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Id: biblio-893815
Autor: Carvalho, Mauricio.
Título: Urinary pH in calcium oxalate stone formers: does it matter? / pH urinário em formadores de cálculos de oxalato de cálcio: isso importa?
Fonte: J. bras. nefrol;40(1):6-7, Jan.-Mar. 2018.
Idioma: en.
Descritores: Oxalato de Cálcio
Cálculos Renais/urina
-Cálculos Renais/metabolismo
Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio
Limites: Humanos
Tipo de Publ: Editorial
Responsável: BR1.1 - BIREME


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Id: biblio-1006498
Autor: Fernández, Verónica; Sobrero, María Silvina; Brissón, Cecilia; Marsili, Nilda; Bonifacino Belzarena, Rosina; Bartolomé, Jimena; Cuestas, Verónica; Prono Minella, Priscila.
Título: Valores de referencia de oxalato, calcio, citrato, ácido úrico, fósforo, magnesio, sulfato y sodio urinarios en alumnos de la carrera de bioquímica de la Universidad Nacional del Litoral, Argentina / Reference values for urinary oxalate, calcium, citrate, uric acid, phosphate, magnesium, sulphate and sodium in biochemistry students at Universidad Nacional del Litoral, Argentina
Fonte: Rev. nefrol. diál. traspl;37(3):146-156, sept. 2017. tab.
Idioma: es.
Conferência: Apresentado em: ERA-EDTA 54° Congreso Europeo de Nefrología (Madrid, 3-6 junio 2017), Madri, 3-6 jun. 2017.
Resumo: INTRODUCCIÓN: La urolitiasis (UL) es una alteración frecuente, cuya incidencia ha aumentado en el último cuarto del siglo XX. Para su diagnóstico se realizan estudios metabólicos para lo cual es necesario contar con valores de referencia (VR) establecidos para la población en cuestión. OBJETIVO: El objetivo del trabajo fue determinar VR de calcio, oxalato, citrato, úrico, fósforo, magnesio, sulfato y sodio en orina de 24 horas de alumnos de la Facultad de Bioquímica y Ciencias Biológicas de la Universidad Nacional del Litoral, Santa Fe, Argentina. Con los VR hallados se determinó la frecuencia de alteraciones y se la comparó con datos bibliográficos. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se utilizó la guía NCCLSC28-A3, 2008. La muestra de referencia fue de 69 alumnos. Se utilizaron métodos enzimáticos-colorimétricos, espectrofotómetro Metrolab 1600 plus, electrodos ion selectivo DIESTRO. RESULTADOS: Los VR hallados (IC 95%) fueron para el oxalato: 1,96-45,08; calcio: 20,65-250,74; citrato: 112,78-666,01; ácido úrico 58,73-782,17; fósforo 238,37-1051,44; magnesio 28,7-146,67 todos en mg/24h; sulfato 3,15-25,18 mmol/24h y sodio 42,81-285,3 mEq/24h. Se encontró un 3% hiperoxaluria, 12% hipercalciuria, 3% hipocitraturia y 6% hiperuricosuria, 6% hiperfosfaturia, 6% hipomagnesuria, 7% hipernatriuria, 0% hipersulfaturia. Los VR comparados mostraron coincidencias para algunos analitos y para otros amplias diferencias. CONCLUSIONES: El diagnóstico de la alteración metabólica para el estudio de UL varía según el valor de referencia utilizado. Adoptar valores establecidos para otras poblaciones, incluidos los de los fabricantes de los kits comerciales, conducen a un diagnóstico que puede no ser acorde a la situación clínica del paciente

