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Carvalho, Lidia Raquel de
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Id: lil-471850
Autor: Macoris, Maria de Lourdes da Graça; Andrighetti, Maria Teresa Macoris; Otrera, Vanessa Camargo Garbeloto; Carvalho, Lídia Raquel de; Caldas Júnior, Antonio Luiz; Brogdon, William G.
Título: Association of insecticide use and alteration on Aedes aegypti susceptibility status
Fonte: Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz;102(8):895-900, Dec. 2007. ilus.
Idioma: en.
Resumo: Dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever, vector-borne diseases transmitted by the mosquito Aedes aegypti, are presently important public health problems in Brazil. As the strategy for disease control is based on vector control through the use of insecticides, the development of resistance is a threat to programs efficacy. The objective of this study was to compare the Aedes aegypti susceptibility in nine vector populations from the state of São Paulo and seven from Northeast region of Brazil, since there was a difference on group of insecticide used between the areas. Bioassays with larvae and adult were performed according to the World Health Organization methods.The results showed higher resistance levels to organophosphates group in populations from the Northeast region where this group was used for both larvae and adult control than in São Paulo where organophosphates were used for larvae and pyretroids for adult control. Resistance to pyretroids in adults was widespread in São Paulo after ten years of use of cypermethrin while in vector populations from the Northeast region it was punctual. The difference in resistance profile between the areas is in accordance to the group of insecticide used.
Descritores: Aedes/efeitos dos fármacos
Insetos Vetores/efeitos dos fármacos
Inseticidas
Compostos Organotiofosforados
Piretrinas
-Brasil
Resistência a Inseticidas
Larva/efeitos dos fármacos
LETHAL DOSE ACADEMIES AND INSTITUTES
Limites: Animais
Tipo de Publ: Estudo Comparativo
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Responsável: BR1.1 - BIREME


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Id: lil-775699
Autor: Cogo, Lícia Assunção; Santos Filha, Valdete Alves Valentins dos; Murashima, Adriana de Andrade Batista; Hyppolito, Miguel Angelo; Silveira, Aron Ferreira da.
Título: Morphological analysis of the vestibular system of guinea pigs poisoned by organophosphate / Análise morfológica do sistema vestibular de cobaias intoxicadas por organofosforado
Fonte: Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.);82(1):11-16, Jan.-Feb. 2016. tab, graf.
Idioma: pt.
Resumo: ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION: The vestibular system is responsible for body balance. There are substances that damage it, causing dizziness; these are termed vestibulotoxic substances. Agrochemicals have been investigated for ototoxicity because of studies that identified dizziness as a recurrent symptom among rural workers' complaints. OBJECTIVE: To histopathologically evaluate the vestibular system in guinea pigs exposed to an organophosphate, and to identify the drug's effects on this system. METHODS: Experimental clinical study. Eighteen guinea pigs were used; six of them poisoned with the organophosphate chlorpyrifos at doses of 0.5 mg/kg/day and seven of them at 1 mg/kg/day; and a control group of five guinea pigs was exposed to distilled water, all for 10 consecutive days. Later, ciliary tufts of saccule and utricle maculae were counted by scanning electron microscopy. RESULTS: Comparing the groups, a one-way ANOVA test for the variable "saccule" ( p = 0.0569) and a Kruskal-Wallis test for the variable "utricle" ( p = 0.8958) were performed, revealing no difference among groups in both variables. CONCLUSION: The histopathologic analysis of the vestibular system of guinea pigs exposed to an organophosphate showed no difference in the amount of ciliary tufts of saccule and utricle maculae at the doses tested, although the result for the variable "saccule" was considered borderline, showing a trend for significance.

