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Id: biblio-914338
Autor: Carvalho, Lívia Mendes; Almeida, Karina; Taques, Tainá Cruz; Soares, Cristiana Silveira Antunes; Almeida, Elka Fabiana Aparecida; Reis, Simone Novaes.
Título: Manejo de pragas em cultivo de roseira de sistema de produção integrada e sistema convencional / Pest management in rose crop in integrated production system and conventional system
Fonte: Biosci. j. (Online);28(6):938-944, nov./dec. 2012. tab, graf.
Idioma: pt.
Resumo: A cultura da roseira é suscetível ao ataque de várias pragas e o uso de práticas agrícolas menos agressivas à natureza têm sido incentivadas como alternativa ao controle químico. O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar o uso de agentes de controle biológico e defensivos alternativos no manejo de pragas na produção integrada de rosas e comparálo com o uso de defensivos químicos no sistema convencional. O experimento foi conduzido de fevereiro de 2010 a janeiro de 2011 em cultivo de roseira em casa de vegetação (18 x 6 m) em São João Del Rei (MG). Foram utilizadas mudas de rosas da cultivar 'Carolla' (espaçamento de 1,20 m x 0,20 m). Foram separadas duas áreas na casa de vegetação, sendo uma com controle químico convencional e outra de produção integrada. Cada área continha quatro linhas com 50 plantas por linha. Foram feitas amostragens semanais através da contagem dos artrópodes fitófagos e inimigos naturais presentes nas plantas. Os principais artrópodes fitófagos encontrados foram ácaros, pulgões, moscas brancas e tripes. Não foi constatado dano nas plantas em ambas as áreas avaliadas. Não foram utilizados defensivos químicos na área de produção integrada. Na área de produção integrada foram encontrados 84,2% dos inimigos naturais quantificados. Os resultados obtidos nesse estudo permitem concluir que o cultivo de rosas em sistema de produção integrada possibilita a redução da aplicação de defensivos químicos e o aumento da população de inimigos naturais na área.

The culture of the rose is susceptible to attack by various pests and the use of agricultural practices less aggressive to nature has been encouraged as an alternative to chemical control. The objective was to evaluate the use of biological control agents and alternative pesticides in pest management in integrated production of roses and compare it with the use of pesticides in the conventional system. The experiment was conducted from february 2010 to january 2011 rose cultivation in greenhouse (18 x 6 m) in São João Del Rei (MG). Was used rose variety 'Carolla' (1.20 m x 0.20 m). Two areas were separated in a greenhouse, one with conventional chemical control and other integrated production. Each area contained four lines with 50 plants per row. Samples were collected weekly by counting the insects present in plants. The mains phytophagous arthropods were found mites, aphids, whiteflies and thrips. Damage was not observed in plants in both areas studied. No pesticides were used in the area of Integrated Production. In the area of integrated production found 84.2% of natural enemies quantified. The results of this study support the conclusion that the cultivation of roses in an integrated production system allows the reduction of the application of pesticides and increased population of natural enemies in the area.
Descritores: Controle de Pragas
Controle Biológico de Vetores
Agroquímicos
Rosaceae
Inseticidas
Responsável: BR396.4


