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Id: biblio-1055401
Autor: Öztürk, Fatma; Kalkan, Selin; Elmas, Ercan; Elmas, Sercan; Bariş, Pelin; Demir, Özlem.
Título: Some Quality Parameters of Powdered Soups Prepared from Different Fish Species
Fonte: Braz. arch. biol. technol;62:e19180365, 2019. tab, graf.
Idioma: en.
Projeto: İzmir Katip Çelebi University.
Resumo: Abstract In this study, we aim to determine the shelf life of dried and ready to use-powdered soup samples obtained from different types of fish species such as Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), sea bream (Sparusaurata L.) and sea bass (Dicentrarchuc labrax). For this purpose, the chemical (moisture, protein, fat, carbohydrate, ash, pH, Thiobarbituric acid (TBA), Total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N), microbiological (total mesophilic aerobic bacteria, total yeast and mold, total coliform, Staphylococcus spp. and Salmonella spp.) and sensory properties of fish soup samples were determined during 6-month storage period. The pH, TBA and TVB-N values of all samples increased during the storage period, but these values were within the consumption limits. Additionally, the microbiological properties of all fish soup samples were found within the consumption limits during storage. As a result, a product has been obtained with high nutritional value and rich with regard to protein, oil, and minerals by adding the fish meat to soup samples. It has been determined that the product quality and shelf life significantly increased by using the boiled product for the production of soup samples.
Descritores: Tiobarbitúricos/análise
Sopas
Armazenamento de Alimentos/normas
Peixes
Nitrogênio/análise
Responsável: BR1.1 - BIREME


  2 / 503 LILACS  
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Id: biblio-1051225
Autor: Swiatek, Michal; Lewicki, Andrzej; Szymanowska, Daria; Kubiak, Piotr.
Título: The effect of introduction of chicken manure on the biodiversity and performance of an anaerobic digester
Fonte: Electron. j. biotechnol;37:25-33, Jan. 2019. tab, graf, ilus.
Idioma: en.
Projeto: National Centre for Research and Development (NCBR).
Resumo: Background: Ammonium stress is a prime limiting phenomenon that occurs during methane formation from poultry manure. It is caused by elevated ammonium nitrogen concentrations that result from substrate decomposition. The amounts of methane formed depend on the activity of methanogenic microbes. Results: During the research reported in this paper, the response of a mesophilic consortium inhabiting a biogas reactor to rising load of poultry manure was investigated. The taxonomic composition of bacterial population was mostly typical, however syntrophic bacteria were not detected. This absence resulted in limitation of succession of some methanogenic microorganisms, especially obligate hydrogenotrophs. The methanogenic activity of the consortium was totally dependent on the activity of Methanosaeta. Inhibition of methanoganesis was noticed at ammonium nitrogen concentration of 3.68 g/L, total cessation occurred at 5.45 g/L. Significant amounts of acetic acid in the fermentation pulp accompanied the inhibition. Conclusions: The effectiveness of the consortium was totally dependent on the metabolic activity of the acetoclastic Methanoseata genus and lack of SAOB did not allow hydrogenotrophic methanogens to propagate and lead to cessation of biogas production at an elevated ammonium concentration at which acetoclastic methanogens were inhibited.
Descritores: Methanosarcinaceae/metabolismo
Biocombustíveis
Microbiota
Anaerobiose
-Aves Domésticas
Estresse Fisiológico
Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase
Impressões Digitais de DNA
Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão
Archaea/metabolismo
Biodiversidade
Fermentação
Consórcios Microbianos
Compostos de Amônio
Esterco
Metano
Nitrogênio
Responsável: CL1.1 - Biblioteca Central