INTRODUCTION: Urolithiasis (UL) is a common disease whose incidence increased in the last quarter of the twentieth century. Metabolic evaluation is necessary for diagnosis, which requires the establishment of reference values (RV) for the population in question. OBJECTIVE: To determine the RV for calcium, oxalate, citrate, uric acid, phosphate, magnesium, sulphate and sodium in 24-hour urine belonging to students from the School of Biochemistry and Biological Sciences at Universidad Nacional del Litoral, province of Santa Fe, Argentina. Once RV were established, a frequency of alterations was determined and then compared with literature data. METHODS: The NCCLSC28-A3 guideline (2008) was used. The study group included 69 students. The enzymatic colorimetric method, a Metrolab 1600 plus spectrophotometer and a DIESTRO ion-selective electrode were also employed. Results: The RV found (95 % CI) were the following: oxalate, 1.96-45.08; calcium, 20.65-250.74; citrate, 112.78-666.01; uric acid, 58.73-782.17; phosphate, 238.37-1051.44; magnesium, 28.7-146.67, all these values expressed as mg/24h; sulphate, 3.15-25.18 mmol/24h, and sodium, 42.81-285.3 mEq/24h. These findings emerged as well: hyperoxaluria, 3%; hypercalciuria 12%; hypocitraturia, 3%; hyperuricosuria, 6%; hyperphosphaturia, 6%; hypomagnesuria, 6%; hypernatriuria, 7%, and hypersulphaturia, 0%. When RV were compared, some analyte levels were similar and others showed a considerable difference. CONCLUSIONS: The diagnosis of UL through the study of metabolic changes is different according to the reference value used. Applying reference values established for other populations, including those of commercial kits manufacturers, may lead to a diagnosis which does not match the clinical condition of the patient
Descritores: Valores de Referência
Urolitíase
-Fósforo/metabolismo
Sódio/metabolismo
Ácido Úrico/metabolismo
Oxalato de Cálcio/metabolismo
Ácido Cítrico/metabolismo
Magnésio/metabolismo
Limites: Humanos
Responsável: AR444.1 - BAN - Biblioteca Argentina de Nefrología Dr. Víctor R. Miatello


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Id: lil-755884
Autor: Sujatha, D; Singh, Kiranpal; Vohra, Mursalin; Kumar, K. Vijay; Sunitha, S.
Título: Antilithiatic Activity of phlorotannin rich extract of Sarghassum Wightii on Calcium Oxalate Urolithiais ­ In Vitro and In VivoEvaluation
Fonte: Int. braz. j. urol;41(3):511-520, May-June 2015. tab, ilus.
Idioma: en.
Resumo: ABSTRACTPurpose:

Urolithiasis is a common urological disorder responsible for serious human affliction and cost to the society with a high recurrence rate. The aim of the present study was to systematically evaluate the phlorotannin rich extract of Sargassum wightii using suitable in vitro and in vivo models to provide scientific evidence for its antilithiatic activity.

Materials and Methods:

To explore the effect of Sargassum wightii on calcium oxalate crystallization, in vitro assays like crystal nucleation, aggregation and crystal growth were performed. Calcium oxalate urolithiasis was induced in male Sprague dawley rats using a combination of gentamicin and calculi producing diet (5% ammonium oxalate and rat pellet feed). The biochemical parameters like calcium, oxalate, magnesium, phosphate, sodium and potassium were evaluated in urine, serum and kidney homogenates. Histopathological studies were also done to confirm the biochemical findings.

Results:

The yield of Sargassum wightii extract was found to be 74.5 gm/kg and confirmed by quantitative analysis. In vitro experiments with Sargassum wightii showed concentration dependent inhibition of calcium oxalate nucleation, aggregation and growth supported by SEM analysis. In the in vivo model, Sargassum wightiireduced both calcium and oxalate supersaturation in urine, serum and deposition in the kidney. The biochemical results were supported by histopathological studies.

Conclusion:

The findings of the present study suggest that Sargassum wightii has the ability to prevent nucleation, aggregation and growth of calcium oxalate crystals. Sargassum wightii has better preventive effect on calcium oxalate stone formation indicating its strong ...

