Base de dados : LILACS
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Texto completo SciELO Brasil
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Id: lil-539769
Autor: Wilson, Nancy A; Watkins, David I.
Título: Is an HIV vaccine possible?
Fonte: Braz. j. infect. dis;13(4):304-310, Aug. 2009. graf.
Idioma: en.
Resumo: The road to the discovery of a vaccine for HIV has been arduous and will continue to be difficult over the ensuing twenty years. Most vaccines are developed by inducing neutralizing antibodies against the target pathogen or by using attenuated strains of the particular pathogen to engender a variety of protective immune responses. Unfortunately, simple methods of generating anti-HIV antibodies have already failed in a phase III clinical trial. While attenuated SIV variants work well against homologous challenges in non-human primates, the potential for reversion to a more pathogenic virus and recombination with challenge viruses will preclude the use of attenuated HIV in the field. It has been exceedingly frustrating to vaccinate for HIV-specific neutralizing antibodies given the enormous diversity of the Envelope (Env) glycoprotein and its well-developed glycan shield. However, there are several antibodies that will neutralize many different strains of HIV and inducing these types of antibodies in vaccinees remains the goal of a vigorous effort to develop a vaccine for HIV based on neutralizing antibodies. Given the difficulty in generating broadly reactive neutralizing antibodies, the HIV vaccine field has turned its attention to inducing T cell responses against the virus using a variety of vectors. Unfortunately, the results from Merck's phase IIb STEP trial proved to be disappointing. Vaccinees received Adenovirus type 5 (Ad5) expressing Gag, Pol, and Nef of HIV. This vaccine regimen failed to either prevent infection or reduce the level of HIV replication after challenge. These results mirrored those in non-human primate testing of Ad5 using rigorous SIV challenge models. This review will focus on recent developments in HIV vaccine development. We will deal largely with attempts to develop a T cell-based vaccine using the non-human primate SIV challenge model.
Descritores: Vacinas contra a AIDS/imunologia
Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia
HIV
Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle
Carga Viral/imunologia
-Infecções por HIV/imunologia
Macaca mulatta
Vacinas contra a SAIDS/imunologia
Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida dos Símios/prevenção & controle
Vírus da Imunodeficiência Símia/imunologia
Limites: Animais
Seres Humanos
Tipo de Publ: Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Revisão
Responsável: BR1.1 - BIREME


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Texto completo SciELO Brasil
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Id: lil-480638
Autor: Watkins, David I.
Título: The hope for an HIV vaccine based on induction of CD8+ T lymphocytes: a review
Fonte: Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz;103(2):119-129, Mar. 2008. ilus, graf.
Idioma: en.
Projeto: National Institutes of Health.
Resumo: The only long-term and cost-effective solution to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic in the developing world is a vaccine that prevents individuals from becoming infected or, once infected, from passing the virus on to others. There is currently little hope for an AIDS vaccine. Conventional attempts to induce protective antibody and CD8+ lymphocyte responses against HIV and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) have failed. The enormous diversity of the virus has only recently been appreciated by vaccinologists, and our assays to determine CD8+ lymphocyte antiviral efficacy are inadequate. The central hypothesis of a CTL-based vaccine is that particularly effective CD8+ lymphocytes directed against at least five epitopes that are derived from regions under functional and structural constraints will control replication of pathogenic SIV. This would be somewhat analogous to control of virus replication by triple drug therapy or neutralizing antibodies.
Descritores: Vacinas contra a AIDS/imunologia
/imunologia
CDABDOMINAL NEOPLASMS-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES/imunologia
Epitopos de Linfócito T/imunologia
Vírus da Imunodeficiência Símia/imunologia
-DNA Viral/efeitos dos fármacos
DNA Viral/imunologia
Desenho de Drogas
Infecções por HIV/imunologia
Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle
Tolerância Imunológica
Macaca mulatta
Vírus da Imunodeficiência Símia/efeitos dos fármacos
Fatores de Tempo
Carga Viral
Replicação Viral/efeitos dos fármacos
Replicação Viral/imunologia
Limites: Animais
Seres Humanos
Tipo de Publ: Revisão
Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Responsável: BR1.1 - BIREME


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Id: lil-176715
Autor: Málaga, Carlos A; Kraiselburd, Edmundo; Lavergne, Julio A; Del Llano, Ana M; Amieiro, Juan P.
Título: Breve historia del SIDA en los primates no humanos y su contribución al estudio del síndrome de inmunodeficiencia adquirida / Brief history of AIDS in non-human primates and its contribution to the study of acquired imunodeficiency syndrome
Fonte: P. R. health sci. j;12(1):47-54, abr. 1993.
Idioma: es.
Resumo: Infection of the rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) with retroviruses originating from African non human primates (SIV) induces in this species an acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (SAIDS) closely resembling AIDS in humans. Analogies between the SIV-rhesus system and AIDS in humans are described in this work, analyzing the close relationship existing between the HIV and SIV viruses, and the similarities between SIV disease in the rhesus and HIV disease in humans. A review of current advances in AIDS vaccine research, using the SIV-rhesus model, is also included
Descritores: Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida
-Modelos Animais de Doenças
HIV/genética
Macaca mulatta
Vírus da Imunodeficiência Símia
Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida dos Símios/prevenção & controle
Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/microbiologia
Vacinas
Limites: Animais
Seres Humanos
Tipo de Publ: Estudo Comparativo
Responsável: BR1.1 - BIREME



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