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Id: lil-732391
Autor: Uyar, Belkiz; Sivrikoz, Oya Nermin; Ozdemir, Ugur; Dasbasi, Teslima; Sacar, Handan.
Título: Histological investigation of the effect of soybean (Glycine max) extracts on the collagen layer and estrogen receptors in the skin of female rats
Fonte: Clinics;69(12):854-861, 2014. tab, graf.
Idioma: en.
Resumo: OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of soybean extracts obtained using different extraction methods on the skin of female rats. METHOD: A total of 64 female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 8 equal groups. Various extracts were administered to the female rats by oral gavage for one month. The groups comprised carboxymethyl cellulose-free control, carboxymethyl cellulose-plus control, 100-mg/kg n-hexane extract, 200-mg/kg n-hexane extract, 100-mg/kg ethyl acetate extract, 200-mg/kg ethyl acetate extract, 100-mg/kg ethanol extract and 200-mg/kg ethanol extract groups. The thickness of the collagen layer and the number of estrogen receptor-positive cells were evaluated. RESULTS: All the extract-treated groups showed a statistically significant decrease in the number of estrogen receptor-positive cells compared with the control groups. Regarding the thickness of the collagen layer, only the 200-mg/kg ethyl acetate extract-treated group showed a significant increase compared with the control groups (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that oral intake of three different total soybean extracts might have positive estrogenic effects on the skin and that only a high-dose ethyl acetate extract can increase the expression of collagen, which may prove to be beneficial for postmenopausal facial skin. ...
Descritores: Colágeno/análise
Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia
Receptores Estrogênicos/análise
Pele/efeitos dos fármacos
Soja/química
-Acetatos/farmacologia
Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão
Colágeno/efeitos dos fármacos
Etanol/farmacologia
Hexanos/farmacologia
Imuno-Histoquímica
Fitoestrógenos/farmacologia
Ratos Sprague-Dawley
Valores de Referência
Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
Receptores Estrogênicos/efeitos dos fármacos
Pele/química
Fatores de Tempo
Limites: Animais
Feminino
Tipo de Publ: Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Responsável: BR1.1 - BIREME


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Id: lil-723584
Autor: Silva, Pâmela Souza; Suzuki, Érika Yoko; Moreira, Ana Paula; Raposo, Nádia Rezende Barbosa; Alves, Tânia Maria Almeida; Viccini, Lyderson Facio.
Título: Stachytarpheta gesnerioides Cham: chemical composition of hexane fraction and essential oil, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities / Stachytarpheta gesnerioides Cham: composición química de la fracción hexánica y aceite esencial, actividades antioxidante y antimicrobiana
Fonte: Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát;11(6):542-548, nov. 2012. tab.
Idioma: en.
Resumo: In the present study we investigated the chemical composition of hexane fraction and essential oil of Stachytarpheta gesnerioides (Verbenaceae) by GC-MS, total phenol and flavonoid contents. The antioxidant capacity and antimicrobial activity were investigated in five extracts of leaves of S. gesnerioides. Aqueous and 100 percent ethanol extracts were prepared by dynamic maceration. Hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts were prepared by Soxhlet extraction. The essential oil (EO) and hexane fraction (HF) are mainly composed by guaiol. Moreover, the HF is also rich in the monoterpene alpha-pinene. The total phenol content ranged from 0.85 to 22.74 mg gallic acid equivalent /100mg dry extract at Folin–Ciocalteu's reagent method. The total flavonoid concentration ranged from 0.68 to 13.65 mg rutin equivalent /100mg dry extract, detected using 8 percent aluminium chloride. The ethyl acetate extract (IC50=9.41 ug/ml) showed the highest antioxidant activity. The extracts were found to be effective to inhibit the microorganisms tested.

