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Id: biblio-1052604
Autor: Alves, Donizete Aparecido da Silva; Welz, Caio Cesar; Cruz, Rayane Monique Sete da; Oliveira, Karym Mayara de; Bonett, Lucimar Pereira.
Título: Adubação foliar e viabilidade econômica de potássio na cultura do trigo (triticum aestiavum l. ) / Foliar fertilization and economic feasibility of potassium in wheat (triticum aestiavum l. ) crops / Abono foliar y viabilidad económica de potasio en la cultura del trigo (triticum aestiavum l. )
Fonte: Arq. Ciênc. Vet. Zool. UNIPAR (Online);22(2):53-58, abr-jun. 2019. graf.
Idioma: pt.
Resumo: A disponibilidade do nitrogênio (N) e do potássio (K) e a adequada proporção entre os dois são de grande importância para a realização de processos como crescimento e desenvolvimento das plantas. Este trabalho objetivou avaliar o efeito de fontes e doses de K em associação ao N em cobertura via foliar sobre as características produtivas do trigo (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivado em sistema de semeadura direta, em sucessão à cultura da soja. O experimento foi desenvolvido no ano de 2018 no município de Juranda, região centro oeste do Paraná. O delineamento experimental adotado foi o de blocos casualizados em esquema fatorial 5 x 1, com seis repetições, totalizando 30 parcelas experimentais, K e KN em combinação, em fase fenológicas diferentes, fase V5 (emborrachamento) e fase R7 (enchimento de grãos). Foram avaliados, tamanho de espiga, quantidade de grão por espiga, e peso de grão, para avaliar os reais benefícios da aplicação da adubação potássica via foliar. Para o número de espigas somente o tratamento com K em enchimento não diferiu do controle. No parâmetro número de grãos obteve-se os melhores resultados em K no emborrachamento e K e N no enchimento, entretanto, na massa de mil grãos o K no enchimento obteve a melhor média (40,75 g planta-1) em relação controle. Conclui-se que, a utilização do K via foliar aumenta o comprimento das espigas, número de grãos e massa de mil grãos e a aplicação do produto comercial K-40 no estádio de R7 aumenta em cerca de 30% a produtividade quando comparado ao controle.(AU)

The availability of nitrogen (N) and potassium (K) and the adequate ratio between the two are of great importance for processes such as growth and development of plants. The purpose of this paper was to evaluate the effect of sources and doses of K in association with N in foliar cover on wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) production grown under no-tillage system after soybean crop. The experiment was carried out in 2018 in the municipality of Juranda, central-western region of Paraná. The study used an experimental design in randomized blocks in a 5 x 1 factorial scheme, with 6 replicates, totaling 30 experimental plots, K and KN in combination, different phenological phases, V5 (rubberizing) and R7 (grain filling) phases. Ear size, grain per ear, and grain weight were assessed to evaluate the real benefits of foliar application of potassium fertilization. For the number of ears, treatment only with K during filling did not differ from the control; for number of grains per ear, the best results were obtained in K in the rubberizing, and K and N in the filling stages. However, for the weight of thousand grains, K in the filling stage presented the best mean (40.75 g plant-1) in the control ratio. It can be concluded that the use of K via foliar application increases the length of the ear, number of grains and weight per thousand grains. Application of the commercial product K-40 at the R7 stage increases yield by about 30%.(AU)