  3 / 503 LILACS  
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Id: biblio-1223246
Autor: Sriputorn, Benjaporn; Laopaiboon, Pattana; Phukoetphim, Niphaphat; Polsokchuak, Nilubol; Butkun, Khanittha; Laopaiboon, Lakkana.
Título: Enhancement of ethanol production efficiency in repeated-batch fermentation from sweet sorghum stem juice: effect of initial sugar, nitrogen and aeration
Fonte: Electron. j. biotechnol;46:55-64, jul. 2020. tab, graf.
Idioma: en.
Projeto: Ph.D. Program; . Post-doctoral Program.
Resumo: BACKGROUND: Ethanol concentration (PE), ethanol productivity (QP) and sugar consumption (SC) are important values in industrial ethanol production. In this study, initial sugar and nitrogen (urea) concentrations in sweet sorghum stem juice (SSJ) were optimized for high PE (≥10%, v/v), QP, (≥2.5 g/L·h) and SC (≥90%) by Saccharomyces cerevisiae SSJKKU01. Then, repeated-batch fermentations under normal gravity (NG) and high gravity (HG) conditions were studied. RESULTS: The initial sugar at 208 g/L and urea at 2.75 g/L were the optimum values to meet the criteria. At the initial yeast cell concentration of ~1 × 108 cells/mL, the PE, QP and SC were 97.06 g/L, 3.24 g/L·h and 95.43%, respectively. Repeated-batch fermentations showed that the ethanol production efficiency of eight successive cycles with and without aeration were not significantly different when the initial sugar of cycles 2 to 8 was under NG conditions (~140 g/L). Positive effects of aeration were observed when the initial sugar from cycle 2 was under HG conditions (180­200 g/L). The PE and QP under no aeration were consecutively lower from cycle 1 to cycle 6. Additionally, aeration affected ergosterol formation in yeast cell membrane at high ethanol concentrations, whereas trehalose content under all conditions was not different. CONCLUSION: Initial sugar, sufficient nitrogen and appropriated aeration are necessary for promoting yeast growth and ethanol fermentation. The SSJ was successfully used as an ethanol production medium for a high level of ethanol production. Aeration was not essential for repeated-batch fermentation under NG conditions, but it was beneficial under HG conditions.
Descritores: Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo
Sorghum/química
Etanol/metabolismo
-Saccharomyces cerevisiae/crescimento & desenvolvimento
Ureia
Leveduras/crescimento & desenvolvimento
Aeração
Sorghum/microbiologia
Etanol/análise
Açúcares
Sucos
Fermentação
Gravitação
Nitrogênio
Responsável: CL1.1 - Biblioteca Central


  4 / 503 LILACS  
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Id: biblio-1121037
Autor: Rodas-Pernillo, Evelyn; Vasquez-Moscoso, Camila A; García, Ovidio F.
Título: Dinámica del consumo y aporte de nutrientes de fitoplancton, dominado por Microcystis sp. (Cyanophyceae) del lago de Amatitlán / Dynamics of the consumption and nutrient supply of phytoplankton, dominated by Microcystis sp. (Cyanophyceae) of Lake Amatitlán
Fonte: Cienc. tecnol. salud;7(1):129-136, 2020. ilus.
Idioma: es.
Resumo: El impacto antrópico cercano al lago de Amatitlán ha generado niveles altos de eutrofización que conllevan cambios en la dinámica del ecosistema. Uno de ellos es la proliferación de cianobacterias del género Microcystis que pueden llegar a ser perjudiciales para la fauna y flora de lugar e incluso para los seres humanos. Se presenta el caso de cultivo de un consorcio de fitoplancton, tomado directamente del lago y llevado al laboratorio en condiciones controladas, para medir su consumo y aporte de nitrógeno y fósforo, además de los cambios en los factores fisicoquímicos y la biomasa. Se observó la presencia de diatomeas del genero Nitszchia y cianobacterias como Dolichospermum, con una marcada dominancia de Microcystis sp. Se analizó el porcentaje de cambio en la concentración de nutrientes. Los resultados indican que hubo un aumento en las concentraciones de amonio, nitrato y nitrógeno inorgánico disuelto, mientras que disminuyó el nitrógeno total, el fósforo total y los ortofosfatos. Esto indica que hay aporte de nitrógeno inorgánico, consumo de fósforo y nitrógeno orgánico. El fósforo parece ser el nutriente limitante, ya que, al consumirse en un 90 % la biomasa empieza a decrecer.