Se han investigado la composición química de la fracción hexánica (FH) y aceite esencial (AE) de Stachytarpheta gesnerioides (Verbenaceae) por GC-MS, el contenido de fenoles totales y flavonoides. La capacidad antioxidante y actividad antimicrobiana fueron investigadas en cinco extractos de hojas de S gesnerioides. Extractos acuosos y etanolico fueron preparados por la maceración dinámica y extracción continua en Soxhlet con hexano, acetato de etilo y metanol. Las fracciones AE y FH están compuestas principalmente por guaiol. La fracción FH es también rica en alfa-pineno. El contenido de fenoles totales varió desde 0,85 hasta 22,74 mg de ácido gálico/100 mg de extracto seco (Folin-Ciocalteu). La concentración total de flavonoides varió desde 0,68 hasta 13,65 mg en equivalentes de rutina/100 mg de extracto seco, que se detectó mediante reacción con cloruro de aluminio al 8 por ciento. El extracto de acetato de etilo (CI50=9,41 ug/ml) enseño la más grande actividad antioxidante. Los extractos se encontraron eficaces para inhibir los microorganismos ensayados.
Descritores: Óleos Voláteis/química
Antibacterianos/farmacologia
Antioxidantes/farmacologia
Verbenaceae/química
-Fenóis/análise
Flavonoides/análise
Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas
Hexanos/química
Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana
Folhas de Planta
Responsável: CL1.1 - Biblioteca Central


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Id: lil-687010
Autor: Buitrago Díaz, Alexis; Rojas Vera, Janne; Rojas Fermín, Luís; Morales Méndez, Antonio; Aparicio Zambrano, Rosa; Rodríguez Contreras, Luís.
Título: Composition of the essential oil of leaves and roots of Allium schoenoprasum L. (Alliaceae) / Composición del aceite esencial de hojas y raíces de Allium schoenoprasum L
Fonte: Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát;10(3):218-221, mayo 2011. ilus, tab.
Idioma: en.
Resumo: Essential oil from leaves and roots of Allium schoenoprasum L. (Alliaceae) were analyzed by GC/MS. The oils extracted by hydrodistillation yielded 0.02 percent and 0.03 percent for leaves and roots, respectively. Five (99.12 percent leaves) and four (98.32 percent roots) components were identified being bis-(2-sulfhydryethyl)-disulfide (72.06 percent leaves, 56.47 percent roots) the major constituent on the two oil samples while 2,4,5-trithiahexane (5.45 percent leaves, 15.90 percent roots) and tris (methylthio)-methane (4.01 percent leaves, 12.81 percent roots) were detected in lower amounts.

Los aceites esenciales de hojas y raíces de Allium schoenoprasum L. (Alliaceae fueron analizados por CG/EM. La extracción por hidrodestilación mostró un rendimiento de 0.02 por ciento y 0.03 por ciento para las hojas y raíces, respectivamente. Cinco (99.12 por ciento hojas) y cuatro (98.32 por ciento raíces) compuestos fueron identificados siendo el bis-(2-sulfidietil)-disulfuro (72.06 por ciento hojas, 56.47 por ciento raíces) el compuesto mayoritario en los dos aceites mientras que 2,4,5-tritiahexano (5.45 por ciento hojas, 15.90 por ciento raíces) y tris (metilthio)-metano (4.01 por ciento hojas, 12.81 por ciento raíces) fueron observados en menores cantidades.
Descritores: Óleos Voláteis/química
Cebolinha-Francesa/química
Folhas de Planta/química
Sulfetos/análise
-Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas
Hexanos/análise
Metano/análise
Raízes de Plantas/química
Responsável: CL1.1 - Biblioteca Central