La disponibilidad del nitrógeno (N) y del potasio (K) y la adecuada proporción entre los dos son de gran importancia para la realización de procesos como crecimiento y desarrollo de las plantas. Este trabajo objetivó evaluar el efecto de fuentes y dosis de K en asociación al N en cobertura foliar sobre las características productivas del trigo (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivado en sistema de siembra directa, en sucesión al cultivo de la soja. El experimento se desarrolló en el año 2018 en el municipio de Juranda, región centro oeste de Paraná. El planteamiento experimental adoptado fue de bloques casualizados en esquema factorial 5 x 1, con seis repeticiones, totalizando 30 parcelas experimentales, K y KN en combinación, en fase fenológicas diferentes, fase V5 (encauchadas) y fase R7 (relleno de granos). Se evaluaron, tamaño de espiga, cantidad de grano por espiga, y peso de grano, para evaluar los reales beneficios de la aplicación de la fertilización potásica vía foliar. Para el número de espigas solamente el tratamiento con K en relleno no difirió del control. En el parámetro número de granos se obtuvo los mejores resultados en K en el encauche y K y N en el relleno, sin embargo, en la masa de mil granos el K en el relleno obtuvo la mejor media (40,75 g planta-1) en relación control. Se concluye que, la utilización del K vía foliar aumenta la longitud de las espigas, número de granos y masa de mil granos y la aplicación del producto comercial K-40 en la fase de R7 aumenta en un 30% la productividad mientras comparado al control.(AU)
Descritores: Potássio
Compostagem/economia
Produtos Agrícolas/economia
Produtos Agrícolas/química
-Triticum
Responsável: BR68.1 - Biblioteca Virginie Buff D'Ápice


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Id: biblio-1049797
Autor: Sousa, Maria Clara Domingos de Araújo; Barros, Yáskara Veruska Ribeiro; Silva, Vânia Nascimento Tenório; Santos Junior, Claudio José dos.
Título: Avaliação do teor de sódio contido em salgadinhos industrializados comercializados em supermercados / Evaluation of the sodium content contained in industrialized salted snacks marketed in supermarkets
Fonte: Rev. bras. ciênc. saúde;23(4):535-542, 2019. tab, ilus.
Idioma: pt.
Resumo: Objetivo: Analisar experimentalmente o teor de sódio de sal-gadinhos industrializados disponíveis no comércio da Cidade de Maceió, Alagoas. Material e Métodos: Classificar o teor de sódio de acordo com a legislação vigente. Vinte amostras de salgadinho de milho, trigo e batata, de diferentes sabores foram avaliadas utilizando-se a metodologia de espectrofotometria de emissão com atomização em chama. Resultados: Verificou-se que todas as amostras apresentavam a classificação de "alto teor" de sódio, tendo por base a RDC n° 24 de 2010 da Anvisa e que 65% das amostras apresentaram valores reais do teor de sódio superiores aos que estavam declarados nos rótulos. Conclusão: Com relação ao teor de sódio encontrado nos salgadinhos analisados, verificou-se que todas as amostras apresentaram a classificação de "alto teor" de sódio. (AU)

Objective:The objective of the study was to analyze experi-mentally the sodium content of commercially available savory foods in the city of Maceió, Alagoas,. Method: to classify this content according to the current legislation. Twenty samples of corn flakes, wheat and potato snacks of random flavors were evaluated using the emission spectrophotometry with in-line flame atomization method. Results: It was verified that all The samples presented a sodium "high content" classification, based on Anvisa's RDC nº 24 of 2010 and that it was also observed that 65% of the samples had actual values of sodium content higher than those declared on the labels. Conclusion: Regarding the sodium content found in the analyzed snack foods, it was found that all samples had the classification of "high" sodium. (AU)
Descritores: Sódio/análise
Produtos de Venda Direta ao Consumidor
Alimentos Industrializados
-Sódio/classificação
Triticum
Solanum tuberosum
Zea mays
Informação Nutricional
Responsável: BR8.1 - Biblioteca Central