The anthropic impact near lake Amatitlán has generated high levels of eutrophication that lead to changes in ecosystem dynamics. One of them is the proliferation of cyanobacteria of the genus Microcystis that can be harmful to the fauna and flora of the place and even to humans. The case of cultivation of a phytoplankton consortium, taken directly from the lake and taken to the laboratory under controlled conditions, to measure its consumption and contribution of nitrogen and phosphorus, in addition to changes in physicochemical factors and biomass is presented. The presence of diatoms of the genus Nitszchia and cyanobacteria such as Dolichospermum was detected, with a marked dominance of Microcystis sp. The percentage change in nutrient concentration was analyzed. The results indicated that there was an increase in the amounts of dissolved inorganic ammonium, nitrate and nitrogen, while total nitrogen, total phosphorus and orthophosphates decreased. This indicates that there is contribution of inorganic nitrogen, consumption of phosphorus and organic nitrogen. Phosphorus seems to be the limiting nutrient, since, when consumed by 90 %, biomass begins to decrease.
Descritores: Lagos/análise
Cianobactérias
Microcystis
-Fósforo/análise
Fitoplâncton
Eutrofização
Nitrogênio/análise
Limites: Humanos
Responsável: GT49.1


  5 / 503 LILACS  
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Id: biblio-882834
Autor: Figueroa-Campos, Gustavo.
Título: Carga contaminante de los residuos sólidos municipales en la cabecera departamental de Jalapa, Guatemala / Pollution load of municipal solid waste in the City of Jalapa, Guatemala
Fonte: Cienc. tecnol. salud;4(1):32-38, 20170600. ilus.
Idioma: es.
Resumo: Se expone la carga contaminante de los residuos sólidos municipales, en la cabecera departamental de Jalapa, Guatemala. Cada residuo, sin importar su origen o forma, tiene una composición química específica, la cual indicará su grado de contaminación o carga contaminante. El estudio se enfocó en el análisis de los residuos sólidos de tipo domiciliar, institucional, comercial, mercados y barrido y limpieza de calles por un periodo de cinco días. La muestra se analizó mediante la determinación de las fracciones de composición de los residuos, clasificándolos en: papel, cartón, plástico, pet, restos de comida, duroport, textiles, hule, vidrio, papel higiénico, pañales y madera. Para el cálculo de la carga contaminante se multiplicó los porcentajes que aporta el carbono, hidrógeno, oxígeno, nitrógeno y azufre a cada fracción de los residuos por el peso total de cada componente para luego dividirlo por el peso atómico. Para minimizar la carga contaminante de los residuos sólidos, la recolección debe darse con una frecuencia mínima de dos veces por semana, para evitar proceso de descomposición, pudiendo generar vectores y enfermedades en los sitios temporales de disposición que afecten a la población. El volumen de los desechos generados por el barrido de calles presenta la mayor carga contaminante, dando como resultado porcentajes altos en los componentes de carbono, hidrogeno, oxígeno y nitrógeno, sin embargo, la misma puede reducirse implementando prácticas de valorización como el compostaje. Uno de los grandes problemas es el aporte de nitrógeno que en cantidades excesivas puede causar contaminación al suelo y a cuerpos de agua superficial.

The pollution load of municipal solid waste in the departmental capital of Jalapa is discussed. Each waste, regardless of their origin or form, has a specific chemical composition, which shall indicate the degree of pollution or pollution load. The study focused on the analysis of solid waste type household, institutional, comercial and street sweeping for a period of five days. The sample was analyzed by determining the fractions of waste composition, classifying them into paper, cardboard, plastic, pet, food scraps, styrofoam, textiles, rubber, glass, toilet paper, diapers and wood. To calculate the pollution load percentages provided by the carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen and sulfur to each fraction multiplied by the total weight of each component and then divided by the atomic weight. To minimize the pollution load of solid waste, collection must occur with a frequency of twice a week, in order to avoid decomposition process, potentially leading to disease vectors and temporary disposal sites affecting the population. The volume of waste generated by street sweeping has the highest pollution load, resulting in high percentages of the carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen components, but this can be reduced by implementing recovery practices such as composting. One of the big problems is the contribution of nitrogen that in excessive amounts can cause contamination to the soil and bodies of superficial water.
Descritores: Coleta de Resíduos Sólidos
Resíduos Tóxicos/análise
Nitrogênio/toxicidade
-Contaminação Química
Educação da População
Limites: Humanos
Masculino
Feminino
Responsável: GT49.1