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Id: lil-663708
Autor: Patiño, Arley Camilo; López, Jéssica; Aristizábal, Mónica; Quintana, Juan Carlos.
Título: Efecto inhibitorio de extractos de Renealmia alpinia Rottb. Maas (Zingiberaceae) sobre el veneno de Bothrops asper (mapaná) / Evaluation of the inhibitory effect of extracts from leaves of Renealmia alpinia Rottb. Maas (Zingiberaceae) on the venom of Bothrops asper (mapaná)
Fonte: Biomédica (Bogotá);32(3):365-374, jul.-set. 2012. ilus, graf, tab.
Idioma: es.
Resumo: Introducción. La medicina tradicional es una invaluable fuente de investigación de nuevos remedios como complemento para el tratamiento del accidente ofídico, considerado como un grave problema de salud pública a nivel mundial. Objetivo. Este trabajo de investigación pretende comprobar la capacidad de neutralizar los efectos hemorrágicos, coagulantes y proteolíticos, de los extractos de hojas de Renealmia alpinia, usada tradicionalmente por los indígenas del Chocó (Colombia) contra la mordedura de la serpiente Bothrops asper, causante de la gran mayoría de los accidentes ofídicos en nuestro país. Materiales y métodos. Se llevaron a cabo ensayos de toxicidad aguda y de actividad analgésica in vivo de R. alpinia. Además, se hicieron ensayos in vitro sobre inhibición de las actividades coagulante, hemolítica y proteolítica del veneno de B. asper. Resultados. El presente estudio demuestra que R. alpinia no produce efectos tóxicos en animales de experimentación; además, presenta efectos analgésicos in vivo y antiofídicos in vitro,y protege contra los efectos letales del veneno de B. asper, in vivo. Conclusión. Renealmia alpinia puede ser una buena alternativa terapéutica como complemento al tratamiento con antiveneno en el accidente ofídico, por sus efectos analgésicos y antiofídicos.

Introduction. Traditional medicine is an invaluable source of research into new medicines as a supplement for the treatment of snakebite, considered as a serious public health problem worldwide. The extracts of the medicinal plant, Renealmia alpina, have been used traditionally by indigenous people of Chocó (Colombia) against Bothrops asper snakebite, a snake responsible for the majority of snakebite accidents in Colombia. Objective. The ability of extracts of R. alpinia leaves was tested for its ability to neutralize the hemorrhagic, coagulant and proteolytic effects of the snakebite venom of B. asper. Materials and methods. The acute toxicity tests and analgesic activity of R. alpina were evaluated in vivo. In addition, tests were undertaken in in vitro conditions to demonstrate inhibition of coagulant, haemolytic and proteolytic activity of the B. asper venom. Results. Renealmia alpinia extracts had no toxic effects in experimental animals and also provided analgesic and antiophidian effects and protection against the lethal effects of the venom of B. asper. Conclusion. Renealmia. alpinia was an effective therapeutic alternative in association with antivenom treatment in the event of a B. asper snakebite accident. It was demonstrated to protect against the lethal effects and provided analgesic properties as well.
Descritores: Bothrops
Venenos de Crotalídeos/antagonistas & inibidores
Fitoterapia
Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico
Folhas de Planta/química
Mordeduras de Serpentes/tratamento farmacológico
Zingiberaceae
-Acetatos
Analgésicos/uso terapêutico
Analgésicos/toxicidade
Coagulação Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos
Venenos de Crotalídeos/toxicidade
Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos
Etanol
Hexanos
Hemólise/efeitos dos fármacos
Metanol
Cloreto de Metileno
Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C
Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação
Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia
Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade
Proteólise/efeitos dos fármacos
Solventes
Limites: Animais
Feminino
Masculino
Tipo de Publ: Estudo Comparativo
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Responsável: CO332 - Facultad de Medicina