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Id: biblio-915888
Autor: Grados Vásquez, Malena Vanessa.
Título: Especies Vegetales utilizadas por los pobladores de Berlín, Bagua Grande, Utcubamba, Amazonas, Perú, 2011-2012 / Vegetable species used by the inhabitants of Berlin, Bagua Grande, Utcubamba, Amazonas, Peru, 2011-2012.
Fonte: Trujillo; s.n; 2013. 34 p. ilus, tab, graf.
Idioma: es.
Tese: Apresentada a Universidad Nacional de Trujillo para obtenção do grau de Especialista.
Resumo: El objetivo principal de la presente investigación es el conocimiento sobre las plantas y sus utilidades en la cultura popular tradicional. Se documentó la importancia de las especies vegetales utilizadas por los pobladores de Berlín, ubicado en el Distrito de Bagua Grande, Provincia de Utcubamba, Departamento de Amazonas; ubicado entre los 2 000 - 2 500 m.s.n.m., desarrollado desde noviembre del 2011 a mayo del 2012. En la etapa de campo se realizaron excursiones y convivencia con los pobladores; la obtención de datos etnobotánicos se realizó en base a encuestas, se colectaron los ejemplares de interés, y se clasificó según el método clásico u ortodoxo. El trabajo de gabinete se realizó en el Herbario de la Universidad Nacional de Trujillo (HUT), además se realizaron análisis cuantitativos del Índice de Valor de Uso (IVU) y Sumatoria de Usos. Se determinaron especies pertecientes a las familias como Asteraceae, Fabacea, Euphorbiaceae, Rosaceae, Piperaceae, Solanaceae, Rubiaceae, Myrtaceae, Lamiaceae, Scrophulariaceae, entre otros, donde Asteraceae fue la mejor representada seguida por Solanaceae y Rosaceae. Las especies registradas fueron clasificadas en 13 categorías de uso, la que presentó mayor número de especies fue la categoría de plantas medicinales con 60 especies del total registrado, seguida por plantas alimenticias con 29 y 11 de uso para la construcción.
Descritores: Asteraceae
Solanaceae
Rosaceae
-Peru
Plantas Medicinais
Etnobotânica
Medicina Tradicional
Limites: Seres Humanos
Tipo de Publ: Revisão
Responsável: BR1.1 - BIREME


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Id: lil-711774
Autor: Colpo, J.F.; Jahnke, S.M.; Füller, T..
Título: Potencial inseticida de óleos de origem vegetal sobre Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) / Insecticidal potential of vegetable oil extracts on Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)
Fonte: Rev. bras. plantas med;16(2):182-188, jun. 2014. tab.
Idioma: pt.
Resumo: Em decorrência do estudo das interações químicas entre insetos e herbívoros, e do avanço da pesquisa fitoquímica, é conhecida ampla variedade de produtos naturais com potencial inseticida. Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), mariposa-oriental, é uma das principais pragas do pessegueiro, danificando brotações e frutos. O objetivo do presente estudo foi verificar a mortalidade, atratividade e deterrência de óleos vegetais em G. molesta. Ovos e pupas de insetos provindos de criação artificial foram imersos nos óleos essenciais de Elionurus muticus (Spreng.) Kuntze e Cymbopogon winterianus Jowitt ex Bor nas concentrações de 0,25%, 0,5%, 1% e 0,5%, 1%, 5%. Os testes de atratividade foram realizados em olfatômetro do tipo "Y". A deterrência à oviposição foi testada em gaiolas sem escolha e de dupla escolha. O óleo de E. muticus aplicado em ovos de G. molesta nas três concentrações causou mortalidades maiores que 30%, diferindo significativamente dos controles (p<0,05). A mortalidade causada pelo óleo de citronela foi em torno de 70%, significativamente superior ao controle (p<0,01). O óleo de citronela aplicado a 1% em pupas causou mortalidade de 99,8%. No teste com o olfatômetro, não houve atratividade dos adultos para nenhum dos óleos. A média de ovos no substrato com o tratamento (0,33±0,33), foi significativamente menor que no controle (7,3±0,88) (p<0,01), indicando deterrência à oviposição.

As a result of the study on the chemical interactions between insects and herbivores and the advancement of phytochemical research studies, a variety of natural products with great insecticidal potential are described in the literature. The Grapholita molesta (Busck) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), commonly known as Oriental Fruit Moth, is a major peach pest damaging shoots and fruits. The purpose of this study was to assess the mortality, attractiveness and deterrence of vegetable oils in G. molesta. Insect eggs and pupae artificially created were immersed in the essential oils of Elionurus muticus (Spreng.) Kuntze and/or Cymbopogon winterianus Jowitt ex Bor at the concentrations of 0.25%, 0.5%, 1% and 0.5%, 1%, 5%, respectively. The attractiveness tests were performed in a Y-Tube olfactometer. Oviposition deterrence was tested in no-choice and dual-choice cages. Oil of E. muticus applied in eggs of G. molesta at three concentrations caused mortality above 30%, which differs significantly from controls (p<0.05). Mortality caused by citronella oil was approximately 70%, significantly higher than control (p<0.01). The application of citronella oil at 1% in pupae caused mortality of 99.8%. There was no attractiveness of adults in the olfactometer test for any of the oils. Citronella oil presented oviposition deterrence, as the mean number of eggs in the substrate with the treatment (0.33 ± 0.33) is significantly lower than in the control (7.3 ± 0.88) (p<0.01).
Descritores: Lepidópteros
Óleos Vegetais/síntese química
-Produtos Biológicos/classificação
Inseticidas/farmacologia
Rosaceae/classificação
Terpenos/farmacologia
Responsável: BR1.1 - BIREME


