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Id: biblio-1128430
Autor: Campos, Karoline Rodrigues; Caterino-de-Araujo, Adele.
Título: Provirus Mutations of Human T-Lymphotropic Virus 1 and 2 (HTLV-1 and HTLV-2) in HIV-1-Coinfected Individuals
Fonte: MSphere;5(5):e00923-20, Sept.-Oct. 2020. tab, graf.
Idioma: en.
Resumo: Provirus mutations of human T-lymphotropic virus 1 (HTLV-1), mostly the lack of the 5= long terminal repeat (LTR) genomic region, have been described and associated with severe adult T cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL), non-sense point mutations with low proviral load, and Western blotting indeterminate results. Until now, no information concerning provirus mutations of HTLV-2 and its consequences, as well as those of HTLV-1/2 in HIV-coinfected individuals, had been described. Therefore, we searched for these mutations in provirus samples of 44 HIV/HTLV-1- and 25 HIV/HTLV-2-coinfected individuals. Using protocols well established for amplification and sequencing of segments of the LTR, env, and tax regions, we searched for defective type 1 particles that retain LTRs and lack internal sequences and type 2 particles that lack the 5=LTR region. In addition, using as references the prototypes ATK (HTLV-1) and Mo (HTLV-2), we searched for point mutations in the LTR and synonyms and nonsynonymous mutations and non-sense mutations in env and tax regions. Defective HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 provirus type 1 or 2 was detected in 31.8% of HIV/HTLV-1- and 32.0% of HIV/HTLV-2-coinfected individuals. Synonymous and nonsynonymous mutations were identified mostly in HTLV-2 and associated with lower levels of specific antibodies. No non-sense mutations that resulted in premature termination of Env and Tax proteins were detected. On the contrary, mutation in the stop codon of Tax2a produced a long protein characteristic of the HTLV-2c subtype. The clinical significance of these mutations in coinfected individuals remains to be defined, but they confirmed the lower sensitivity of serological and molecular diagnostic tests in HIV/HTLV-1/2 coinfections. IMPORTANCE HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 are endemic to Brazil, and they have different effects in HIV/AIDS disease progression. HIV/HTLV-1 has been described as accelerating the progression to AIDS and death, while HIV/HTLV-2 slows the progression to AIDS. Provirus mutations of HTLV-1 were implicated in severe leukemia development and in problems in the diagnosis of HTLV-1; in contrast, provirus mutations of HTLV-2 had not been confirmed and associated with problems in HTLV-2 diagnosis or disease outcome. Nevertheless, data obtained here allowed us to recognize and understand the false-negative results in serologic and molecular tests applied for HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 diagnosis. Defective proviruses, as well as synonymous and nonsynonymous mutations, were associated with the diagnosis deficiencies. Additionally, since HIV-1 and HTLV-1 infect the same cells (CD4 positive), the production of HIV-1 pseudotypes with HTLV-1 envelope glycoprotein during HIV/HTLV-1 coinfection cannot be excluded. Defective provirus of HTLV-2 and Tax2c is speculated to influence progression to AIDS. (AU)
Descritores: Vírus Linfotrópico T Tipo 1 Humano
Vírus Linfotrópico T Tipo 2 Humano
Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida
HIV
Provírus
Coinfecção
Mutação
Responsável: BR91.2 - Centro de Documentação