  6 / 503 LILACS  
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Texto completo SciELO Chile
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Id: biblio-950767
Autor: Ikinci, Ali; Bolat, Ibrahim; Ercisli, Sezai; Kodad, Ossama.
Título: Influence of rootstocks on growth, yield, fruit quality and leaf mineral element contents of pear cv. 'Santa Maria' in semi-arid conditions
Fonte: Biol. Res;47:1-8, 2014. graf, tab.
Idioma: en.
Resumo: BACKGROUND: Rootstocks play an essential role to determining orchard performance of fruit trees. Pyrus communisand Cydonia oblonga are widely used rootstocks for European pear cultivars. The lack of rootstocks adapted to different soil conditions and different grafted cultivars is widely acknowledged in pear culture. Cydonia rootstocks (clonal) and Pyrus rootstocks (seedling or clonal) have their advantages and disadvantages. In each case, site-specific environmental characteristics, specific cultivar response and production objectives must be considered before choosing the best rootstock. In this study, the influence of three Quince (BA 29, Quince A = MA, Quince C = MC) and a local European pear seedling rootstocks on the scion yield, some fruit quality characteristics and leaf macro (N, P, K, Ca and Mg) and micro element (Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn and B) content of 'Santa Maria' pear (Pyrus communis L.) were investigated. RESULTS: Trees on seedling rootstock had the highest annual yield, highest cumulative yield (kg tree(-1)), largest trunk cross-sectional area (TCSA), lowest yield efficiency and lowest cumulative yield (ton ha(-1)) in the 10th year after planting. The rootstocks had no significant effect on average fruit weight and fruit volume. Significantly higher fruit firmness was obtained on BA 29 and Quince A. The effect of rootstocks on the mineral element accumulation (N, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn and B) was significant. Leaf analysis showed that rootstocks used had different mineral uptake efficiencies throughout the early season. CONCLUSION: The results showed that the rootstocks strongly affected fruit yield, fruit quality and leaf mineral element uptake of 'Santa Maria' pear cultivar. Pear seedling and BA 29 rootstock found to be more prominent in terms of several characteristics for 'Santa Maria' pear cultivar that is grown in highly calcareous soil in semi-arid climate conditions. We determined the highest N, P (although insignificant), K, Ca, Mg, Fe and Cu mineral element concentrations on the pear seedling and BA 29 rootstocks. According to the results, we recommend the seedling rootstock for normal density plantings (400 trees ha(-1)) and BA 29 rootstock for high-density plantings (800 trees ha(-1)) for 'Santa Maria' pear cultivar in semi-arid conditions.
Descritores: Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo
Folhas de Planta/química
Pyrus/classificação
Pyrus/crescimento & desenvolvimento
Pyrus/química
Clima Desértico
Produção Agrícola/métodos
Frutas/metabolismo
-Fósforo/análise
Potássio/análise
Chuva
Solo
Temperatura
Turquia
Zinco/análise
Boro/análise
Cálcio/análise
Cobre/análise
Rosaceae/fisiologia
Plântula/crescimento & desenvolvimento
Plântula/fisiologia
Ferro/análise
Magnésio/análise
Manganês/análise
Nitrogênio/análise
Responsável: CL1.1 - Biblioteca Central