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Id: lil-648053
Autor: Miranda-Cruz, Edith; Espinosa-Moreno, Judith; Centurión-Hidalgo, Dora; Velázquez-Martínez, José Rodolfo; Alor-Chávez, Maricela de Jesús.
Título: Actividad antimicrobiana de extractos de Psidium friedrichsthalianum L., Pterocarpus hayesii L., Tynanthus guatemalensis L. y Spondias purpurea L / Antimicrobial activity of Psidium friedrichsthalianum L., Pterocarpus hayesii L., Tynanthus guatemalensis L. and Spondias purpurea L. extracts
Fonte: Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát;11(4):354-361, jul. 2012. tab.
Idioma: es.
Projeto: Universidad Juárez Autónoma de Tabasco. Programa para el Fortalecimiento de la Investigación de Cuerpos Académicos.
Resumo: There is not much information on antimicrobial activity presented by several species traditionally used as medicinal plants in Tabasco. Antimicrobial activity of ethanolic and hexanic extracts from leaf and bark of guayaba agria (Psidium friedrichsthalianum L.), palo de sangre (Pterocarpus hayesii L.) chichimecate (Tynanthus guatemalensis L.) and ciruela (Spondias purpurea L.) was evaluated for against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Salmonella typhimurium ATCC 14028 and Bacillus cereus ATCC 11778 by the use of agar diffusion method. Results indicate that the hexanic extract of every one of the plant species presented antimicrobial activity on at least one of the evaluated microorganisms meanwhile bark hexanic extracts did not present activity against the three microorganisms tested. The extracts that presented a Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of < 7.50 mg mL-1 against B. cereus were both leaf ethanolic of P. friedrichsthalianum and S. purpurea and the T. guatemalensis leaf hexanic extract as well as P. friedrichsthalianum bark hexánico extract against S. aureus and S. typhimurium.

Existe poca información sobre la actividad antimicrobiana que pueden presentar varias plantas que han sido reportadas con uso medicinal tradicional en el Estado de Tabasco. Se evaluó la actividad antimicrobiana de los extractos etanólico y hexánico de hoja y corteza de cuatro plantas utilizadas como medicinales: guayaba agria (Psidium friedrichsthalianum L.), palo de sangre (Pterocarpus hayesii L.), chichimecate (Tynanthus guatemalensis L.) y ciruela (Spondias purpurea L.). La actividad antimicrobiana se evaluó contra Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Salmonella typhimurium ATCC 14028 y Bacillus cereus ATCC 11778 mediante el método de difusión en agar. Los resultados indican que el extracto hexánico de cada una de las plantas presentaron actividad antimicrobiana al menos en uno de los microorganismos evaluados mientras que los extractos hexánicos de corteza no presentaron actividad contra ninguno de los tres microorganismos ensayados. Los extractos que presentaron una Concentración Mínima Inhibitoria (CMI) igual o menor de 7.50 mg mL-1 contra B. cereus fueron los etanólicos de hoja de P. friedrichsthalianum y S. purpurea y el hexánico de hoja de T. guatemalensis así como el extracto hexánico de corteza de P. friedrichsthalianum contra S. aureus y S. typhimurium.
Descritores: Anti-Infecciosos
Bactérias
Bignoniaceae/química
Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia
Psidium/química
Pterocarpus/química
-Anacardiaceae/química
Bacillus cereus
Casca de Planta/química
Etanol/farmacologia
Hexanos/farmacologia
Folhas de Planta/química
Medicina Tradicional
México
Salmonella typhimurium
Staphylococcus aureus
Responsável: CL1.1 - Biblioteca Central