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Id: lil-645425
Autor: Olavarria, Viviana Nilla; Gomes, Alline do Nascimento; Kruschewsky, Ramon de Almeida; Galvão-Castro, Bernardo; Grassi, Maria Fernanda Rios.
Título: Evolution of HTLV-1 proviral load in patients from Salvador, Brazil
Fonte: Braz. j. infect. dis;16(4):357-360, July-Aug. 2012. tab.
Idioma: en.
Resumo: INTRODUCTION: Variations in human T cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) proviral load (PVL) in infected individuals over time are not well understood. Objective: To evaluate the evolution of proviral load in asymptomatic individuals and HAM/TSP patients in order to help determine periodicity for measuring proviral load. METHODS: A group of 104 HTLV-1 infected patients, followed at the HTLV reference center in Salvador, Brazil, were included in the study (70 asymptomatic and 34 HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) patients). HTLV-1 PVL was measured using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) at baseline and again at another point, either < 12 months, between 12-24 months, or > 24 months. RESULTS: HAM/TSP patients had higher PVL (ranging from 11,041 to 317,009 copies/10(6) PBMC) when compared to asymptomatic individuals (ranging from 0 to 68,228 copies/10(6) PBMC). No statistically significant differences were observed in the medians of PVL in HAM/TSP patients or asymptomatic individuals over time. However, in asymptomatic individuals with a PVL below 50,000 copies/10(6) PBMC, a statistically significant two-fold increase was observed over time. CONCLUSION: HTLV-1-PVL remained stable in both asymptomatic individuals and HAM/TSP patients over time. Frequent monitoring of asymptomatic individuals with low PVLs is recommended and further studies should be conducted to assess the course of PVL in these patients over extended periods of time.
Descritores: DNA Viral/sangue
Infecções por HTLV-I/virologia
Vírus Linfotrópico T Tipo 1 Humano/fisiologia
Provírus/fisiologia
Carga Viral/fisiologia
-Progressão da Doença
Vírus Linfotrópico T Tipo 1 Humano/genética
Paraparesia Espástica Tropical/virologia
Provírus/genética
Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real
Estudos Retrospectivos
Limites: Adulto
Feminino
Humanos
Masculino
Pessoa de Meia-Idade
Adulto Jovem
Tipo de Publ: Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Responsável: BR1.1 - BIREME


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Id: lil-610068
Autor: Salcedo-Cifuentes, Mercedes; Domínguez, Martha C; García-Vallejo, Felipe.
Título: Epidemiología genómica y paraparesia espástica tropical asociada a la infección por el virus linfotrópico humano de células T tipo 1 / Genome epidemiology and tropical spastic paraparesis associated with human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1
Fonte: Rev. panam. salud pública = Pan am. j. public health;30(5):422-430, nov. 2011. ilus, tab.
Idioma: es.
Resumo: OBJETIVO: Caracterizar el ambiente genómico de las secuencias adyacentes al virus linfotrópico humano de células T tipo 1 (HTLV-1) en pacientes con paraparesia espßstica tropical y mielopatía asociada a la infección con HTLV-1 (PET/MAH) de diferentes regiones de Colombia y del Japón. MÉTODOS: Se enfrentaron 71 clones recombinantes con secuencias del genoma humano adyacentes al 5'-LTR de pacientes con PET/MAH, a las bases de datos del Genome Browser y del Gen-Bank. Se identificaron y analizaron estadísticamente 16 variables genómicas estructurales y composicionales mediante el programa informßtico R, versión 2.8.1, en una ventana de 0,5 Mb. RESULTADOS: El 43,0 por ciento de los provirus se localizaron en los cromosomas del grupo C; 74 por ciento de las secuencias se ubicaron en regiones teloméricas y subteloméricas (P < 0,05). Un anßlisis de conglomerados permitió establecer las relaciones jerßrquicas entre las características genómicas incluidas en el estudio; el anßlisis de componentes principales identificó las componentes que definieron los ambientes genómicos preferidos para la integración proviral en casos de PET/MAH. CONCLUSIONES: El HTLV-1 se integró con mayor frecuencia en regiones de la cromatina ricas en islas de citocina fosfato guanina (CpG), de alta densidad de genes y de repeticiones tipo LINE (elemento disperso largo [long interspersed element]) y transposones de ADN que, en conjunto, conformarían los ambientes genómicos blanco de integración. Este nuevo escenario promoverß cambios sustanciales en el campo de la salud pública y en el manejo epidemiológico de las enfermedades infecciosas, y permitirß desarrollar potentes herramientas para incrementar la eficiencia de la vigilancia epidemiológica.