Descritores: Oxalato de Cálcio/antagonistas & inibidores
Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia
Sargassum/química
Taninos/farmacologia
Urolitíase/prevenção & controle
-Oxalato de Cálcio/química
Cálcio/análise
Cristalização
Rim/efeitos dos fármacos
Magnésio/análise
Modelos Animais
Oxalatos/análise
Fósforo/análise
Distribuição Aleatória
Ratos Sprague-Dawley
Valores de Referência
Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
Fatores de Tempo
Resultado do Tratamento
Limites: Animais
Masculino
Tipo de Publ: Estudo de Avaliação
Responsável: BR1.1 - BIREME


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Id: biblio-882948
Autor: Almeida, Silvia Rayner Rodrigues de; Araujo, Johnny Iglesias Mendes; Ferreira, Siluana Benvindo.
Título: A retirada dos urólitos de oxalato de cálcio e desobstrução da uretra através da realização da técnica cirúrgica uretrostomia em cães: relato de caso / Removal of calcium oxalate uroliths and urethral clearing through urethrostomy in dogs: case report / La retirada de urólitos de oxalato de calcio y desobstrucción de la uretra a través de realización de la técnica quirúrgica urestrostomía en perros: relato de caso
Fonte: Arq. ciênc. vet. zool. UNIPAR;20(3):173-178, jul-set. 2017. ilus.
Idioma: pt.
Resumo: A uretra do macho é uma continuação do sistema de ductos, originada de um óstio interno no colo da bexiga urinária e estendida até o orifício peniano uretral externo na extremidade livre do pênis. Relata-se um caso de um canino, macho, SRD, de três anos, pesando 12 kg. Foi atendido no Hospital Veterinário Universitário "Jeremias Pereira da Silva" - HVU/UFPI, na área de Clínica Médica e Cirúrgica de cães e gatos. O mesmo apresentava manifestações clínicas como: dificuldade de locomoção, disúria, inapetência, hematúria, anúria, agressividade, dor abdominal, apatia e emagrecimento progressivo. A conduta clínica adotada diante do caso, após o resultado dos exames complementares que confirmaram o diagnostico inicial, indicativo de obstrução uretral total por urólitos de oxalato de cálcio, devido ao insucesso das tentativas clínicas de desobstrução foi optar pela técnica cirúrgica uretrostomia. Decorrido dez dias da cirurgia, o animal retornou para retirada dos pontos, apresentando-se em bom estado, alimentando-se bem, fluxo urinário constante (sem sangue), e andando normalmente. A urolitíase deve ser diagnosticada e tratada o mais previamente possível, uma vez que a doença se complica no avançar dos sinais clínicos, podendo ocasionar casos mais complexos, como obstruções urinárias severas e até morte do animal.(AU)

The male urethra is a continuation of the duct system originated from an internal ostium inside the bladder and extends to the external urethral penile hole at the free end of the penis. This is a case study of a 3-year old male mongrel dog weighing 12 kg. The dog was attended at the University Veterinary Hospital "Jeremias Pereira da Silva" ­ HVU/UFPI in the Clinical and Surgical Practice of dogs and cats. It presented clinical manifestations such as difficulty in walking, dysuria, loss of appetite, hematuria, anuria, aggressiveness, abdominal pain, lethargy and progressive weight loss. An urethrostomy was the clinical approach adopted for the case, after the laboratory tests confirmed the initial diagnosis of total urethral obstruction by calcium oxalate uroliths due to the failure of clinical unblocking attempts. Ten days after the surgery, the animal returned to the clinic to remove the stitches, and presented a good condition, feeding well, with a constant urine flow (no blood), and walking normally. Urolithiasis must be diagnosed and treated as early as possible, since the disease complicates itself with the worsening of the clinical signs, which may result in more complex cases, such as severe urinary obstruction and even the death of the animal.(AU)