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Id: biblio-974324
Autor: Revin, Victor; Liyaskina, Elena; Nazarkina, Maria; Bogatyreva, Alena; Shchankin, Mikhail.
Título: Cost-effective production of bacterial cellulose using acidic food industry by-products
Fonte: Braz. j. microbiol;49(supl.1):151-159, 2018. tab, graf.
Idioma: en.
Resumo: Abstract To reduce the cost of obtaining bacterial cellulose, acidic by-products of the alcohol and dairy industries were used without any pretreatment or addition of other nitrogen sources. Studies have shown that the greatest accumulation of bacterial cellulose (6.19 g/L) occurs on wheat thin stillage for 3 days of cultivation under dynamic conditions, which is almost 3 times higher than on standard Hestrin and Schramm medium (2.14 g/L). The use of whey as a nutrient medium makes it possible to obtain 5.45 g/L bacterial cellulose under similar conditions of cultivation. It is established that the pH of the medium during the growth of Gluconacetobacter sucrofermentans B-11267 depends on the feedstock used and its initial value. By culturing the bacterium on thin stillage and whey, there is a decrease in the acidity of the waste. It is shown that the infrared spectra of bacterial cellulose obtained in a variety of environments have a similar character, but we found differences in the micromorphology and crystallinity of the resulting biopolymer.
Descritores: Resíduos/análise
Microbiologia Industrial/métodos
Celulose/biossíntese
Gluconacetobacter/metabolismo
-Resíduos/economia
Triticum/metabolismo
Triticum/microbiologia
Microbiologia Industrial/economia
Indústria Alimentícia
Meios de Cultura/economia
Meios de Cultura/metabolismo
Gluconacetobacter/crescimento & desenvolvimento
Etanol/metabolismo
Responsável: BR1.1 - BIREME


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Id: biblio-974310
Autor: Souza, Renata Carolini; Cantão, Maurício Egídio; Nogueira, Marco Antonio; Vasconcelos, Ana Tereza Ribeiro; Hungria, Mariangela.
Título: Outstanding impact of soil tillage on the abundance of soil hydrolases revealed by a metagenomic approach
Fonte: Braz. j. microbiol;49(4):723-730, Oct.-Dec. 2018. graf.
Idioma: en.
Projeto: CNPq-Universal; . CNPq; . Embrapa.
Resumo: ABSTRACT The soil represents the main source of novel biocatalysts and biomolecules of industrial relevance. We searched for hydrolases in silico in four shotgun metagenomes (4,079,223 sequences) obtained in a 13-year field trial carried out in southern Brazil, under the no-tillage (NT), or conventional tillage (CT) managements, with crop succession (CS, soybean/wheat), or crop rotation (CR, soybean/maize/wheat/lupine/oat). We identified 42,631 hydrolases belonging to five classes by comparing with the KEGG database, and 44,928 sequences by comparing with the NCBI-NR database. The abundance followed the order: lipases > laccases > cellulases > proteases > amylases > pectinases. Statistically significant differences were attributed to the tillage system, with the NT showing about five times more hydrolases than the CT system. The outstanding differences can be attributed to the management of crop residues, left on the soil surface in the NT, and mechanically broken and incorporated into the soil in the CT. Differences between the CS and the CR were slighter, 10% higher for the CS, but not statistically different. Most of the sequences belonged to fungi (Verticillium, and Colletotrichum for lipases and laccases, and Aspergillus for proteases), and to the archaea Sulfolobus acidocaldarius for amylases. Our results indicate that agricultural soils under conservative managements may represent a hotspot for bioprospection of hydrolases.
Descritores: Solo/química
Proteínas Fúngicas/genética
Archaea/enzimologia
Proteínas Arqueais/genética
Fungos/enzimologia
Hidrolases/genética
-Microbiologia do Solo
Soja/crescimento & desenvolvimento
Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento
Brasil
Archaea/isolamento & purificação
Archaea/classificação
Archaea/genética
Zea mays/crescimento & desenvolvimento
Agricultura
Metagenoma
Metagenômica
Fungos/isolamento & purificação
Fungos/classificação
Fungos/genética
Responsável: BR1.1 - BIREME