OBJECTIVE: Characterize the genomic environment of the sequences adjacent to human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) in patients with HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) in different regions of Colombia and Japan. METHODS: A total of 71 recombinant clones with human genome sequences adjacent to 5' LTR in patients with HAM/TSP were compared to the Genome Browser and GenBank databases. Sixteen structural and compositional genome variables were identified, and statistical analysis was conducted in the R computer program, version 2.8.1, in a 0.5 Mb window. RESULTS: A total of 43.0 percent of the proviruses were located in the group C chromosomes; 74 percent of the sequences were located in the telomeric and subtelomeric regions (P < 0.05). A cluster analysis was used to establish the hierarchical relations between the genome characteristics included in the study. The analysis of principal components identified the components that defined the preferred genome environments for proviral integration in cases of HAM/TSP. CONCLUSIONS: HTLV-1 was integrated more often in chromatin regions rich in CpG islands with a high density of genes and LINE type repetitions, and DNA transposons which, overall, would form the genomic environments targeted for integration. This new scenario will promote substantial changes in the field of public health and in epidemiological management of infectious diseases. It will also foster the development of powerful tools for increasing the efficiency of epidemiological surveillance.
Descritores: Genoma Humano
Vírus Linfotrópico T Tipo 1 Humano/genética
Paraparesia Espástica Tropical/genética
Provírus/genética
Sequências Repetidas Terminais/genética
Integração Viral/genética
-Mapeamento Cromossômico
Ilhas de CpG
Cromossomos Humanos/genética
Colômbia/epidemiologia
DNA Recombinante/genética
Paraparesia Espástica Tropical/epidemiologia
Paraparesia Espástica Tropical/virologia
Retroelementos/genética
Alinhamento de Sequência
Análise de Sequência de DNA
Homologia de Sequência do Ácido Nucleico
Limites: Adulto
Idoso
Feminino
Humanos
Masculino
Pessoa de Meia-Idade
Tipo de Publ: Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Responsável: BR1.1 - BIREME


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Id: lil-520789
Autor: Primo, J; Siqueira, I; Nascimento, M. C. F; Oliveira, M. F; Farre, L; Carvalho, E. M; Bittencourt, A. L.
Título: High HTLV-1 proviral load, a marker for HTLV-1 associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis, is also detected in patients with infective dermatitis associated with HTLV-1
Fonte: Braz. j. med. biol. res = Rev. bras. pesqui. méd. biol;42(8):761-764, Aug. 2009. graf, tab.
Idioma: en.
Projeto: Fogarty International Center. NIH.
Resumo: Salvador (BA, Brazil) is an endemic area for human T-cell lymphotrophic virus type 1 (HTLV-1). The overall prevalence of HTLV-1 infection in the general population has been estimated to be 1.76%. HTLV-1 carriers may develop a variety of diseases such as adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma, HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) and infective dermatitis associated with HTLV-1 (IDH). IDH is a chronic and severe form of childhood exudative and infective dermatitis involving mainly the scalp, neck and ears. It has recently been observed that 30% of patients with IDH develop juvenile HAM/TSP. The replication of HTLV-1 has been reported to be greater in adult HAM/TSP patients than in asymptomatic HTLV-1 carriers. In the current study, the proviral load of 28 children and adolescents with IDH not associated with HAM/TSP was determined and the results were compared to those obtained in 28 HTLV-1 adult carriers and 28 adult patients with HAM/TSP. The proviral load in IDH patients was similar to that of patients with HAM/TSP and much higher than that found in HTLV-1 carriers. The high levels of proviral load in IDH patients were not associated with age, duration of illness, duration of breast-feeding, or activity status of the skin disease. Since proviral load is associated with neurological disability, these data support the view that IDH patients are at high risk of developing HAM/TSP.
Descritores: Dermatite/virologia
Vírus Linfotrópico T Tipo 1 Humano/isolamento & purificação
Paraparesia Espástica Tropical/virologia
Provírus/isolamento & purificação
Dermatopatias Virais/virologia
-Biomarcadores/análise
Portador Sadio
Progressão da Doença
DNA Viral/análise
Vírus Linfotrópico T Tipo 1 Humano/genética
Provírus/genética
Fatores de Risco
Carga Viral
Limites: Adolescente
Adulto
Criança
Pré-Escolar
Feminino
Humanos
Masculino
Tipo de Publ: Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Responsável: BR1.1 - BIREME