RESUMO INTRODUÇÃO: O sistema vestibular é responsável pelo equilíbrio corporal. Existem substâncias que o danificam, causando tontura; são chamadas vestibulotóxicas. Agrotóxicos tornaram-se objeto de investigação da ototoxicidade a partir de pesquisas que apontaram tontura como sintoma recorrente entre as queixas de trabalhadores rurais. OBJETIVO: Constitui-se em avaliar a histopatologia do sistema vestibular de cobaias expostas a organofosforados, identificando os efeitos nesse sistema. MÉTODO: É um estudo clínico experimental, que utilizou 18 cobaias, sendo seis intoxicadas com organofosforadoclorpirifós na dose de 0,5 mg/kg/dia; sete na dose de 1 mg/kg/dia, e grupo controle com cinco cobaias expostas a água destilada, durante 10 dias consecutivos. Posteriormente realizou-se a contagem dos tufos ciliares nas máculas dos sáculos e utrículos através microscopia eletrônica de varredura. RESULTADOS: Na comparação intergrupos, para a variável sáculo realizou-se o teste ANOVA one-way (p = 0,0569); para a variável utrículo, utilizou-se o teste Kruskal-Wallis (p = 0,8958), revelando não haver diferença entre os grupos em ambas as variáveis. CONCLUSÃO: Análise histopatológica do sistema vestibular de cobaias expostas a organofosforado não demonstrou diferença na quantidade de tufos ciliares nas máculas dos sáculos e utrículos nas doses testadas, apesar do resultado para a variável sáculo ser considerado limítrofe mostrando uma tendência a significância.
Descritores: Cóclea/efeitos dos fármacos
Inseticidas/toxicidade
Compostos Organotiofosforados/toxicidade
Vestíbulo do Labirinto/efeitos dos fármacos
-Cóclea/patologia
Modelos Animais de Doenças
Vestíbulo do Labirinto/patologia
Limites: Animais
Cobaias
Masculino
Tipo de Publ: Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Responsável: BR1.1 - BIREME


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Id: lil-695006
Autor: Espinoza-Navarro, Omar; Ferreira, Carolina; Bustos-Obregón, Eduardo.
Título: Effect of methamidophos on the morphology and male reproductive parameters of the earthworm eisenia foetida / Efecto del metamidofos sobre la morfología y parámetros reproductivos espermáticos de la lombriz de tierra eisenia foetida
Fonte: Int. j. morphol;31(3):1097-1103, set. 2013. ilus.
Idioma: en.
Projeto: Universidad of Tarapacá.
Resumo: The earthworm Eisenia foetida (Annelida, Oligochaeta) is an excellent biosentinel model organism for assessing potential toxicological risks by xenobiotics in terrestrial ecosystems. Methamidophos is an organophosphorous insecticide widely used to control agricultural pests. Its main action is due to inhibition of the enzyme acetylcholinesterase. The aim of this study was to evaluate the toxicity of methamidophos on the morphology and male parameters in Eisenia foetida. After determining the LD50 for methamidophos (85.34 mg/kg soil), five groups were formed, including control subjects, and sprayed with tap water. Methamidophos treated groups were subjected to doses of 1/10, 1/6, 1/3 and 2/3 of the LD50. Each group was analyzed at day 1, 6, 14 and 30 post-treatment. The results show a significant decrease in the weight of all individuals treated with methamidophos, besides showing a coiled body in 100 percent of them. Sperm count showed a significant increase in the treated groups after 1, 6 and 14 days post exposure and a significant decrease by day 30. Using the technique of acridine orange, a significant increase in abnormal metachromatic sperm (red fluorescence) in treated animals was shown. Methamidophos alters the overall behavior in earthworms and the male reproductive parameters of Eisenia foetida possibly altering the structure and conformation of DNA.