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Id: biblio-974338
Autor: Tahir, Muhammad; Khalid, Umaira; Ijaz, Muhammad; Shah, Ghulam Mustafa; Naeem, Muhammad Asif; Shahid, Muhammad; Mahmood, Khalid; Ahmad, Naveed; Kareem, Fazal.
Título: Combined application of bio-organic phosphate and phosphorus solubilizing bacteria (Bacillus strain MWT 14) improve the performance of bread wheat with low fertilizer input under an arid climate
Fonte: Braz. j. microbiol;49(supl.1):15-24, 2018. tab, graf.
Idioma: en.
Resumo: Abstract This study was aimed to investigate the effect of bio-organic phosphate either alone or in combination with phosphorus solubilizing bacteria strain (Bacillus MWT-14) on the growth and productivity of two wheat cultivars (Galaxy-2013 and Punjab-2011) along with recommended (150-100 NP kg ha−1) and half dose (75-50 NP kg ha−1) of fertilizers. The combined application of bio-organic phosphate and the phosphorous solubilizing bacteria strain at either fertilizer level significantly improved the growth, yield parameters and productivity of both wheat cultivars compared to non-inoculated control treatments. The cultivar Punjab-2011 produced the higher chlorophyll contents, crop growth rate, and the straw yield at half dose of NP fertilizer; while Galaxy-2013, with the combined application of bio-organic phosphate and phosphorous solubilizing bacteria under recommended NP fertilizer dose. Combined over both NP fertilizer levels, the combined use of bio-organic phosphate and phosphorous solubilizing bacteria enhanced the grain yield of cultivar Galaxy-2013 by 54.3% and that of cultivar Punjab-2011 by 83.3%. The combined application of bio-organic phosphate and phosphorous solubilizing bacteria also increased the population of phosphorous solubilizing bacteria, the soil organic matter and phosphorous contents in the soil. In conclusion, the combined application of bio-organic phosphate and phosphorous solubilizing bacteria offers an eco-friendly option to harvest the better wheat yield with low fertilizer input under arid climate.
Descritores: Fosfatos/farmacocinética
Fósforo/metabolismo
Bacillus/metabolismo
Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento
Fertilizantes/análise
Produção Agrícola/métodos
-Fosfatos/análise
Fósforo/análise
Microbiologia do Solo
Triticum/metabolismo
Triticum/microbiologia
Clima
Responsável: BR1.1 - BIREME


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Id: biblio-974335
Autor: Naeem, Muhammad; Aslam, Zubair; Khaliq, Abdul; Ahmed, Jam Nazir; Nawaz, Ahmad; Hussain, Mubshar.
Título: Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria reduce aphid population and enhance the productivity of bread wheat
Fonte: Braz. j. microbiol;49(supl.1):9-14, 2018. tab, graf.
Idioma: en.
Resumo: Abstract Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria increase plant growth and give protection against insect pests and pathogens. Due to the negative impact of chemical pesticides on environment, alternatives to these chemicals are needed. In this scenario, the biological methods of pest control offer an eco-friendly and an attractive option. In this study, the effect of two plant growth promoting rhizobacterial strains (Bacillus sp. strain 6 and Pseudomonas sp. strain 6K) on aphid population and wheat productivity was evaluated in an aphid susceptible (Pasban-90) and resistant (Inqlab-91) wheat cultivar. The seeds were inoculated with each PGPR strain, separately or the combination of both. The lowest aphid population (2.1 tiller−1), and highest plant height (85.8 cm), number of spikelets per spike (18), grains per spike (44), productive tillers (320 m−2), straw yield (8.6 Mg ha−1), and grain yield (4.8 Mg ha−1) were achieved when seeds were inoculated with Bacillus sp. strain 6 + Pseudomonas sp. strain 6K. The grain yield of both varieties was enhanced by 35.5-38.9% with seed inoculation with both bacterial strains. Thus, the combine use of both PGPR strains viz. Bacillus sp. strain 6 + Pseudomonas sp. strain 6K offers an attractive option to reduce aphid population tied with better wheat productivity.
Descritores: Afídeos/crescimento & desenvolvimento
Pseudomonas/fisiologia
Bacillus/fisiologia
Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento
-Doenças das Plantas/parasitologia
Doenças das Plantas/prevenção & controle
Microbiologia do Solo
Triticum/microbiologia
Triticum/parasitologia
Controle Biológico de Vetores
Dinâmica Populacional
Limites: Animais
Responsável: BR1.1 - BIREME