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Id: lil-626749
Autor: Keyhanmanesh, Rana; Boskabady, Mohammad H.
Título: Relaxant effects of different fractions from Tymus vulgaris on guinea-pig tracheal chains
Fonte: Biol. Res;45(1):67-73, 2012. ilus, tab.
Idioma: en.
Resumo: In previous studies, the relaxant effect of Tymus vulgaris has been demonstrated on guinea pig tracheal chains. Therefore, in the present study, the relaxant effects of n-hexane, dichloromethane, methanol and aqueous fractions of Tymus vulgaris on tracheal chains of guinea pigs were examined. The relaxant effects of four cumulative concentrations of each fraction (0.4, 0.8, 1.2 and 1.6 g%) in comparison to saline as negative control and four cumulative concentrations of theophylline (0.2, 0.4, 0.6 and 0.8 mM) were examined for their relaxant effects on precontracted tracheal chains of guinea pig by 60 mM KCl (group 1) and 10 ìÌ methacholine (group 2, n = 7 for each group). In group 1, all concentrations of the n-hexane fraction and theophylline and three last concentrations (0.8, 1.2 and 1.6 g%) of dichloromethane and two higher concentrations (1.2 and 1.6 g%) of methanol fractions showed significant relaxant effects compared to that of saline (p<0.05 to p<0.001). In group 2, all concentrations of theophylline, n-hexane and dichloromethane fractions and three concentrations (0.8, 1.2 and 1.6 g%) of methanol and two higher concentrations (1.2 and 1.6 g%) of aqueous fractions showed significant relaxant effects compared to that of saline (p<0.05 to p<0.001). In addition, with group 1, the relaxant effect of all concentrations of all fractions except the n-hexane fraction, were significantly less than those of theophylline (p<0.05 to p<0.001). The n-hexane fraction showed higher relaxant effect than theophylline. The relaxant effect of all concentrations of the n-hexane fraction and the three last concentrations (0.8, 1.2 and 1.6 g%) of dichloromethane and aqueous fractions were significantly greater in group 2 than in group 1 (p<0.05 to p<0.001). There were significant positive correlations between the relaxant effects and concentrations for theophylline and all fractions (except aqueous fraction in group 1) in both groups, but a negative correlation for the aqueous fraction in group 1 (p<0.05 to p<0.001). These results showed a potent relaxant effect for n-hexane and weaker relaxant effect for other fractions from Tymus vulgaris on tracheal chains of guinea pigs.
Descritores: Broncodilatadores/farmacologia
Hexanos/farmacologia
Cloreto de Metileno/farmacologia
Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia
Thymus (Planta)/química
Traqueia/efeitos dos fármacos
-Metanol/farmacologia
Relaxamento Muscular/efeitos dos fármacos
Músculo Liso/efeitos dos fármacos
Fitoterapia
Óleos Vegetais/farmacologia
Soluções
Teofilina/farmacologia
Água/química
Limites: Animais
Feminino
Cobaias
Masculino
Tipo de Publ: Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Responsável: CL1.1 - Biblioteca Central


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Id: lil-618852
Autor: Pérez Gutierrez, Rosa Martha; Hoyo-Vadillo, Carlos.
Título: Anti-diabetic activity of an hexane extract of Prosthechea michuacana in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats / Actividad antidiabética de un extracto de hexane de Prosthechea michuacana en ratas diabéticas inducidas por estreptozotocina
Fonte: Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát;10(6):570-580, ene. 2011. tab.
Idioma: en.
Resumo: In this study we investigated the antihyperglycaemic, antihyperlipidaemic and antiglycation effects of some extracts of Prosthechea michuacana bulbs in normoglycemic and diabetic rats induced by streptozocin (STZ). Hexane, chloroform and methanol extracts of P. michuacana were screened for hypoglycemic activity, and biochemical parameters as serum triglycerides, total cholesterol, lipid peroxidation, liver glycogen, skeletal muscle glycogen levels, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione reductase and glutathione peroxidase activity in diabetic rats. Additionally we determined Glucose 6 Phosphatase and glucokinase activities in liver, inhibition of insulin and protein glycation. Glucose levels in blood plasma were determined by using GOD-POD method. Administration of chloroform and methanol extracts showed no effect on STZ induced diabetic rats (SD). On the other hand, treatment with hexane extract at 200 and 400 mg/kg doses, resulted in a reversal of diabetes and its complications. Both doses significantly brought down blood glucose concentration (35.75 and 47.78 percent in diabetic rats, 50.64 and 57.10 percent in nondiabetic rats), increased glycogenesis and decreased glyconeogenesis bringing the glucose metabolism toward normalcy. These doses also reversed the hyperlipidemia by reducing cholesterol (41.56 percent, 46.08 percent) and triglycerides (37.5 percent, 46.27 percent) and improved hepatic antioxidant enzyme activities. Its effect was compared with that of glibenclamide and tolbutamide, as reference antidiabetic drugs. The hexane extract decreased the hyperinsulinemia by 24 percent in SD and showed a significant change on AGEs formation in vitro with IC50 values of 48.3 ug/ml comparable to inhibitory effect of aminoguanidine with IC50 values of 27.2 ug/ml. It reduced HbA1C levels by 6.4 percent in chronic STZ-diabetic rats. It is concluded that hexane extract of Prosthechea michuacana bulbs possesses anti-hyperglycemic and antihyperlipemic...