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Texto completo SciELO Chile
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Id: lil-710933
Autor: Paudel, Babita; Bhattarai, Hari Datta; Chan Kim, Il; Lee, Hyoungseok; Sofronov, Roman; Ivanova, Lena; Poryadina, Lena; Yim, Joung Han.
Título: Estimation of antioxidant, antimicrobial activity and brine shrimp toxicity of plants collected from Oymyakon region of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia), Russia
Fonte: Biol. Res;47:1-6, 2014. tab.
Idioma: en.
Projeto: Korea Polar Research Institute.
Resumo: BACKGROUND: Several plants are reported to be produced various biological active compounds. Lichens from the extreme environments such as high altitude, high UV, drought and cold are believed to be synthesized unique types of secondary metabolites than the other one. Several human pathogenic bacteria and fungi have been muted into drug resistant strains. Various synthetic antioxidant compounds have posed carcinogenic effects. This phenomenon needs further research for new effective drugs of natural origin. This manuscript aimed to screen new source of biological active compounds from plants of subarctic origin. RESULTS: A total of 114 plant species, including 80 species of higher plants, 19 species of lichens and 15 species of mosses, were collected from Oymyakon region of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia), Russia (63˚20′N, 141˚42′E - 63˚15′N, 142˚27′E). Antimicrobial, DPPH free radical scavenging and brine shrimp (Artemia salina) toxicity of all crude extract were evaluated. The obtained result was analyzed and compared with commercial standards. A total of 28 species of higher plants showed very strong antioxidant activity (DPPH IC50, 0.45-5.0 µg/mL), 13 species showed strong activity (DPPH IC50, 5-10 µg/mL), 22 species showed moderate antioxidant activity (DPPH IC50,10-20 µg/mL) and 17 species showed weak antioxidant activity (DPPH IC50 more than 20 µg/mL). Similarly, 3 species of lichen showed strong antioxidant activity, one species showed moderate and 15 species showed weak DPPH reducing activity. In addition, 4 species of mosses showed moderate antioxidant activity and 11 species showed weak antioxidant activity. Similarly, extracts of 51 species of higher plants showed antimicrobial (AM) activity against Staphylococcus aureus and 2 species showed AM activity against Candida albicans. Similarly, 11 species of lichen showed AM activity against S. aureus and 3 species showed AM activity against Escherichia coli. One species of moss showed AM activity against S. aureus. And finally, one species of higher plant Rheum compactum and one species of lichen Flavocetraria cucullata showed the toxicity against Brine shrimp larvae in 100 µg/mL of concentration. CONCLUSION: The experimental results showed that subarctic plant species could be potential sources of various biologically active natural compounds.
Descritores: Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia
Antioxidantes/farmacologia
Artemia/efeitos dos fármacos
Fungos Mitospóricos/efeitos dos fármacos
Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia
-Anti-Infecciosos/análise
Antioxidantes/análise
Aspergillus niger/efeitos dos fármacos
Produtos Biológicos/farmacologia
Compostos de Bifenilo/farmacologia
Candida albicans/efeitos dos fármacos
Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos
INHIBITORY CONCENTRATION ACADEMIES AND INSTITUTES
Líquens/metabolismo
Picratos/farmacologia
Federação Russa
Rheum/química
Rhododendron/química
Rosaceae/química
Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos
Testes de Toxicidade
Limites: Animais
Tipo de Publ: Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Responsável: CL1.1 - Biblioteca Central