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Id: biblio-1048726
Autor: Babay, Elyes; Mnasri, Sameh Rahmani; Mzid, Rim; Naceur, M'barek ben; Hanana, Mohsen.
Título: Quality selection and genetic diversity of Tunisian durum wheat varieties using SSR markers / Seleção de qualidade e diversidade genética de vari edades de trigo duro da tunísia usando marcadores SSR
Fonte: Biosci. j. (Online);35(4):1002-1012, july/aug. 2019. ilus, tab.
Idioma: en.
Resumo: Our study focuses on the molecular analysis of the genetic diversity within 15 Tunisian durum wheat varieties and the assessment of the efficiency of some available markers to select valuable genotypes for technological proprieties of semolina (i.e. parameters related to SDS-sedimentation, mixing time and breakdown resistance of mixograph, grain protein content and yellow colour). While several markers were validated, others were not informative within the genotypes used. A high level of polymorphic information content (PIC) was detected, with an average of 5.2 polymorph alleles per locus and 0.6 average. Old varieties have high protein content however; modern varieties display strong gluten strength. Our results thus open the opportunity to choose valuable parents on the base of pedigrees, technological properties and genetic distances; and lead us to select efficient markers for the Regional Indigenous Land Strategy (Rils) selection strategy

Nosso estudo enfoca a análise molecular da diversidade genética em 15 variedades de trigo duro tunisiano e a avaliação da eficiência de alguns marcadores disponíveis para selecionar genótipos valiosos para propriedades tecnológicas de semolina (ou seja, parâmetros relacionados à sedimentação sds, tempo de mistura e resistência à degradação do mixógrafo, teor de proteína dos grãos e cor amarela). Enquanto vários marcadores foram validados, outros não foram informativos dentro dos genótipos utilizados. Foi detectado um alto nível de conteúdo de informação polimórfica (pic), com uma média de 5,2 alelos polimórficos por locus e 0,6 média. Variedades antigas têm alto teor de proteína no entanto; variedades modernas exibem forte força de glúten. Nossos resultados abrem, assim, a oportunidade de escolher pais valiosos com base em pedigrees, propriedades tecnológicas e distâncias genéticas; e nos levam a selecionar marcadores eficientes para a estratégia de seleção da estratégia regional de terras indígenas (rils).
Descritores: Variação Genética
Triticum
Responsável: BR396.1 - Biblioteca Central


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Id: biblio-828197
Autor: del Palacio, Agustina; Bettucci, Lina; Pan, Dinorah.
Título: Fusarium and Aspergillus mycotoxins contaminating wheat silage for dairy cattle feeding in Uruguay
Fonte: Braz. j. microbiol;47(4):1000-1005, Oct.-Dec. 2016. tab, graf.
Idioma: en.
Projeto: Agencia Nacional de Investigación e Inovación.
Resumo: Abstract Wheat is one of the most important cultivated cereals in Uruguay for human consumption; however, when harvest yields are low, wheat is usually used in ensiling for animal feeding. Ensiling is a forage preservation method that allows for storage during extended periods of time while maintaining nutritional values comparable to fresh pastures. Silage is vulnerable to contamination by spoilage molds and mycotoxins because ensilage materials are excellent substrates for fungal growth. The aim of the study was to identify the mycobiota composition and occurrence of aflatoxins and DON from wheat silage. A total of 220 samples of wheat were collected from four farms in the southwest region of Uruguay were silage practices are developed. The main fungi isolated were Fusarium (43%) and Aspergillus (36%), with Fusarium graminearum sensu lato and Aspergillus section Flavi being the most prevalent species. Aflatoxin concentrations in silo bags ranged from 6.1 to 23.3 µg/kg, whereas DON levels ranged between 3000 µg/kg and 12,400 µg/kg. When evaluating aflatoxigenic capacity, 27.5% of Aspergillus section Flavi strains produced AFB1, 5% AFB2, 10% AFG1 and 17.5% AFG2. All isolates of F. graminearum sensu lato produced DON and 15-AcDON. The results from this study contribute to the knowledge of mycobiota and mycotoxins present in wheat silage.
Descritores: Aspergillus/metabolismo
Silagem
Triticum/microbiologia
Contaminação de Alimentos
Fusarium/metabolismo
Ração Animal
Micotoxinas
-Uruguai
Microbiota
Microbiologia de Alimentos
Limites: Animais
Bovinos
Responsável: BR1.1 - BIREME