La uretra del macho es una continuación del sistema de ductos, originada de un ostium interno en el cuello de la vejiga urinaria y se extiende hasta el orificio uretral externo en la extremidad libre del pene. Presentamos un caso de un canino, macho, SRD, de tres años, con un peso de 12 kg. Fue atendido en el Hospital Veterinario de la Universidad "Jeremías Pereira da Silva" - HVU/UFPI, en el campo de Clínica Médica y Quirúrgica de perros y gatos. Lo mismo presentaba manifestaciones clínicas como: dificultad para caminar, disuria, pérdida de apetito, hematuria, anuria, agresividad, dolor abdominal, letargo y pérdida progresiva de peso. La conducta clínica adoptada delante el caso, tras el resultado de los exámenes complementarios que confirmaron el diagnóstico inicial, indicativo de obstrucción uretral total de cálculos de oxalato de calcio, debido al fracaso de las tentativas clínicas de desbloqueo cupo optar por uretrostomía, técnica quirúrgica. Después de diez días de la cirugía el animal volvió para retirada de los puntos de sutura, presentándose en buen estado, alimentándose bien, flujo de orina constante (sin sangre), y caminando normalmente. La urolitiasis debe ser diagnosticada y tratada cuanto antes posible, ya que la enfermedad se complica con el avance de los signos clínicos, pudiendo causar casos más complejos, como obstrucciones urinarias severas e incluso la muerte del animal.(AU)
Descritores: Estreitamento Uretral/cirurgia
Urolitíase/cirurgia
Urolitíase/veterinária
-Oxalato de Cálcio
Limites: Animais
Cães
Responsável: BR1532.9 - CEDIC - Coordenadoria de Editoração e Divulgação Científica


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Id: lil-783679
Autor: Castillo-Arteaga, Roger David; Burbano-Rosero, Edith Mariela; Otero-Ramirez, Iván Darío; Fernández-Izquierdo, Pablo.
Título: Degradación de oxalato por bacterias oxalotróficas asociadas a plantas del género Oxalis sp en regiones Andinas del departamento de Nariño, Colombia / Oxalate degradation by oxalotrophic bacteria associated with plants of the genus Oxalis sp in the Andean region of the department of Nariño, Colombia
Fonte: Univ. salud;18(1):69-78, ene.-abr. 2016. ilus, tab.
Idioma: es.
Resumo: Introducción: El ácido oxálico (H2C2O4) y las sales de oxalato son sustancias altamente oxidadas y consideradas tóxicas para algunos sistemas biológicos, incluido el humano, no obstante, pueden ser utilizadas como fuente de carbono y energía por algunas comunidades bacterianas, denominadas oxalotróficas, las cuales por su capacidad metabólica forman parte de la ruta biogeoquímica oxalato-carbonato (OCP, oxalate-carbonate pathway). Objetivo: Aislar y caracterizar bacterias oxalotróficas a partir de plantas del género Oxalis sp., de zonas alto-andina de Nariño- Colombia. Materiales y métodos: Se recolectaron muestras de suelo rizosférico de plantas oxalogénicas que fueron analizadas con parámetros fisicoquímicos y se utilizó un medio selectivo Schlegel para el aislamiento de bacterias oxalotróficas. Resultados: Las bacterias aisladas en medio selectivo Schlegel fueron caracterizadas bioquímicamente como: (Serratia fonticola, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus vallismortis y Bacillus cereus). Estas especies fueron capaces de degradar oxalato e incrementar el pH producto de la degradación. Conclusión: Este tipo de bacterias pueden ser estudiadas en trabajos complementarios para evaluar su potencial como biofertilizantes y/o alternativas de bioremediación en suelos ácidos. El estudio a pesar de ser indicativo a nivel biológico, puede en un futuro y con base en mayores soportes en investigación, tornarse en una promisoria aplicación para reducir el oxalato de calcio en los alimentos de consumo diario que presentan un renglón de importancia agrícola en la región, potencialmente dañinos para la función renal.