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Id: lil-698992
Autor: Bernardes Filho, Fred; Alves, Andreia Oliveira; Martins, Gustavo; Sasso, Leticia Soares; Gama, Carolina Mendonca; Cenci, Gardenia Borges.
Título: Staphylococcal abscess caused by trauma with a rosebush aculeus (Plantae, Rosaceae): apropos of a case / Abscesso estafilococico provocado por traumatismo com aculeo de uma rosa (Plantae, Rosaceae): a proposito de um caso
Fonte: An. bras. dermatol;88(6):1036-1038, Nov-Dec/2013. tab, graf.
Idioma: en.
Resumo: Cutaneous abscess is a localized collection of pus in the dermis and subcutaneous tissue usually caused by trauma. The authors report the case of a 30-year-old male patient, gardener, that presents an ulcerated plaque in the third right finger, caused by an aculeus plant wound. The examination of the lesion's exudate ruled out the existence of fungi and showed the presence of Staphylococcus aureus. The authors emphasize the sporotrichosis as an important differential diagnosis, especially in endemic areas, and the indication of the exudate culture is discussed.

Abscesso cutâneo é uma coleção de pus localizada na derme e tecido celular subcutâneo decorrente, em geral, de traumatismos. Os autores relatam o caso de um paciente de 30 anos, jardineiro, apresentando uma placa ulcerada, no terceiro quirodáctilo direito, provocada por ferimento com acúleo de planta. O exame do exsudato da lesão descartou a presença de fungos e revelou a presença de Staphylococcus aureus. Os autores enfatizam a importância de se lembrar da esporotricose no diagnóstico diferencial, principalmente em regiões endêmicas e discutem a indicação da cultura do exsudato no caso apresentado.
Descritores: Abscesso/diagnóstico
Rosaceae
Pele/lesões
Infecções Cutâneas Estafilocócicas/diagnóstico
-Abscesso/microbiologia
Diagnóstico Diferencial
Exsudatos e Transudatos
Traumatismos dos Dedos/diagnóstico
Esporotricose/diagnóstico
Staphylococcus aureus/isolamento & purificação
Limites: Adulto
Seres Humanos
Masculino
Tipo de Publ: Relatos de Casos
Responsável: BR1.1 - BIREME


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Texto completo SciELO Costa Rica
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Id: lil-674087
Autor: Ramos, Carolina; Buitrago, Sindy P.; Pulido, Karen L.; Vanegas, Leidy J..
Título: Variabilidad ambiental y respuestas fisiológicas de Polylepis cuadrijuga (Rosaceae) en un ambiente fragmentado en el Páramo de la Rusia (Colombia) / Environmental variability and physiological responses from Polylepis cuadrijuga (Rosaceae) in a fragmented environment in the Páramo de la Rusia (Colombia)
Fonte: Rev. biol. trop;61(1):351-361, Mar. 2013. ilus.
Idioma: es.
Resumo: Polylepis cuadrijuga is an endemic woody species from the Colombian Eastern range, being the only tree species with capacity to live on mountainous environments beyond 4 000m of altitude. Grazing and agriculture have transformed at least 30% of the Guantiva-La Rusia region, turning continuous extensions of high Andean forest in a fragmented landscape, and P. cuadrijuga remnants have become smaller and more isolated. The aim of this study was to establish the environmental differences between a matrix of grazing pastures and the interior of fragments, to evaluate the physiological responses of P. cuadrijuga and determining the edge effect. Air temperature and humidity, soil water holding capacity and photosynthetic active radiation, were measured along two 50X2m transects from the matrix toward the center of fragment. Six trees inside the transects were chosen in each one of three sites (matrix, edge and interior) to measure the index chlorophyll content and to sample leaves to assess the leaf area, leaf biomass, specific leaf area, anatomy, health condition and pubescence. Results showed significantly differences between the matrix and the interior and intermediate conditions in the edge. Radiation, temperature and air desiccation were higher in the matrix than in the interior, submitting P. cuadrijuga trees to a stressing environment, where they presented stratification of epidermis and palisade parenchyma, and a higher leaf area, leaf thickness, chlorophyll content and pubescence than in the interior of fragments. All these physiological traits allow avoiding the photoxidation and damages by freezing or desiccation to which trees are exposed in a grazing pasture matrix. Nevertheless, there was a higher frequency of healthy leaves in the interior of fragments, showing that high irradiations and extreme air temperature and humidity reach adversely affect to P. cuadrijuga. Individuals in the edge had ecophysiological traits similar to the matrix ones, which confirm an edge effect that could penetrate 17m inside the fragments. We conclude that P. cuadrijuga is a plastic species, able to overcome the stress conditions from anthropogenic transformations, species able to be used in high Andean forest restoration programs.