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Id: lil-447286
Autor: Tamegão-Lopes, Bruna Pedroso; Rezende, Priscila Rocha; Maradei-Pereira, Luciana Maria Cunha; Lemos, José Alexandre Rodrigues de.
Título: Carga proviral do HTLV-1 e HTLV-2: um método simples através da PCR quantitativa em tempo real / HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 proviral load: a simple method using quantitative real-time PCR
Fonte: Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop;39(6):548-552, nov.-dez. 2006. tab.
Idioma: pt.
Resumo: Os vírus linfotrópicos de células T humanas, quando integrados ao genoma da célula hospedeira, provírus, têm como marcador de replicação seu DNA proviral. A carga proviral parece ser um importante fator no desenvolvimento de patologias associadas a estes retrovírus. Neste estudo foi desenvolvida uma metodologia para quantificação absoluta da carga proviral dos HTLV-1 e HTLV-2 através da PCR em tempo real. Cinqüenta e três amostras de doadores de sangue com teste de ELISA reagente foram submetidas à metodologia, que utilizou o sistema TaqMan® para três seqüências alvo: HTLV-1, HTLV-2 e albumina. A quantificação proviral absoluta foi determinada através da proporção relativa entre o genoma do HTLV e o genoma da célula hospedeira, levando em consideração o número de leucócitos. O método apresentado é sensível (215 cópias/mL), prático e simples para quantificação proviral, além de eficiente e adequado para confirmação e discriminação da infecção pelos tipos virais.

When the human T cell lymphotropic virus (HTLV) is integrated with the host cell genome (provirus), its proviral DNA is a replication marker. Proviral load appears to be an important factor in the development of diseases related to these retroviruses. In this study, a methodology for absolute quantification of the HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 proviral load using real-time PCR was developed. Fifty-three blood donor samples with positive ELISA test result were subjected to this methodology, which utilized the TaqMan® system for three target sequences: HTLV-1, HTLV-2 and albumin. The absolute proviral load was quantified using the relative ratio between the HTLV genome and the host cell genome, taking into consideration the white blood cell count. The method presented is sensitive (215 copies/ml), practical and simple for proviral quantification, and is efficient and appropriate for confirming and discriminating infections according to viral type.
Descritores: Vírus Linfotrópico T Tipo 1 Humano/genética
/genética
HUMAN T-LYMPHOTROPIC VIRUS TEMEFOS/genética
Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/métodos
Provírus/genética
Carga Viral/métodos
-Doadores de Sangue
DNA Viral/análise
Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática
Infecções por HTLV-I/imunologia
Infecções por HTLV-I/virologia
Infecções por HTLV-II/imunologia
Infecções por HTLV-II/virologia
Vírus Linfotrópico T Tipo 1 Humano/imunologia
/imunologia
HUMAN T-LYMPHOTROPIC VIRUS TEMEFOS/imunologia
Provírus/imunologia
Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
Limites: Humanos
Masculino
Feminino
Adulto
Pessoa de Meia-Idade
Responsável: BR1.1 - BIREME


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Id: lil-441754
Autor: Komninakis, S; Fukumori, L; Alcalde, R; Cortina, M; Abdala, L; Brito, A; Sanabani, S; Duarte, A. J. S; Casseb, J.
Título: Techniques used to identify the Brazilian variant of HIV-1 subtype B
Fonte: Braz. j. med. biol. res = Rev. bras. pesqui. méd. biol;40(3):301-304, Mar. 2007. ilus, tab.
Idioma: en.
Projeto: Universidade Federal de São Paulo. Laboratório de Retrovirologia; . FAPESP.
Resumo: The purpose of the present study was to compare the sensitivity and specificity of V3 enzyme immunoassay (solid phase EIA and EIA inhibition) and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) with the DNA sequencing "gold standard" to identify the Brazilian HIV-1 variants of subtype B and B"-GWGR. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were collected from 61 HIV-1-infected individuals attending a clinic in São Paulo. Proviral DNA was amplified and sequentially cleaved with the Fok I restriction enzyme. Plasma samples were submitted to a V3-loop biotinylated synthetic peptide EIA. Direct partial DNA sequencing of the env gene was performed on all samples. Based on EIA results, the sensitivity for detecting B-GPGR was 70 percent, compared to 64 percent for the Brazilian variant B"-GWGR while, the specificity of B-GPGR detection was 85 percent, compared to 88 percent for GWGR. The assessment of RFLP revealed 68 percent sensitivity and 94 percent specificity for the B-GPGR strain compared to 84 and 90 percent for the B"-GWGR variant. Moreover, direct DNA sequencing was able to detect different base sequences corresponding to amino acid sequences at the tip of the V3 loop in 22 patients. These results show a similar performance of V3 serology and RLFP in identifying the Brazilian variant GWGR. However, V3 peptide serology may give indeterminate results. Therefore, we suggest that V3 serology be used instead of DNA sequencing where resources are limited. Samples giving indeterminate results by V3 peptide serology should be analyzed by direct DNA sequencing to distinguish between B-GPGR and the Brazilian variant B"-GWGR.
Descritores: /genética
HIV ENVELOPE PROTEIN GPACETYLCYSTEINE/genética
Infecções por HIV/virologia
HIV-1
Leucócitos Mononucleares/virologia
Fragmentos de Peptídeos/genética
-Sequência de Aminoácidos
DNA Viral/análise
HIV-1
Técnicas Imunoenzimáticas
Polimorfismo de Fragmento de Restrição
Provírus/genética
Sensibilidade e Especificidade
Sorotipagem
Limites: Humanos
Masculino
Feminino
Adulto
Tipo de Publ: Estudo Comparativo
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Responsável: BR1.1 - BIREME