Introduction: Oxalic acid (H2C2O4) and oxalate salts are highly oxidized substances, which are considered as toxic for some biological systems, including the human being; however, they can be used as a source of carbon and energy for some bacterial communities called oxalotrophic which are part of the so called oxalate-carbonate geochemistry pathway (OCP) due to its metabolic capacity. Objective: The aim of this research was to isolate and characterize oxalotrophic bacteria from plants of the genus Oxalis sp. in the high-andean zone of the department of Nariño, Colombia. Materials and methods: Samples of rhizosphere soil from oxalogenic plants were analyzed with physicochemical parameters and a Schlegel selective medium was used to isolate oxalotrophic bacteria. Results: The isolated bacteria through Schlegel selective medium were identified biochemically as: (Serratia fonticola, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus vallismortis and Bacillus cereus). The identified species play an important role in the rhizosphere soil, principally for the capacity to increase the pH during oxalate consumption. Conclusion: This type of bacteria can be studied in additional studies to evaluate their potential as bio-fertilizers and/or bioremediation alternatives in acid soils. Despite that the study is indicative at a biological level, it can become a promising application, in the future and with greater support in research, to reduce the calcium oxalate in food of daily consumption which represent an agricultural important line in the region and are potentially harmful to kidney finction.
Descritores: Biodegradação Ambiental
Oxalato de Cálcio
Cálculos Renais
Oxalidaceae
Tipo de Publ: Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Responsável: CO332 - Facultad de Medicina


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Id: lil-769752
Autor: Baldev, N.; Sriram, R.; Prabu, P.C.; Gino, A. Kurian.
Título: Effect of mitochondrial potassium channel on the renal protection mediated by sodium thiosulfate against ethylene glycol induced nephrolithiasis in rat model
Fonte: Int. braz. j. urol;41(6):1116-1125, Nov.-Dec. 2015. tab, graf.
Idioma: en.
Resumo: Purpose: Sodium thiosulfate (STS) is clinically reported to be a promising drug in preventing nephrolithiasis. However, its mechanism of action remains unclear. In the present study, we investigated the role of mitochondrial KATP channel in the renal protection mediated by STS. Materials and Methods: Nephrolithiasis was induced in Wistar rats by administrating 0.4% ethylene glycol (EG) along with 1% ammonium chloride for one week in drinking water followed by only 0.75% EG for two weeks. Treatment groups received STS, mitochondrial KATP channel opener and closer exclusively or in combination with STS for two weeks. Results: Animals treated with STS showed normal renal tissue architecture, supported by near normal serum creatinine, urea and ALP activity. Diazoxide (mitochondria KATP channel opening) treatment to the animal also showed normal renal tissue histology and improved serum chemistry. However, an opposite result was shown by glibenclamide (mitochondria KATP channel closer) treated rats. STS administered along with diazoxide negated the renal protection rendered by diazoxide alone, while it imparted protection to the glibenclamide treated rats, formulating a mitochondria modulated STS action. Conclusion: The present study confirmed that STS render renal protection not only through chelation and antioxidant effect but also by modulating the mitochondrial KATP channel for preventing urolithiasis.
Descritores: Antioxidantes/farmacocinética
Quelantes/farmacologia
Etilenoglicol
Nefrolitíase/prevenção & controle
Canais de Potássio/farmacologia
Tiossulfatos/farmacologia
-Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico
Oxalato de Cálcio/metabolismo
Quelantes/uso terapêutico
Modelos Animais de Doenças
Eletroforese em Gel de Ágar
Rim/efeitos dos fármacos
Rim/patologia
Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos
Nefrolitíase/patologia
Canais de Potássio/uso terapêutico
Distribuição Aleatória
Ratos Wistar
Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
Resultado do Tratamento
Tiossulfatos/uso terapêutico
Limites: Animais
Masculino
Responsável: BR1.1 - BIREME


