. De fato, uma grande variedade de plantas terrestres foi objeto de testes farmacológicos e químicos a fim de descobrir o seu potencial para utilização em terapêutica humana. As atividades moluscicida e larvicida de Atriplex inflata foram testadas contra estágios larvários de Galba truncatula e Fasciola hepatica infectando este caracol na Tunísia. Testes fitoquímicos foram realizados com extratos a fim de estabelecer uma relação significativa com as atividades moluscicida e larvicida. A atividade moluscicida foi avaliada submetendo os caracóis a soluções aquosas. Conforme o caso, hexano, acetato de etilo, metanol e metanol-água (8:2, v-v) foram utilizados como solventes de extração. Como resultado, hexano e extratos de acetato apresentaram atividades potentes de acordo com a Organização Mundial de Saúde, resultando em LC50 = 7,59 mg/L e 6,69 mg/L para extratos de hexano de folhas e frutos, respectivamente. Extratos de acetato de etilo resultaram em LC50 = 5,90 mg/L e 7,32 mg/L para as folhas e frutos sucessivamente. Atividades moluscicidas das substâncias sob a forma de pó foram menos potentes em caracóis, mas ativas de acordo com a Organização Mundial de Saúde. Hexano e extratos de acetato de folhas e frutos apresentaram atividade larvicida potente, com uma taxa de atraso superior a 45,50% (45,50-98,92%). Testes fitoquímicos mostraram que estas atividades podem ser atribuídas à presença de triterpenóides e/ou esteróis.
Descritores: Atriplex/química
Fasciola hepatica/efeitos dos fármacos
Controle de Pragas/métodos
Componentes Aéreos da Planta/química
Caramujos/efeitos dos fármacos
Larva/efeitos dos fármacos
Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia
Folhas de Planta/química
Limites: Animais
Tipo de Publ: Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Responsável: BR1.1 - BIREME

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Texto completo SciELO Costa Rica
Texto completo
Id: lil-753715
Autor: Jáuregui, Damelis; Castro, Mercedes; Ruiz-Zapata, Thirza; Lapp, Marlene.
Título: Anatomía de los órganos vegetativos de dos especies de Atriplex (Chenopodiaceae) de Venezuela / Anatomy of the vegetative organs of two species of Atriplex (Chenopodiaceae) from Venezuela
Fonte: Rev. biol. trop;62(4):1625-1636, oct.-dic. 2014. ilus.
Idioma: es.
Resumo: In Venezuela, Atriplex is represented by A. cristata and A. oestophora, the latter being endemic; they inhabit coastal areas with high temperatures, high solar radiation and sandy soils with high salt content. This work aimed to provide information to facilitate and clarify these species taxonomic delimitation, throughout the study of the anatomy of their vegetative organs; this may also clarify our understanding of their adaptability to soil and climatic conditions prevailing in areas they inhabit. The plant material was collected from at least three individu- als of each species in Punta Taima Taima and Capatárida, Falcon. Segments of roots, located near the neck and towards the apex, apical, middle and basal internodes of stems, were taken; and of leaves, located in the middle portion of plants. This material was fixed in FAA (formaldehyde, acetic acid, 70% ethanol) until processing. Semipermanent and permanent microscope slides were prepared with transverse or longitudinal sections, made using a razor (free-hand) or a rotation microtome, in this latter case, after paraffin embedding; besides, additional plates were mounted with portions of leaf epidermis, obtained by the maceration technique. The sections were stained with aqueous toluidine blue (1%) or safranin-fast-green, and mounted in water-glycerin or in Canada balsam. In order to calculate the vulnerability index, the vessel diameter in the vascular rings of roots, as well as their density, were quantified. Our results revealed structural features in the different organs, that resulted of taxonomic value and allowed the distinction of the species: in the leaf, the presence of aquifer tissue, the number of vascular bundles and their organization in the midrib, and the collenchyma differentiation in this part of the leaf; in the roots, the xylem and phloem arrangement in the growth rings, the nature of conjunctive tissue, and the presence of included phloem in one species. In addition, the species showed typical anatomical features of halophytes and xerophytes, such as: high density of trichomes on leaves and young stems which act as salt secreting glands, abundant sclerenchyma in stems and roots, water storage tissue and Kranz anatomy in leaves, narrow cortical region in young roots, presence of cambial variants in stems and roots, as well as short and narrow xylem vessels. Vulnerability index calculations indicated that both species tend to assure conduction but not the efficiency of the system. Atriplex species have anatomical characters which facilitate their adaptation to the special conditions prevailing in their habitats and that may be used for taxonomic delimitation.

En Venezuela, Atriplex está representado por A. cristata y A. oestophora, siendo esta última endémica, las mismas habitan zonas costeras con altas temperaturas, alta radiación solar y suelos arenosos con alto contenido de sales. Se caracterizaron anatómicamente sus órganos vegetativos con el fin de aportar rasgos para delimitarlas taxonómicamente y precisar caracteres que contribuyan a su adaptabilidad a las condiciones edafoclimáticas imperantes en su hábitat. El material vegetal fue recolectado en tres individuos de cada especie en Punta Taima Taima y Capatárida (Falcón). Se recolectaron segmentos de raíces próximos al cuello y al ápice; entrenudos basales, medios y apicales, y hojas ubicadas en la porción media de las plan- tas. Este material fue fijado en FAA (formaldehido, ácido acético y etanol 70%) hasta su procesamiento. Se prepara- ron láminas semipermanentes y permanentes con secciones transversales y longitudinales hechas a mano alzada o con micrótomo, en este último caso posterior a la inclusión en parafina. Adicionalmente, se realizaron macerados con el fin de obtener las epidermis foliares. Las secciones fueron teñidas con azul de toluidina acuosa (1%) o con safranina- fastgreen, montándolas en agua/glicerina o en bálsamo de Canadá. Se cuantificó el número de vasos y su densidad en los anillos vasculares de las raíces, para calcular el índice de vulnerabilidad. Se encontraron rasgos estructurales de valor taxonómico: la presencia de tejido acuífero en la lámina foliar, el número de haces vasculares y su organización en el nervio medio, así como la diferenciación de colénquima en el mismo; además, el arreglo del xilema/ floema en los anillos de crecimiento, la naturaleza del tejido conjuntivo, así como la presencia de floema incluso, en las raíces. Se detectaron caracteres anatómicos típicos de halófitas y xerófitas, como son: alta densidad de tricomas en hojas y tallos jóvenes, que actúan como glándulas secretoras de sal, abundancia de esclerénquima en tallos y raíces, tejidos reservantes de agua y anatomía Kranz en hojas, región cortical estrecha en raíces jóvenes, presencia de variantes cambiales en tallos y raíces, así como vasos cortos y estrechos en el xilema. El índice de vulnerabilidad indica que ambas especies tienden a asegurar la conducción, pero no la eficiencia del sistema. Las especies de Atriplex que crecen en Venezuela tienen caracteres que permiten su delimitación taxonómica y que facilitan su adaptación a las condiciones particulares de su hábitat.
Descritores: Atriplex/anatomia & histologia
Folhas de Planta/anatomia & histologia
Raízes de Plantas/anatomia & histologia
Caules de Planta/anatomia & histologia
Responsável: CR1.1 - BINASSS - Biblioteca Nacional de Salud y Seguridad Social

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