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Id: lil-414716
Autor: Montanheito, P. A; Penalva de Oliveira, A. C; Posada-Vergara, M. P; Milagres, A. C; Tauil, C; Marchiori, P. E; Duarte, A. J. S; Casseb, J.
Título: Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) proviral DNA viral load among asymptomatic patients and patients with HTLV-I-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis
Fonte: Braz. j. med. biol. res = Rev. bras. pesqui. méd. biol;38(11):1643-1647, Nov. 2005.
Idioma: en.
Resumo: To evaluate the human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I) proviral DNA load among asymptomatic HTLV-I-infected carriers and patients with HTLV-I-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP), real time PCR using TaqMan probes for the pol gene was performed in two million peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). The albumin gene was the internal genomic control and MT2 cells were used as positive control. The results are reported as copies/10,000 PBMC, and the detection limit was 10 copies. A total of 89 subjects (44 HAM/TSP and 45 healthy HTLV-I-infected carriers) followed up at the Institute of Infectious Diseases "Emilio Ribas" and in the Neurology Division of Hospital of Clínicas were studied. The asymptomatic HTLV-I-infected carriers had a median number of 271 copies (ranging from 5 to 4756 copies), whereas the HAM/TSP cases presented a median of 679 copies (5-5360 copies) in 10,000 PBMC. Thus, HAM/TSP patients presented a significantly higher HTLV-I proviral DNA load than healthy HTLV-I carriers (P = 0.005, one-way Mann-Whitney test). As observed in other persistent infections, proviral DNA load quantification may be an important tool for monotoring HTLV-I-infected subjects. However, long-term follow-up is necessary to validate this assay in the clinical setting.
Descritores: DNA Viral/análise
Paraparesia Espástica Tropical/virologia
Provírus/genética
Vírus Linfotrópico T Tipo 1 Humano/genética
-Estudos de Casos e Controles
DNA Viral/genética
DNA Viral/imunologia
Leucócitos Mononucleares/imunologia
Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase
Paraparesia Espástica Tropical/imunologia
Provírus/imunologia
Carga Viral
Vírus Linfotrópico T Tipo 1 Humano/imunologia
Limites: Humanos
Responsável: BR1.1 - BIREME