En este estudio se determinaron los efectos antidiabéticos, antihiperlipidemico y glicación (AGEs) de algunos extractos de Prosthechea michuacana (PM) en ratas normoglucémicas y con diabetes inducida por estreptozotocina (STZ). Se probó el efecto de los extractos de hexano, cloroformo, metanol de PM sobre la actividad hipoglucemiante, la carga de glucosa, los parámetros bioquímicos tales como triglicéridos, niveles de colesterol total, peroxidación lipídica, glucógeno del hígado, los niveles de glucógeno muscular, niveles de superoxide dismutase, catalasa, glutation reductasa and glutation peroxidasa en ratas normales y diabéticas. También se determinó la glucosa 6 Phosphatasa y las actividades de GK en el hígado, la inhibición de la insulina y la glicosilación de las proteínas. Los niveles de glucosa sanguínea se determinaron por el método de GOD-POD. La administración de los extractos de cloroformo y metanol no presentaron ningún efecto sobre la SD, en cambio el tratamiento con el extracto de hexano (PM) a dosis de 200 y 400 mg/kg, inhibió la diabetes y sus complicaciones. Ambas dosis redujeron significativamente los niveles de glucosa sanguínea (35.75 y 47.78 por ciento en las ratas diabéticas, 50.64 y 57.10 por ciento en las ratas diabéticas), el aumento de la glucogénesis y la disminución de la gluconeogénesis conduce el metabolismo de la glucosa hacia la normalidad. Estas dosis disminuyeron la hiperlipidemia reduciendo el colesterol (41.56 por ciento, 46.08 por ciento) y los triglicéridos (37.5 por ciento, 46.27 por ciento) así como también mejoran las actividades antioxidantes de las enzimas hepáticas. Su efecto se comparó con la glibenclamida y tolbutamida, fármacos usados como antidiabeticos. El extracto de hexano disminuyo la hiperinsulinemia en un 24 por ciento en SD. PM mostró un cambio significativo in vitro sobre la formación de los AGEs con valores de IC50 de 48.3 mg/ml comparable al efecto inhibidor de la aminoguanidina con valores de IC50 de...
Descritores: Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/tratamento farmacológico
Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia
Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia
Orchidaceae/química
-Hexanos/química
Hipolipemiantes/farmacologia
Ratos Wistar
Limites: Masculino
Animais
Ratos
Responsável: CL1.1 - Biblioteca Central