Polylepis cuadrijuga es una especie leñosa endémica de la cordillera oriental de Colombia, donde la agricultura y el pastoreo han generado la fragmentación de sus bosques. Para determinar si existe un efecto borde en fragmentos ubicados en el Páramo de la Rusia, se establecieron diferencias ambientales y se evaluó las respuestas ecofisiológicas de P. cuadrijuga entre matriz de pastura, borde e interior de los fragmentos, a través de la medición de temperatura ambiental, humedad relativa, capacidad de retención de agua del suelo y radiación fotosintéticamente activa, a lo largo de dos transectos de 50m desde la matriz hacia el interior. En cada sitio se escogieron seis árboles para evaluar el contenido de clorofila, área foliar, biomasa foliar, área foliar específica, anatomía foliar, sanidad y pubescencia. En matriz fue mayor la temperatura y la radiación, condiciones relacionadas con la disminución del AFE y el aumento del contenido de clorofilas, evidenciado por la presencia de un parénquima en empalizada biestratificado. Características ecofisiológicas similares a las expuestas en borde, confirman un efecto de borde que podría penetra unos 17m en el interior de los fragmentos. Se concluye que P. cuadrijuga es una especie plástica, capaz de enfrentar condiciones de estrés generadas por actividades antropogénicas.
Descritores: Clorofila/análise
Fotossíntese/fisiologia
Rosaceae/fisiologia
-Colômbia
Ecossistema
Umidade
Folhas de Planta/anatomia & histologia
Folhas de Planta/fisiologia
Rosaceae/anatomia & histologia
Rosaceae/química
Temperatura Ambiente
Responsável: CR1.1 - BINASSS - Biblioteca Nacional de Salud y Seguridad Social


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Id: lil-671377
Autor: Diez-Rodríguez, GI.; Hübner, LK.; Antunes, LEC.; Nava, DE..
Título: Herpetogramma bipunctalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) biology and techniques for rearing on leaves of the blackberry (Rubus spp., Rosaceae) / Biologia e técnica de criação de Herpetogramma bipunctalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) em folhas de amoreira-preta (Rubus spp., Rosaceae)
Fonte: Braz. j. biol;73(1):179-184, Feb. 2013. ilus.
Idioma: en.
Resumo: The larvae of the southern beet webworm Herpetogramma bipunctalis (Fabricius, 1794) damage the leaves of species in the plant genus Rubus. The present study investigated the biology of H. bipunctalis and developed a protocol for raising H. bipunctalis under laboratory conditions. On the basis of the biological data, we devised a life table. In order to develop the rearing procedures, we determined which oviposition substrate and blackberry cultivar were the most appropriate for larval development. The mean durations of the egg, larval, and pupal stages were 5.59 days, 26.37 days, and 13.37 days, respectively, and the corresponding survival rates were 80.83%, 49.07%, and 83.23%. The mean pupal weight was 0.0491 g for males and 0.0536 g for females. The mean life cycle (egg-to-adult) period was 45.33 days, and overall survival to adulthood was 33.01%. H. bipunctalis females laid a mean of 252.63 eggs over a mean of 13.60 days of oviposition; the mean pre-oviposition period was 2.67 days. Mean female and male life spans were 17.51 and 19.25 days, respectively, and the sex ratio was 0.51. The life-table data indicated that H. bipunctalis can reproduce 57.9 times per generation. Each cage contained one blackberry leaf placed on a paper towel. This method allowed us to obtain the greatest number of eggs. The larval stage was shorter for insects reared on leaves of the Guarani cultivar than for those reared on leaves of the Xavante cultivar (22.63 vs. 26.37 days). These basic data can aid in establishing strategies for the management of H. bipunctalis on blackberry farms.