La Lombriz de tierra, Eisenia foetida (Annelida, Oligochaeta), constituye un excelente modelo de organismo biocentinela para evaluar los riesgos tóxicos de xenobióticos, en ecosistemas terrestres. Metamidofos es un insecticida organofosforado de amplio uso para controlar plagas agrícolas. Su acción principal se debe a la inhibición de la enzima acetilcolinesterasa. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la toxicidad de metamidofos sobre la morfología y parámetros espermáticos de Eisenia foetida. Una vez determinada la LD50 para metamidofos (85,34 mg/kg de tierra), se tomaron 5 grupos, entre ellos los individuos del grupo control, los cuales fueron asperjados con agua potable. Los grupos tratados con metamidofos fueron sometidos a dosis de 1/10, 1/6, 1/3 y 2/3 de la LD50. Cada grupo fue analizado al día 1, 6, 14, y 30 post tratamiento. Los resultados muestran una baja significativa en el peso de todos los individuos tratados con metamidofos, además de presentar enrrollamiento corporal, en el 100 por ciento de ellos. El recuento espermático presenta un aumento significativo en los grupos tratados a 1,6 y 14 días, para luego decaer significativamente el día 30. El uso de la técnica del naranja de acridina, mostró un aumento significativo de espermatozoides metacromáticos anormales en los animales tratados (fluorescencia de color rojo). Se concluye que Metamidofos altera el comportamiento general de la lombriz de tierra y los parámetros reproductivos espermáticos de Eisenia foetida posiblemente alterando la conformación y estructura del ADN.
Descritores: Compostos Organotiofosforados/administração & dosagem
Inseticidas/administração & dosagem
Oligoquetos
Reprodução
-Peso Corporal
Sêmen
Fatores de Tempo
Limites: Animais
Responsável: CL1.1 - Biblioteca Central


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Id: lil-684527
Autor: Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research; Nicolau, L.A.D.; Silva, R.O.; Damasceno, S.R.B.; Carvalho, N.S.; Costa, N.R.D.; Aragao, K.S.; Barbosa, A.L.R.; Soares, P.M.G.; Souza, M.H.L.P.; Medeiros, J.V.R..
Título: The hydrogen sulfide donor, Lawesson's reagent, prevents alendronate-induced gastric damage in rats
Fonte: Braz. j. med. biol. res = Rev. bras. pesqui. méd. biol;46(8):708-714, ago. 2013. tab, graf.
Idioma: en.
Resumo: Our objective was to investigate the protective effect of Lawesson's reagent, an H2S donor, against alendronate (ALD)-induced gastric damage in rats. Rats were pretreated with saline or Lawesson's reagent (3, 9, or 27 µmol/kg, po) once daily for 4 days. After 30 min, gastric damage was induced by ALD (30 mg/kg) administration by gavage. On the last day of treatment, the animals were killed 4 h after ALD administration. Gastric lesions were measured using a computer planimetry program, and gastric corpus pieces were assayed for malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH), proinflammatory cytokines [tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-1β], and myeloperoxidase (MPO). Other groups were pretreated with glibenclamide (5 mg/kg, ip) or with glibenclamide (5 mg/kg, ip)+diazoxide (3 mg/kg, ip). After 1 h, 27 µmol/kg Lawesson's reagent was administered. After 30 min, 30 mg/kg ALD was administered. ALD caused gastric damage (63.35±9.8 mm2); increased levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, and MDA (2311±302.3 pg/mL, 901.9±106.2 pg/mL, 121.1±4.3 nmol/g, respectively); increased MPO activity (26.1±3.8 U/mg); and reduced GSH levels (180.3±21.9 µg/g). ALD also increased cystathionine-γ-lyase immunoreactivity in the gastric mucosa. Pretreatment with Lawesson's reagent (27 µmol/kg) attenuated ALD-mediated gastric damage (15.77±5.3 mm2); reduced TNF-α, IL-1β, and MDA formation (1502±150.2 pg/mL, 632.3±43.4 pg/mL, 78.4±7.6 nmol/g, respectively); lowered MPO activity (11.7±2.8 U/mg); and increased the level of GSH in the gastric tissue (397.9±40.2 µg/g). Glibenclamide alone reversed the gastric protective effect of Lawesson's reagent. However, glibenclamide plus diazoxide did not alter the effects of Lawesson's reagent. Our results suggest that Lawesson's reagent plays a protective role against ALD-induced gastric damage through mechanisms that depend at least in part on activation of ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channels.
Descritores: Alendronato/antagonistas & inibidores
Mucosa Gástrica/efeitos dos fármacos
Sulfeto de Hidrogênio/farmacologia
Indicadores e Reagentes/farmacologia
Compostos Organotiofosforados/farmacologia
Gastropatias/induzido quimicamente
-Análise de Variância
Cistationina gama-Liase/análise
Diagnóstico por Computador
Diazóxido/administração & dosagem
Mucosa Gástrica/patologia
Glutationa/análise
Glibureto/administração & dosagem
Interleucina-1beta/análise
Canais KATP/farmacologia
Malondialdeído/análise
Peroxidase/análise
Peroxidase/metabolismo
Ratos Wistar
Gastropatias/enzimologia
Gastropatias/patologia
Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/análise
Limites: Animais
Feminino
Ratos
Tipo de Publ: Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Responsável: BR1.1 - BIREME