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Id: lil-589451
Autor: Azevedo, Marlos Fábio A. de.
Título: Abordagem inicial no atendimento ambulatorial em distúrbios neurotoxicológicos: parte III - solventes orgânicos / Initial approach to outpatient treatment of neurotoxicological disorders: Part III – organic solvents
Fonte: Rev. bras. neurol;47(1), jan.-mar. 2011. tab.
Idioma: pt.
Resumo: Introdução: Milhões de pessoas são expostas diariamente aos solventes. Inúmeros solventes podem causar intoxicação aguda. Menos clara é a associação da exposição crônica e em baixas doses poder produzir alteração neurológica. Diversas atividades ocupacionais estão envolvidas com a sua exposição. Condição bastante diferente é o seu uso inadvertido com intuito alucinógeno. Método: Trata-se de revisão atualizada da literatura a partir de pesquisa na base de dados MEDLINE e LILACS. Também utilizou-se livros e documentos publicados em formato eletrônico.Discussão: Distúrbios neuromusculares, distúrbios do movimento, alterações cognitivo-comportamentais e neurofisiológicas têm sido relacionados a inúmeros agentes tóxicos nos últimos anos. A proposta deste artigo é revisar os principais distúrbios neurológicos associados à exposição crônica por solventes orgânicos. A fim de facilitar a abordagem inicial no atendimento ambulatorial aos distúrbios neurotoxicológicos foram confeccionadas tabelas descrevendo os principais agentes tóxicos, as fontes de exposição envolvidas e suas principais manifestações neurológicas. Conclusão: Tolueno, bissulfeto de carbono e n-Hexano são alguns solventes envolvidos nos distúrbios neurotoxicológicos, Contudo, fica evidente nesta revisão que são necessários novos estudos a fim de determinar a real associação destes e outros solventes nos distúrbios crônicos do sistema nervoso central e periférico.

Introduction: Millions of peoples are exposed to solvents every day. Most solvents cause acute intoxication. Less evident is the association of chronic exposure and in low doses in producing neurological disorders. Innumerable occupational activities are involved in the exposure to solvents. Their inadvertent use with hallucinogenous intention is an entirely different condition. Method: The method consists of an updated review of the literature based on research in the MEDLINE and LILACS databases, as well as books and documents published online. Discussion: Neuromuscular disorders, movement disorders, cognitive-behavioral and neurophysiological changes have been attributed to innumerable toxic agents in recent years. This article proposes to review the main neurological disorders associated with chronic exposure to organic solvents. To facilitate the initial approach to treatment of neurotoxicological disorders of outpatient, tables were devised to describe the main toxic agents, the sources of exposure involved and their main neurological manifestations. Conclusions: Toluene, carbon bisulfate and n-hexane are some of the solvents involved in neurotoxicological disorders. However, this review reveals the need for new studies to determine the real association of these and other solvents in chronic disorders of the central and peripheral nervous systems.
Descritores: Assistência Ambulatorial
Síndromes Neurotóxicas/diagnóstico
Síndromes Neurotóxicas/etiologia
Solventes/efeitos adversos
Solventes/toxicidade
-Encefalopatias
Hexanos/efeitos adversos
Exposição Ocupacional
Literatura de Revisão como Assunto
Tolueno/efeitos adversos
Limites: Humanos
Responsável: BR14.1 - Biblioteca Central


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Id: lil-578969
Autor: Pereira, B. S; Nunes-Pinheiro, D. C. S; Vasconcelos, A. K. P; Pinheiro, A. D. N; Rodrigues, P. A.
Título: Atividade hepatoprotetora dos extratos etanólico e hexânico das folhas de Momordica charantia / Hepatoprotective activity of hexane and ethanol extracts from Momordica charantia L. leaves
Fonte: Rev. bras. plantas med;12(3):311-316, jul.-set. 2010. tab.
Idioma: pt.
Resumo: Momordica charantia L. (Cucurbitaceae) é empregada na medicina popular pelas diversas propriedades biológicas e farmacológicas. Neste trabalho, objetivou-se avaliar a atividade hepatoprotetora dos extratos hexânico (EH) e etanólico (EE) das folhas de M. charantia no modelo de lesão hepática aguda induzida pelo etanol. Em ambos os extratos foram detectados esteróides; EH apresentou atividade antioxidante mais marcante que EE. O pré-tratamento de camundongos (Swiss, machos) por via oral por três dias consecutivos com 25, 50 ou 100 mg Kg-1 de EH preveniu o aumento tanto de AST quanto de ALT (p<0,05) enquanto o pré-tratamento com EE preveniu apenas o aumento de ALT (p<0,05). Ambos os extratos reduziram a atividade das enzimas hepáticas, contudo EH apresentou efeito mais relevante, caracterizando potencial hepatoprotetor, possivelmente associado ao seu potencial antioxidante.