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Id: lil-325104
Autor: Caldas, Ana Paula Ferrary; Leal, Élcio de Souza; Silva, Eduardo Filipe Avila; Ravazzolo, Ana Paula.
Título: Detecçäo do provirús da imunodeficiência felina em gatos domésticos pela técnica de reaçäo em cadeia da polimerase / Detection of feline immunodeficiency provirus in domestic cats by polymerase chain reaction
Fonte: Pesqui. vet. bras = Braz. j. vet. res;20(1):20-25, jan.-mar. 2000. ilus, tab, graf.
Idioma: pt.
Resumo: A infecçäo de gatos domésticos pelo Vírus da Imunodeficiência Felina (FIV) é um dos modelos mais promissores para o estudo da infecçäo pelo vírus da imunodeficiência humana (HIV) que causa a Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida (AIDS). O FIV causa, em gatos, uma enfermidade similar àquela observada em pacientes com AIDS, sobretudo no que diz respeito ao aumento da susceptibilidade a infecções oportunistas. No presente estudo, utilizou-se a Reaçäo em Cadeia da Polimerase (PCR), com o objetivo de detectar o provírus do FIV em gatos com sinais clínicos de imunodeficiência. O fragmento de DNA escolhido como alvo para amplificaçäo situa-se no gene gag do lentivírus felino, o qual é conservado entre as diferentes amostras do vírus. O DNA utilizado foi extraído a partir de amostras de sangue e de tecidos de animais com suspeita clínica de imunodeficiência. Das 40 amostras analisadas, 15 foram positivas, das quais 4 foram submetidas à hibridizaçäo, confirmando a especificidade dos fragmentos amplificados. Esses resultados demonstram a presença do FIV na populaçäo de gatos domésticos do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil.
Descritores: DNA Viral
Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase
Provírus
Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida Felina/virologia
Vírus da Imunodeficiência Felina/isolamento & purificação
-Southern Blotting
Brasil
Hibridização Genética
Limites: Gatos
Animais
Responsável: BR68.1 - Biblioteca Virginie Buff D'Ápice


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Id: lil-268224
Autor: Pérez S., Lautaro.
Título: Biología molecular del virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana y los recientes progresos en el tratamiento del SIDA / Molecular biology of HIV and recent progress in the treatment of AIDS
Fonte: Rev. chil. pediatr;71(2):84-8, mar.-abr. 2000. ilus.
Idioma: es.
Resumo: El virus de inmunodeficiencia humana (VIH), causante del síndrome de inmunodeficiencia adquirida (SIDA), ha constituido desde su emergencia hace 2 décadas, un enorme desafío a la investigación biomédica. Utilizando una amplia gama de recursos para interferir y evadir la respuesta inmune normal, infecta las células CD4+, ingresa a ellas a través de sus receptores de superficie, y expresa una alta frecuencia de mutación lo que le permite cambiar repetidamente sus determinantes antígenos. Los VIH tipo 1 y 2 corresponden a lentivirus, los cuales, junto a los oncornavirus y espumavirus integran la familia de retrovirus RNA humanos. En este artíulo se revisan los conocimientos actuales de la biología molecular del virus, se comentan modernas técnicas de diagnóstico como la reacción de transcriptasa reversa y polimerasa en cadena, usadas actualmente para medir la replicación del virus en la sangre del huésped infectado, y se discuten las actuales líneas de tratamiento exploradas, las que básicamente se dirigen a blancos moleculares susceptibles de intervención farmacológica que no afecten la funcionalidad celular, como son la interacción virus-receptor celular, , transcripción reversa del RNA viral, integración del provirus, procesamiento proteolítico del precursor gag-pol, y la regulación transcripcional virus específica por los productos tat y rev. Finalmente se comentan aspectos relacionados a la investigación en el campo de la inmunización VIH, desafío pendiente para la primera década de este nuevo siglo
Descritores: HIV/genética
Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/virologia
-Fármacos Anti-HIV/farmacologia
Produtos do Gene gag/genética
Inibidores da Protease de HIV/uso terapêutico
HIV-1/genética
HIV/efeitos dos fármacos
HIV/patogenicidade
Provírus/genética
Inibidores da Transcriptase Reversa/farmacologia
Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/genética
Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/tratamento farmacológico
Replicação Viral
Limites: Humanos
Responsável: CL1.1 - Biblioteca Central


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Id: lil-185341
Autor: Méndez S., Jorge.
Título: Estado actual y futuro del tratamiento de los tumores cerebrales / Present state and future of cerebral brain tumors therapy
Fonte: Rev. chil. neurocir;9(14):91-5, 1995. ilus.
Idioma: es.
Descritores: Neoplasias Encefálicas/terapia
-Neoplasias Encefálicas/epidemiologia
Neoplasias Encefálicas/patologia
Ganciclovir
Glioma/patologia
Mutação
Células Neoplásicas Circulantes
Vírus Oncogênicos
Provírus
Timidina Quinase
Transferrina
Limites: Humanos
Responsável: CL2.1 - Biblioteca de Medicina



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