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Id: lil-767061
Autor: Mittal, A.; Tandon, S.; Singla, S.K.; Tandon, C..
Título: In vitro studies reveal antiurolithic effect of Terminalia arjuna using quantitative morphological information from computerized microscopy
Fonte: Int. braz. j. urol;41(5):935-944, Sept.-Oct. 2015. tab, graf.
Idioma: en.
Resumo: ABSTRACT Purpose: For most cases, urolithiasis is a condition where excessive oxalate is present in the urine. Many reports have documented free radical generation followed by hyperoxaluria as a consequence of which calcium oxalate (CaOx) deposition occurs in the kidney tissue. The present study is aimed to exam the antilithiatic potency of the aqueous extract (AE) of Terminalia arjuna (T. arjuna). Materials and Methods: The antilithiatic activity of Terminalia arjuna was investigated in vitro nucleation, aggregation and growth of the CaOx crystals as well as the morphology of CaOx crystals using the inbuilt software ‘Image-Pro Plus 7.0’ of Olympus upright microscope (BX53). Antioxidant activity of AE of Terminalia arjuna bark was also determined in vitro. Results: Terminalia arjuna extract exhibited a concentration dependent inhibition of nucleation and aggregation of CaOx crystals. The AE of Terminalia arjuna bark also inhibited the growth of CaOx crystals. At the same time, the AE also modified the morphology of CaOx crystals from hexagonal to spherical shape with increasing concentrations of AE and reduced the dimensions such as area, perimeter, length and width of CaOx crystals in a dose dependent manner. Also, the Terminalia arjuna AE scavenged the DPPH (2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) radicals with an IC50 at 13.1µg/mL. Conclusions: The study suggests that Terminalia arjuna bark has the potential to scavenge DPPH radicals and inhibit CaOx crystallization in vitro. In the light of these studies, Terminalia arjuna can be regarded as a promising candidate from natural plant sources of antilithiatic and antioxidant activity with high value.
Descritores: Antioxidantes/farmacologia
Oxalato de Cálcio/química
Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia
Terminalia/química
Cálculos Urinários/prevenção & controle
-Análise de Variância
Compostos de Bifenilo/química
Cristalização
Depuradores de Radicais Livres/farmacologia
Fitoterapia
Picratos/química
Valores de Referência
Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
Cálculos Urinários/química
Tipo de Publ: Estudo de Avaliação
Responsável: BR1.1 - BIREME


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Id: lil-755866
Autor: Vaitheeswari, S.; Sriram, R.; Brindha, P.; Kurian, Gino A..
Título: Studying inhibition of calcium oxalate stone formation: an in vitro approach for screening hydrogen sulfide and its metabolites
Fonte: Int. braz. j. urol;41(3):503-510, May-June 2015. ilus.
Idioma: en.
Resumo: ABSTRACTPurpose:

Calcium oxalate urolithiasis is one of the most common urinary tract diseases and is of high prevalence. The present study proposes to evaluate the antilithiatic property of hydrogen sulfide and its metabolites like thiosulfate & sulfate in an in vitro model.

Materials and Methods:

The antilithiatic activity of sodium hydrogen sulfide (NaSH), sodium thiosulfate (Na2S2O3) and sodium sulfate (Na2SO4) on the kinetics of calcium oxalate crystal formation was investigated both in physiological buffer and in urine from normal and recurrent stone forming volunteers. The stones were characterized by optical and spectroscopic techniques.

Results:

The stones were characterized to be monoclinic, prismatic and bipyramidal habit which is of calcium monohydrate and dihydrate nature. The FTIR displayed fingerprint corresponding to calcium oxalate in the control while in NaSH treated, S=O vibrations were visible in the spectrum. The order of percentage inhibition was NaSH>Na2S2O3>Na2SO4.

Conclusion:

Our study indicates that sodium hydrogen sulfide and its metabolite thiosulfate are inhibitors of calcium oxalate stone agglomeration which makes them unstable both in physiological buffer and in urine. This effect is attributed to pH changes and complexing of calcium by S2O32-and SO42- moiety produced by the test compounds.