Momordica charantia L. (Cucurbitaceae) has been used in folk medicine based on its several biological and pharmacological properties. The aim of this work was to evaluate the hepatoprotective activity of hexane (HE) and ethanol (EE) extracts from M. charantia leaves on the acute liver injury model induced by ethanol. Steroids were detected in both extracts, and EH had higher antioxidant activity than EE. Oral pretreatment of male Swiss mice for three consecutive days with 25, 50 or 100 mg kg-1 HE prevented the increase in AST and ALT (p<0.05), whereas pretreatment with EE only prevented ALT increase (p<0.05). Both extracts reduced the activity of hepatic enzymes; however, HE had a more relevant effect, characterizing hepatoprotective potential, likely associated with its antioxidant potential.
Descritores: Etanol/farmacologia
Medicamentos Hepatoprotetores
Hexanos/farmacologia
Momordica charantia
Extratos Vegetais
-Análise de Variância
Biomarcadores Farmacológicos/química
Limites: Animais
Masculino
Adulto
Camundongos
Tipo de Publ: Estudo de Avaliação
Responsável: BR40.1 - DBD - Divisão de Biblioteca e Documentacão do Conjunto das Químicas


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Texto completo SciELO Chile
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Id: lil-577254
Autor: Fuente C., Adrian.
Título: Exposición a solventes y disfunción auditiva central: revisión de la evidencia científica / Solvent exposure and central auditory dysfunction: a literature review on the scientific evidence
Fonte: Rev. otorrinolaringol. cir. cabeza cuello;70(3):273-282, dic. 2010. tab.
Idioma: es.
Projeto: FONDECYT de Iniciación.
Resumo: Diversos estudios han demostrado que los solventes orgánicos pueden inducir una disfunción auditiva. Los modelos animales han mostrado que los solventes son capaces de dañar las células ciliadas externas. Estudios de campo en trabajadores expuestos a solventes han encontrado por una parte, una mayor prevalencia de hipoacusia sensorioneural en comparación a grupos controles, y por otra, una dis función auditiva central asociada a la exposición a solventes. El presente trabajo tiene como objetivo revisar y discutir la evidencia científica acerca de la disfunción auditiva central asociada a la exposición a solventes como el tolueno, estireno, xileno, bisulfato de carbono, y mezcla de ellos. Se discuten los resultados de las investigaciones llevadas a cabo en humanos expuestos laboralmente a estos agentes. Se discuten además, los mecanismos de ototoxicidady neurotoxidad de los solventes y sus implicancias en la evaluación de la hipoacusia inducida por solventes.

Different studies have demonstrated that solvents may induce an auditory dysfunction. Animal models have shown that solvents can injure the outer hair cells. Studies conducted in workers exposed to solvents have found on one hand, a higher prevalence of sensorineural hearing loss in comparison to non-exposed control group subjects. On the other hand, these studies have found a central auditory dysfunction associated with solvent exposure. The present manuscript aims at revising and discussing the scientific evidence on central auditory dysfunction associated with exposure to solvents such as toluene, styrene, xylene, carbon disulphate, and mixtures. Results from studies conducted in humans occupationally exposed to solvents are discussed. Also, the oto-and neuro-toxicity induced by solvents and the implications for the assessment of solvent-induced hearing loss are addressed.
Descritores: Estireno/efeitos adversos
Hexanos/efeitos adversos
Perda Auditiva/induzido quimicamente
Tolueno/efeitos adversos
Xilenos/efeitos adversos
-Exposição a Produtos Químicos
Doenças do Sistema Nervoso Central/induzido quimicamente
Estireno/envenenamento
Hexanos/envenenamento
Perda Auditiva/fisiopatologia
Solventes/efeitos adversos
Tolueno/envenenamento
Xilenos/envenenamento
Limites: Humanos
Tipo de Publ: Revisão
Responsável: CL1.1 - Biblioteca Central



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