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Texto completo SciELO Costa Rica
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Id: lil-657784
Autor: Mena Torres, Freylan; Pfennig, Sascha; Arias Andrés, María de Jesús; Márquez-Couturie, Gabriel; Sevilla, Adrían; Protti Q, C. Maurizio.
Título: Acute toxicity and cholinesterase inhibition of the nematicide ethoprophos in larvae of gar Atractosteus tropicus (Semionotiformes: Lepisosteidae)
Fonte: Rev. biol. trop;60(1):361-368, Mar. 2012. graf, tab.
Idioma: en.
Resumo: Biomarkers are a widely applied approach in environmental studies. Analyses of cholinesterase (ChE), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and lipid peroxidation (LPO) are biomarkers that can provide information regarding early effects of pollutants at different biochemical levels on an organism. The aim of this study was to evaluate the biomarker approach on a Costa Rican native and relevant species. For this, larvae of gar (Atractosteus tropicus) were exposed to the organophosphorus nematicide, ethoprophos. Acute (96hr) exposure was conducted with pesticide concentrations ranging from 0.1μg/L to 1 500μg/L. The 96hr LC50 calculated was 859.7μg/L. After exposure, three biomarkers (ChE, GST and LPO) were analyzed in fish that survived the acute test. The lowest observed effect concentration (LOEC) regarding ChE activity inhibition was 50μg/L. This concentration produced a significant inhibition (p<0.05) of the enzyme by 20%. The highest concentration tested without showing any effect on ChE activity and therefore considered as no observed effect concentration (NOEC) was 10μg/L. Ethoprophos concentration of 400μg/L caused a ChE inhibition by 79%. In this study, no significant variations (p>0.05) in GST activity and LPO were observed in A. tropicus larvae after exposure to ethoprophos.

El proceso de reproducción inducida de Atractosteus tropicus es útil para la acuicultura y la reintroducción en zonas donde las poblaciones silvestres se han reducido considerablemente. En larvas de esta especie se evaluó la toxicidad aguda, así como la respuesta de tres biomarcadores: actividad colinesterasa (ChE), actividad de Glutation S-transferasa (GST) y peroxidación de lípidos (LPO). Asimismo, se realizaron exposiciones agudas (96hr) a etoprofos (nematicida organofosforado), en donde se utilizaron concentraciones entre 0.1μg/L y 1 500μg/L del nematicida. La concentración letal 50 (LC50) calculada fue de 859.7μg/L; la máxima concentración sin efecto en los organismos (NOEC) 10μg/L y la concentración más baja en la cual se observó algún efecto (LOEC) 50μg/L. A esa concentración, el efecto observado fue una reducción significativa (p<0.05) en la actividad de la ChE. Una concetración de etoprofos de 400μg/L causó una inhibición del 79% en la actividad ChE. La actividad GST y la LPO no mostraron una respuesta significativa (p>0.05) luego de la exposición de los organismos a etoprofos.
Descritores: Antinematódeos/toxicidade
Colinesterases/sangue
Peixes
Glutationa Transferase/sangue
Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos
Compostos Organotiofosforados/toxicidade
-Biomarcadores/sangue
Colinesterases/efeitos dos fármacos
Peixes/sangue
Glutationa Transferase/efeitos dos fármacos
Larva/efeitos dos fármacos
LETHAL DOSE ACADEMIES AND INSTITUTES
Testes de Toxicidade Aguda
Limites: Animais
Tipo de Publ: Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Responsável: CR1.1 - BINASSS - Biblioteca Nacional de Salud y Seguridad Social