  7 / 503 LILACS  
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Texto completo SciELO Chile
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Id: biblio-1089077
Autor: Kessi-Pérez, Eduardo I; Molinet, Jennifer; Martínez, Claudio.
Título: Disentangling the genetic bases of Saccharomyces cerevisiae nitrogen consumption and adaptation to low nitrogen environments in wine fermentation
Fonte: Biol. Res;53:02, 2020. tab, graf.
Idioma: en.
Projeto: Universidad de Santiago de Chile; . CONICYT/FONDECYT.
Resumo: The budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been considered for more than 20 years as a premier model organ- ism for biological sciences, also being the main microorganism used in wide industrial applications, like alcoholic fermentation in the winemaking process. Grape juice is a challenging environment for S. cerevisiae , with nitrogen deficiencies impairing fermentation rate and yeast biomass production, causing stuck or sluggish fermentations, thus generating sizeable economic losses for wine industry. In the present review, we summarize some recent efforts in the search of causative genes that account for yeast adaptation to low nitrogen environments, specially focused in wine fermentation conditions. We start presenting a brief perspective of yeast nitrogen utilization under wine fermentative conditions, highlighting yeast preference for some nitrogen sources above others. Then, we give an outlook of S. cerevisiae genetic diversity studies, paying special attention to efforts in genome sequencing for population structure determination and presenting QTL mapping as a powerful tool for phenotype-genotype correlations. Finally, we do a recapitulation of S. cerevisiae natural diversity related to low nitrogen adaptation, specially showing how different studies have left in evidence the central role of the TORC1 signalling pathway in nitrogen utilization and positioned wild S. cerevisiae strains as a reservoir of beneficial alleles with potential industrial applications (e.g. improvement of industrial yeasts for wine production). More studies focused in disentangling the genetic bases of S. cerevisiae adaptation in wine fermentation will be key to determine the domestication effects over low nitrogen adaptation, as well as to definitely proof that wild S. cerevisiae strains have potential genetic determinants for better adaptation to low nitrogen conditions.
Descritores: Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo
Vinho/microbiologia
Adaptação Fisiológica
Vitis/metabolismo
Fermentação
Nitrogênio/metabolismo
-Saccharomyces cerevisiae/crescimento & desenvolvimento
Vitis/microbiologia
Responsável: CL1.1 - Biblioteca Central


  8 / 503 LILACS  
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Id: biblio-1132235
Autor: Yagi, Renato; Nazareno, Nilceu Ricetti Xavier de; Soratto, Rogério Peres.
Título: Agronomic and Economic Interactions between Sidedressed Nitrogen and Potassium Fertilizations on Atlantic Potato
Fonte: Braz. arch. biol. technol;63:e20190640, 2020. tab, graf.
Idioma: en.
Resumo: Abstract Nitrogen (N) and potassium (K) in potato crop planting synergistically increase tuber yield, but there are no studies on this interaction in sidedressing. In two experiments with 'Atlantic' potato combinations of four N rates (0, 50, 100, and 150 kg ha-1) with four K2O rates (0, 100, 200, and 300 kg ha-1) were applied in sidedressing in a 4×4 factorial scheme with three replications in a completely randomized design. Adjacent commercial fields were sampled to economic comparisons with experimental results. Significant interaction between N and K sidedressing rates with tuber yields increase also was confirmed and classified as Liebig-synergism. Compared to the isolated N and K applications in sidedressing, joint N and K fertilizations, respectively, increases by 11% and 48% marketable tuber yields in the summer-fall experiment, and 12% and 7% in the spring experiment. Joint N and K applications as sidedressing was more profitable than planting fertilization, mainly at higher N and K rates. The response of specific gravity of 'Atlantic' potato tubers to the N and K sidedressing rates was mediated by interactions between edaphoclimatic conditions and inputs of N and K. The combined application of N and K sidedressing rates increased specific gravity in the summer-fall experiment, but had a negative effect in the spring experiment. Therefore, our results provide strong evidence that the fertilization management for potato crop in Brazil can be modified by applying higher amounts of N and K in sidedressing to match nutritional needs of the crop.
Descritores: Potássio/administração & dosagem
Solanum tuberosum/crescimento & desenvolvimento
Solanum tuberosum/economia
Agricultura/economia
Fármacos para a Fertilidade/administração & dosagem
Nitrogênio/administração & dosagem
-Sinergismo Farmacológico
Fármacos para a Fertilidade/economia
Limites: Humanos
Responsável: BR1.1 - BIREME