Lagartas de Herpetogramma bipunctalis (Fabricius, 1794) causam danos nas folhas da amoreira-preta (Rubus spp.). O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar sua biologia e desenvolver uma técnica de criação, em condições de laboratório. Com os dados de biologia, foi elaborada uma tabela de vida de fertilidade. Para o estudo da técnica de criação, foram determinados o substrato para obtenção de ovos e a cultivar de amoreira-preta mais adequada para o desenvolvimento larval. A duração dos estágios de ovo, lagarta e pupa foram de 5,59, 26,37 e 13,37 dias, com sobrevivência de 80,83, 49,07 e 83,23%, respectivamente. O peso das pupas foi 0,0491 g para machos e 0,0536 g para fêmeas. O ciclo biológico (ovo-adulto) foi de 45,33 dias, com sobrevivência total de 33,01%. As fêmeas colocaram, em média, 252,63 ovos durante 13,60 dias, com um período de pré-oviposição de 2,67 dias. A longevidade média de fêmeas e machos foi de 17,51 e 19,25 dias, respectivamente, e a razão sexual, de 0,51. Por meio da tabela de vida de fertilidade, determinou-se uma capacidade de aumento de 57,9 vezes a cada geração. Gaiolas revestidas com papel toalha e com a presença de folhas de amoreira-preta propiciaram a obtenção de uma maior quantidade de ovos. A duração do estágio larval para os insetos alimentados com folhas de amoreira-preta cv. Guarani (22,63 dias) foi menor do que aqueles alimentados com folhas da cv. Xavante (26,37 dias). Estas informações são básicas e auxiliarão em futuros estudos, visando ao estabelecimento de estratégias de manejo de H. bipunctalis em amoreira-preta.
Descritores: Lepidópteros/crescimento & desenvolvimento
Folhas de Planta/parasitologia
Rosaceae/parasitologia
-Lepidópteros/fisiologia
Estágios do Ciclo de Vida/fisiologia
Oviposição/fisiologia
Reprodução/fisiologia
Razão de Masculinidade
Limites: Animais
Feminino
Masculino
Responsável: BR1.1 - BIREME


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Texto completo SciELO Chile
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Id: lil-657666
Autor: Diez-de-Medina, Sergio; Silva, Herman.
Título: A molecular marker approach using intron flanking EST-PCR to map candidate genes in peach (Prunus persica)
Fonte: Electron. j. biotechnol;15(5):7-7, Sept. 2012. ilus, tab.
Idioma: en.
Projeto: Consorcio BIOFRUTALES S.A.; . Millennium Nucleus in Plant Cell Biotechnology; . CONICYT.
Resumo: In Peach (Prunus persica) several physiological changes, such as woolliness, triggered by chilling injury are involved in major production losses due to cold storage of the fruits during shipping. Additionally, the low level of polymorphisms among peach varieties is an important limitation in the search for new molecular markers that could be associated with economically important traits. Therefore, a functional approach was employed to associate candidate genes with an informative marker in peach. The data was obtained from the results of an in silico analysis of four different cold peach treatments. Thirty two candidate genes were selected that were aligned against Arabidopsis thaliana genomic sequences to design intron-flanking EST-PCR markers. These markers were used to position the candidate genes on the Prunus genetic reference map. In the physiological response to chilling injury, cell wall integrity, carbohydrate metabolism and stress response pathways could be involved, therefore candidate genes associated by Gene Ontology annotation to these pathways were included in the analysis. The designed markers were positioned to the Texas X Earlygold (TxE) genetic reference map through selective mapping methodology (Bin mapping). 72 percent of these new markers showed polymorphism in the TxE Binset population and 31 percent of them were successfully mapped to a genetic position on the Prunus reference map. The bioinformatic methodology used in this work includes a first approach in search for functional molecular markers associated to differentially expressed genes under certain physiological condition which in addition to the Bin mapping approach allows addressing a genetically anchored position to these new markers.
Descritores: Marcadores Genéticos
Prunus persica/genética
-Mapeamento Cromossômico
Estudos de Associação Genética
Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase
Rosaceae/genética
Responsável: CL1.1 - Biblioteca Central