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Id: lil-638592
Autor: Finkler, Andréa Dulor; Silveira, Aron Ferreira da; Munaro, Gisiane; Zanrosso, Crisley Dossin.
Título: Otoproteção em cobaias expostas a agrotóxico e ginkgo biloba / Otoprotection in guinea pigs exposed to pesticides and ginkgo biloba
Fonte: Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.);78(3):122-128, maio-jun. 2012. ilus.
Idioma: pt.
Resumo: Os agrotóxicos são amplamente utilizados na agricultura e, atualmente, fazem parte do grupo de agentes químicos que podem levar à perda auditiva. A identificação de drogas que, associadas aos ototóxicos, possam atuar como otoprotetores é objeto de estudo. OBJETIVO: Analisar a existência de efeito otoprotetor do extrato de Ginkgo biloba aos possíveis danos cocleares causados pelo agrotóxico do grupo dos organofosforados - metamidofós, avaliando-se as alterações anatômicas por meio da microscopia eletrônica de superfície. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Estudo experimental prospectivo utilizando 21 cobaias, que sofreram ação da administração de soro fisiológico, agrotóxico e ginkgo biloba isoladamente e associadas, durante sete dias consecutivos. Após, as cócleas foram removidas e avaliadas anatomicamente pela microscopia eletrônica de varredura. RESULTADOS: As cobaias submetidas ao agrotóxico apresentaram alterações morfológicas cocleares, com lesões nas três espiras analisadas na microscopia eletrônica, intensificadas de acordo com a dosagem recebida do agente. As cobaias tratadas com agrotóxico e Ginkgo biloba apresentaram uma manutenção da arquitetura ciliar nas células ciliadas externas em todas as espiras da cóclea. CONCLUSÃO: O extrato de Ginkgo biloba, por sua ação antioxidante, atuou como fator otoprotetor à ototoxicidade pelo agrotóxico em cobaias.

Pesticides are widely used in agriculture, despite the risk of hearing loss related to the exposure to their chemical components. This study looks into protective drugs to counteract the ototoxicity of pesticides. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to analyze the effect ginkgo biloba extract may have in protecting against possible cochlear damage caused by organophosphate pesticides (methamidophos). Anatomic changes are assessed through surface and electron microscopy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a prospective experimental study. Twenty-one guinea pigs were given saline solution, pesticide, and ginkgo biloba alone or combined for seven consecutive days. Then their cochleas were removed and examined in a scanning electron microscope. RESULTS: Pesticide-exposed guinea pigs had morphological alterations in their cochleas and injuries in the three turns analyzed through electron microscopy. Injury intensity varied according to the dosages of the agents given to the test subjects. Guinea pigs treated with pesticide and ginkgo biloba maintained the architecture of their outer hair cells in all cochlear turns. CONCLUSION: The antioxidant properties found in the ginkgo biloba extract protected guinea pigs from pesticide ototoxicity.
Descritores: Cóclea/efeitos dos fármacos
Ginkgo biloba/química
Compostos Organotiofosforados/toxicidade
Praguicidas/toxicidade
Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico
-Cóclea/ultraestrutura
Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura
Estudos Prospectivos
Limites: Animais
Cobaias
Responsável: BR1.1 - BIREME


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Id: lil-548327
Autor: Kõrbes, Daiane; Silveira, Aron Ferreira da; Hyppolito, Miguel Ângelo; Munaro, Gisiane.
Título: Ototoxicidade por organofosforados: descrição dos aspectos ultraestruturais do sistema vestibulococlear de cobaias / Organophosphate-related ototoxicity: Description of the vestibulocochlear system ultrastructural aspects of guinea pigs
Fonte: Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.);76(2):238-244, mar.-abr. 2010. ilus.
Idioma: en; pt.
Resumo: Os agrotóxicos organofosforados são amplamente utilizados na agricultura, e atualmente fazem parte do grupo de agentes químicos que podem levar à perda auditiva, no qual já estavam incluídos os solventes, os metais e os asfixiantes. OBJETIVO: Analisar a ação ototóxica aguda de um agrotóxico do grupo dos organofosforados na citoarquitetura do sistema vestibulococlear. Trata-se de um estudo experimental prospectivo. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Foram utilizadas cobaias albinas machos, divididas em três grupos, nos quais se administrou água destilada (grupo 1 - controle), agrotóxico - 0,3mg/Kg/dia (grupo 2), agrotóxico - 3 mg/Kg/dia (grupo 3), durante sete dias consecutivos. O agrotóxico utilizado foi Tamaron BR (metamidofós). A avaliação anatômica da cóclea, sáculo e utrículo foi realizada através da microscopia eletrônica de varredura, após o período de aplicação do agrotóxico. RESULTADOS: As cobaias submetidas ao organofosforado apresentaram alterações morfológicas cocleares, com lesões nas três espiras analisadas, bem como alterações ciliares de sáculo e utrículo, intensificadas de acordo com a dosagem recebida do agente. CONCLUSÃO: As alterações morfológicas observadas nas células ciliadas nos grupos expostos a doses diárias de organofosforado promovem evidências de um efeito agudo degradante dos agrotóxicos no sistema vestibulococlear.