  9 / 503 LILACS  
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Id: biblio-1142500
Autor: Bousfield, Sérgio Walace; Favaretto, Nerilde; Motta, Antônio Carlos Vargas; Barth, Gabriel; Celante, Luana Salete; Cherobim, Verediana Fernanda.
Título: Environmental Soil Phosphorus Threshold under No-Tillage and Swine Manure Application
Fonte: Braz. arch. biol. technol;63(spe):e20190536, 2020. tab, graf.
Idioma: en.
Resumo: Abstract Swine manure is applied in agricultural fields as a source of nutrients for plant growth, however, excessive application over the years can promote soil phosphorus (P) accumulation. The objective of this study was to establish the environmental soil P threshold based on the degree of P saturation (DPS), as well, to evaluate the soil P storage capacity. The experiment was carried out in an Oxisol (sandy clay loam texture), under no-tillage and crop rotation. Treatments consisted of four annual doses of liquid swine manure (0, 100, 200, and 300 m3 ha-1 year-1), and three doses of mineral fertilizer (0, 50, and 100% of the crop nutrients requirement), in a randomized block with split-plot design (four replications). Soil P content was analyzed by PMehlich-1, PCaCl2, water-soluble P (WSP) and total P. The application of swine manure and mineral fertilizer increased soil P contents mainly at 0-10 cm depth. The DPS corresponding to the change point was 14.9% at depth 0-10 and 8.6% at depth 0-20 cm with WSP and 18.7% at 0-10 cm and 8.9% at 0-20 cm depth with PCaCl2. The lowest change point value was DPS 8.6% which corresponds to 43 mg kg-1 of PMehlich-1, so, in practical terms, we suggest this value as the environmental soil P threshold. The soil P storage capacity indicated negative values with the higher doses of swine manure and mineral fertilizer which increases the vulnerability of P loss by surface and subsurface hydrological transfer pathway.
Descritores: Fósforo/análise
Solo/química
Fertilizantes/análise
Esterco/análise
-Potássio/análise
Suínos
Rotação de Cultivos
Modelos Teóricos
Nitrogênio/análise
Limites: Animais
Responsável: BR1.1 - BIREME


  10 / 503 LILACS  
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Id: biblio-1142506
Autor: Zanella, Rodrigo; Zdziarski, Andrei Daniel; Meira, Daniela; Bozi, Antonio Henrique; Lippstein, Eduardo Rafael; Colonelli, Lucas Leite; Fernandes, Rogê Afonso Tolentino; Fernandes, Vinícius Kunz; Benin, Giovani; Cassol, Luís César.
Título: System Fertilization: a Viable Practice for Black Oat-soybean Crop
Fonte: Braz. arch. biol. technol;63(spe):e20190063, 2020. tab, graf.
Idioma: en.
Resumo: Abstract System fertilization is characterized by partial or total fertilizer application at the predecessor crop; and it can be a viable practice to soybean crop. This study aimed to determine the fertilizer management and fertilizer levels for black oat-soybean cropping system, in high fertility soils and no-tillage system. The field trial was conducted in a bifactorial scheme, consisting of six environments, by combination of locations (Bom Sucesso do Sul - Paraná, Itapejara d'Oeste - Paraná) and fertilization management (all fertilization in black oat; splitting with 50% in black oat and 50% in soybean, all fertilization in soybean), and four fertilizer levels (0, 100, 200 and 300%) defined according to soil analysis and production expected. The evaluated traits were dry mass production, N, P and K nutrient accumulation of straw, dry mass remaining of black oat crop; and plant height, number of pods per plant, thousand grain weight, grain yield for soybean crop. Higher black oat dry mass production was observed at higher fertilization level. The fertilizer anticipation in black oat crop had better performance. Phosphorus and potassium accumulation increased linearly with fertilizer level increase. For N, the highest accumulated value occurred at the 200%, decreasing at the 300% of fertilizer level. The soybean crop had no influence in grain yield considering fertilization management, anticipation or splitting, and fertilizer levels. Thus, the system fertilization can be a viable practice, and favor black oat dry mass production and soybean development.
Descritores: Soja/crescimento & desenvolvimento
Análise do Solo
Avena/crescimento & desenvolvimento
Fertilizantes
-Fósforo/análise
Potássio/análise
Produção Agrícola/métodos
Nitrogênio/análise
Limites: Humanos
Responsável: BR1.1 - BIREME



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