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Id: lil-591915
Autor: Laroze, Liza; Soto, Carmen; Zúñiga, María Elvira.
Título: Phenolic antioxidants extraction from raspberry wastes assisted by-enzymes
Fonte: Electron. j. biotechnol;13(6):11-12, Nov. 2010. ilus, tab.
Idioma: en.
Projeto: Fondecyt; . Mecesup; . CREAS-PUCV.
Resumo: The effect of enzymatic hydrolysis on phenolic antioxidant extraction was studied in raspberry solid wastes. This by-product possesses high content of crude fiber (60 percent) and low values of protein, oil and ash. Raspberry fiber composition suggests that biocatalysts with cellulase, hemicellulase and pectinase activities would be useful for carrying out an enzymatically assisted antioxidant extraction. Hydro-alcoholic extraction was done using different commercial enzymes. Total phenol content and antioxidant activity of enzyme-hydrolyzed residue extracts were measured and compared with those obtained without enzyme application. All biocatalysts evaluated increased soluble solids in comparison to the non-enzymatic control. Among them, Grindamyl and Maxoliva offered the best recovery of polyphenols. Enzymatic assisted extraction with an hydro-ethanolic mixture (75:25, v/v) during 18 hrs at 50°C increased phenolic content up to 35 percent and antioxidant capacity around 50 percent, 15 percent and 30 percent according to 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl = 2,2-diphenyl-1-(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl) hydrazyl) (DPPH), 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) methods, respectively. Use of a higher enzyme concentration significantly improved extraction of phenolic antioxidants.
Descritores: Antioxidantes/análise
Enzimas/metabolismo
Fenóis/análise
Rosaceae/química
-Ativação Enzimática
Frutas/química
Hidrólise
Responsável: CL1.1 - Biblioteca Central


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Id: lil-588999
Autor: Ghalayini, Ibrahim F; Al-Ghazo, Mohammed A; Harfeil, Mohammad N. A.
Título: Prophylaxis and therapeutic effects of raspberry (Rubus idaeus) on renal stone formation in Balb/c mice
Fonte: Int. braz. j. urol;37(2):259-267, Mar.-Apr. 2011. ilus, tab.
Idioma: en.
Resumo: PURPOSE: To evaluate the prophylactic potential of herbal decoction from Rubus idaeus, a medicinal plant widely used in the Middle East to treat kidney stones, by assessing the effect of administration in experimentally induced calcium oxalate (CaOx) nephrolithiasis in mice. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study was based on administration of glyoxylate and/or herbal treatments simultaneously for 12 days, followed by histological and biochemical tests. Group I was used as a negative control. Group II was only given daily intra-abdominal injection of glyoxylate (80 mg/Kg). Group III and IV were given 100 mg/kg/day and 200 mg/kg/day of aqueous extract of R. idaeus by gavage, respectively in addition to glyoxylate injection. To examine the effect of anti-oxidants on hyperoxaluria-induced changes in kidney, the enzymatic and non-enzymatic anti-oxidant levels were assessed. RESULTS: Significant reductions were obtained in the urinary oxalate, calcium and phosphorus values in the herbal-treated groups relative to untreated animals while creatinine excretion increased. Serum oxalate, calcium and creatinine were significantly reduced, while phosphorus was not significantly changed. Kidney content of calcium was higher in the untreated group. Mice in treated groups at 12 days had significantly more superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione reductase (GSH) and G6PD activities than the untreated group. Hyperoxaluria-induced generation of malondialdehyde (MDA) and protein carbonyls was significantly prevented in the treated groups. R. idaeus had a significantly high content of vitamin E in the herbal treated groups. The histology showed more CaOx deposition in the kidneys of untreated animals. CONCLUSION: Rubus idaeus has an impressive prophylactic effect on CaOx stones in nephrolithic mice. There is a possible role of lipid peroxidation in CaOx stone formation which may has a relationship with the major risk factors in urine including oxalate, calcium, phosphorus and MDA. Further experimental studies are required to elucidate the chemical constituents of the active ingredients of this interesting plant.
Descritores: Glioxilatos/uso terapêutico
Cálculos Renais/prevenção & controle
Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico
Rosaceae/química
-Oxalato de Cálcio
Cálculos Renais/induzido quimicamente
Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C
Fitoterapia/métodos
Limites: Animais
Masculino
Camundongos
Responsável: BR1.1 - BIREME



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