.
Descritores: Oxalato de Cálcio/metabolismo
Sulfeto de Hidrogênio/química
Sulfeto de Hidrogênio/metabolismo
Urolitíase/metabolismo
Urolitíase/prevenção & controle
-Análise de Variância
Estudos de Casos e Controles
Oxalato de Cálcio/química
Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier
Urina/química
Limites: Adulto
Feminino
Humanos
Masculino
Responsável: BR1.1 - BIREME


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Id: lil-742935
Autor: AZEVEDO, C.F.; QUIRINO, Z.G.M.; BRUNO, R.L.A..
Título: Estudo farmacobotânico de partes aéreas vegetativas de aroeira-vermelha (Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi, Anacardiaceae) / Pharmacobotanical study of the aerial parts of Brazilian pepper (Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi)
Fonte: Rev. bras. plantas med;17(1):26-35, Jan-Mar/2015. graf.
Idioma: pt.
Resumo: Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi (Anacardiaceae), conhecida como aroeira-vermelha é uma espécie nativa do Brasil, perenifólia e pioneira, sendo muito utilizada para combater diversas doenças, pois apresenta, entre outras, propriedades anti-inflamatórias e cicatrizantes. O objetivo desta pesquisa foi realizar um estudo morfoanatômico do caule e da folha de S. terebinthifolius, descrevendo a organização dos tecidos e suas possíveis variações. As análises macro e microscópicas foram realizadas com material selecionado de partes vegetativas de um espécime localizado na cidade de Campina Grande - PB. A aroeira-vermelha é um vegetal arbóreo e dióico, que apresenta caule cilíndrico e simpodial, com casca rugosa e estriada. A folha é perene, alterna, coriácea e composta. As análises microscópicas evidenciaram epiderme caulinar e foliar uniestratificadas, exceto na face adaxial da folha, que é bisseriada. No caule e no pecíolo são visualizados muitos tricomas tectores unicelulares, curtos, cônicos e agudos no ápice. Encontram-se canais secretores arredondados e bem desenvolvidos na região do floema em todos os órgãos estudados, bem como cutícula revestindo as células epidérmicas e grande quantidade de drusas de oxalato de cálcio. Os feixes vasculares são circundados por células esclerenquimáticas e apresentam o floema seguido por xilema helicoidal bem desenvolvido. No caule, pecíolo e nervura central da folha, o xilema é interno e o floema, externo. A aroeira-vermelha apresenta alguns aspectos estruturais característicos de plantas xerófilas, como camada múltipla da epiderme da face adaxial foliar, que protegem o mesofilo de excessiva dessecação; presença de cutícula espessa e grande quantidade de pêlos e de estômatos; além de sistema vascular bem desenvolvido, com abundância de esclerênquima, dando sustentação ao feixe.

Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi (Anacardiaceae), popularly known as Brazilian pepper, is an evergreen, pioneer and indigenous plant from Brazil, and it is used to combat various diseases, as it presents anti-inflammatory and wound healing properties. The aim of this research was to study the morpho-anatomical features of the stem and leaf of S. terebinthifolius, describing the organization of the tissues and their variations. The macroscopic and microscopic analyses were performed with material selected from vegetative parts of a specimen collected in the city of Campina Grande - state of Paraíba, Brazil. The Brazilian pepper is a dioecious plant with cylindrical and sympodial stem and rough and striated bark. The leaves are evergreen, alternate, leathery and compound. The microscopic analysis showed uniseriate epidermis in the stem and leaf, except in the adaxial leaf, which is biseriate. In the stem and petiole, many unicellular, short, conical tector trichomes with acute apex are observed. In the phloem of all studied organs, we found rounded and well-developed secretory ducts, as well as cuticle covering the epidermal cells and a large amount of calcium oxalate druses. The vascular bundles are surrounded by sclerenchyma cells and present phloem followed by well-developed spiral xylem. In the stem, petiole and leaf's central vein, the xylem is internal and the phloem is external. The Brazilian pepper has some structural features characteristic of xerophilous plants, such as multiple layers of the epidermis in adaxial leaf, which protects the mesophyll from excessive drying, thick cuticle and a large quantity of hairs and stomata, well-developed vascular system with plenty of sclerenchyma, giving support to the bundle.
Descritores: Anacardiaceae/metabolismo
Estruturas Vegetais/anatomia & histologia
-ANATOMY & HISTOLOGY
Oxalato de Cálcio
Folhas de Planta/classificação
Responsável: BR1.1 - BIREME