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Id: lil-788975
Autor: Orhan, Furkan.
Título: Alleviation of salt stress by halotolerant and halophilic plant growth-promoting bacteria in wheat (Triticum aestivum)
Fonte: Braz. j. microbiol;47(3):621-627, July-Sept. 2016. tab, graf.
Idioma: en.
Resumo: ABSTRACT In the current study, 18 halotolerant and halophilic bacteria have been investigated for their plant growth promoting abilities in vitro and in a hydroponic culture. The bacterial strains have been investigated for ammonia, indole-3-acetic acid and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate-deaminase production, phosphate solubilisation and nitrogen fixation activities. Of the tested bacteria, eight were inoculated with Triticum aestivum in a hydroponic culture. The investigated bacterial strains were found to have different plant-growth promoting activities in vitro. Under salt stress (200 mM NaCl), the investigated bacterial strains significantly increased the root and shoot length and total fresh weight of the plants. The growth rates of the plants inoculated with bacterial strains ranged from 62.2% to 78.1%.Identifying of novel halophilic and halotolerant bacteria that promote plant growth can be used as alternatives for salt sensitive plants. Extensive research has been conducted on several halophilic and halotolerant bacterial strains to investigate their plant growth promoting activities. However, to the best of my knowledge, this is the first study to inoculate these bacterial strains with wheat.
Descritores: Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta/biossíntese
Estresse Fisiológico
Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos
Bactérias/metabolismo
Triticum/fisiologia
Triticum/microbiologia
Fenômenos Fisiológicos Bacterianos
Salinidade
-Fenótipo
Raízes de Plantas/fisiologia
Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia
Biomassa
Amônia/metabolismo
Fixação de Nitrogênio
Responsável: BR1.1 - BIREME


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Id: lil-788956
Autor: Ayyaz, Khadija; Zaheer, Ahmad; Rasul, Ghulam; Mirza, Muhammad Sajjad.
Título: Isolation and identification by 16S rRNA sequence analysis of plant growth-promoting azospirilla from the rhizosphere of wheat
Fonte: Braz. j. microbiol;47(3):542-550, July-Sept. 2016. tab, graf.
Idioma: en.
Resumo: ABSTRACT The main objective of the present study was to isolate phytohormone-producing, phosphate-solubilizing strains of Azospirillum from wheat to be used as inoculants for plant growth promotion. Five Azospirillum strains were isolated from the rhizosphere of field-grown wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), and it was confirmed by BOX-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) that the isolates were different and not re-isolates of the same strain. Sequence analysis of the PCR-amplified 16S rRNA gene indicated that four isolates showed maximum similarity to Azospirillum brasilense and one isolate showed maximum similarity to Azospirillum zeae. This is the first report indicating the presence of an A. zeae like isolate in the wheat rhizosphere in Pakistan. The bacterial isolates were characterized for their plant growth-promoting traits, phosphate solubilization, and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) production. None of the isolates showed phosphate solubilization activity in the commonly used Pikovskaya medium. However, all strains (except AzoK4) exhibited ability to solubilize tricalcium phosphate (TCP) in modified Pikovskaya medium in which sucrose was replaced by Na-malate, as well as in TCP-supplemented Luria-Bertani (LB) medium. Organic acids, such as acetic, citric, lactic, malic, and succinic acids, were detected in culture supernatants of the tested Azospirillum strains. All strains exhibited ability to produce IAA in the growth medium, except Azospirillum sp. AzoK1. Among the strains tested, the maximum IAA production (30.49 ± 1.04 mg L-1) and phosphate solubilization (105.50 ± 4.93 mg L-1) were shown by a pure culture of Azospirillum sp. AzoK2. In pot experiments, single-strain inocula of Azospirillum sp. AzoK1 and AzoK2 improved wheat plant growth.
Descritores: Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta/biossíntese
Triticum/microbiologia
Azospirillum/classificação
Azospirillum/fisiologia
Rizosfera
-Paquistão
Filogenia
Análise de Sequência de DNA
Ácidos de Fósforo/metabolismo
Genes Bacterianos
Nitrogênio/metabolismo
Responsável: BR1.1 - BIREME



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