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Id: lil-694795
Autor: Del Valle, Elisa E.; Spivacow, Francisco R.; Negri, Armando L..
Título: Citrato y litiasis renal / Citrate and renal stones
Fonte: Medicina (B.Aires);73(4):363-368, jul.-ago. 2013. ilus, tab.
Idioma: es.
Resumo: El citrato es un potente inhibidor de la cristalización de sales de calcio. La hipocitraturia es una alteración bioquímica frecuente en la formación de cálculos de calcio en adultos y especialmente en niños. El pH ácido (sistémico, tubular e intracelular) es el principal determinante de la excreción de citrato en la orina. Si bien la mayoría de los pacientes con litiasis renal presentan hipocitraturia idiopática, hay un número de causas para esta anormalidad que incluyen acidosis tubular renal distal, hipokalemia, dietas ricas en proteínas de origen animal y/o dietas bajas en álcalis y ciertas drogas, como la acetazolamida, topiramato, IECA y tiazidas. Las modificaciones dietéticas que benefician a estos pacientes incluyen: alta ingesta de líquidos y frutas, especialmente cítricos, restricción de sodio y proteínas, con consumo normal de calcio. El tratamiento con citrato de potasio es efectivo en pacientes con hipocitraturia primaria o secundaria y en aquellos desordenes en la acidificación, que provocan un pH urinario persistentemente ácido. Los efectos adversos son bajos y están referidos al tracto gastrointestinal. Si bien hay diferentes preparaciones de citrato (citrato de potasio, citrato de sodio, citrato de potasio-magnesio) en nuestro país solo está disponible el citrato de potasio en polvo que es muy útil para corregir la hipocitraturia y el pH urinario bajo, y reducir marcadamente la recurrencia de la litiasis renal.

Citrate is a powerful inhibitor of the crystallization of calcium salts. Hypocitraturia is a biochemical common alteration in calcium stone formation in adults and especially in children. The acid pH (systemic, tubular and intracellular) is the main determinant of citrate excretion in the urine. While the etiology of hypocitraturia is idiopathic in most patients with kidney stones, there are a number of causes for this abnormality including distal renal tubular acidosis, hypokalemia, diets rich in animal protein and / or diets low in alkali and certain drugs, such as acetazolamide, topiramate, ACE inhibitors and thiazides. Dietary modifications that benefit these patients include high intake of fluids and fruits, especially citrus, sodium and protein restriction, with normal calcium intake. Treatment with potassium citrate is effective in patients with primary or secondary hypocitraturia and acidification disorders, which cause unduly acidic urine pH persistently. Adverse effects are low and are referred to the gastrointestinal tract. While there are various preparations of citrate (potassium citrate, sodium citrate, potassium citrate, magnesium) in our country is available only potassium citrate powder that is useful to correct both the hypocitraturia and the low urinary pH and reduce markedly the recurrence of kidney stones.
Descritores: Ácido Cítrico/urina
Nefrolitíase/urina
-Oxalato de Cálcio/urina
Diuréticos/uso terapêutico
Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio
Rim/metabolismo
Nefrolitíase/terapia
Citrato de Potássio/uso terapêutico
Fatores de Risco
Limites: Adulto
Criança
Humanos
Tipo de Publ: Revisão
Responsável: AR1.2 - Instituto de Investigaciónes Epidemiológicas



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