Organophosphate toxic agents are used in agriculture and are currently part of the group of toxic agents which can lead to hearing loss, in which we have solvents, metals and asphyxiation agents. AIM: to analyze the acute ototoxic action of a group of organophosphate agents in the vestibulo-cochlear system. This is a prospective experimental study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: we used male albino guinea pigs, broken down into three groups, to which we provided distilled water (group 1 - control), agrotoxic agent - 0.3mg/Kg/day (group 2), agrotoxic - 3 mg/Kg/day (group 3), during 7 seven consecutive days. The most used agrotoxic agent was Tamaron BR (metamidophos). The anatomical evaluation of the cochlea, saccule and utricle was carried out by means of electronic scanning microscopy after the use of the agrotoxic agent. RESULTS: the guinea pigs submitted to the organophosphate presented cochlear morphological alterations with lesions on the three turns analyzed, as well as cilia alterations in the saccule and utricle, intensified according to the agent dosage. CONCLUSION: the morphological alterations seen in the hair cells exposed to daily doses of organophosphate promote evidences of an acute deleterious effect of agrotoxic agents on the vestibulo-cochlear system.
Descritores: Cóclea/efeitos dos fármacos
Inseticidas/toxicidade
Compostos Organotiofosforados/toxicidade
Vestíbulo do Labirinto/efeitos dos fármacos
-Cóclea/ultraestrutura
Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga
Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura
Estudos Prospectivos
Vestíbulo do Labirinto/ultraestrutura
Limites: Animais
Cobaias
Masculino
Responsável: BR1.1 - BIREME


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Id: lil-458842
Autor: Dzul, Felipe A; Patricia Penilla, R; Rodríguez, Américo D.
Título: Susceptibilidad y mecanismos de resistencia a insecticidas en Anopheles albimanus del sur de la Península de Yucatán, México / Susceptibility and inseticide resistance mechanisms in Anopheles albimanus from the southern Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico
Fonte: Salud pública Méx;49(4):302-311, jul.-ago. 2007. tab, ilus.
Idioma: es.
Projeto: CONACyT.
Resumo: OBJETIVOS: Diagnosticar la resistencia a insecticidas y sus mecanismos en Anopheles albimanus del sur de la Península de Yucatán (PY), México. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: La F1 de An. albimanus colectados durante noviembre-diciembre de 2005 en seis localidades de los municipios Othón P. Blanco en Quintana Roo y Calakmul en Campeche, fue sometida a pruebas de susceptibilidad con deltametrina, DDT, pirimifos metil y bendiocarb, y a pruebas bioquímicas para calcular los niveles de las enzimas involucradas en la resistencia. RESULTADOS: An. albimanus fue resistente al DDT y a deltametrina en las seis localidades con niveles elevados de glutatión S-transferasas (GSTs), monooxigenasas y esterasas, y a pirimifos metil en La Unión con una alta frecuencia de la acetilcolinesterasa (AChE) alterada. CONCLUSION: Las poblaciones de An. albimanus colectadas al sur de la PY son resistentes al DDT y deltametrina, y en La Unión además al pirimifos metil, con mecanismos basados en la AChE alterada para el pirimifos metil, GST para DDT, y monooxigenasas y esterasas para piretroides. Los resultados del presente estudio tienen importantes consecuencias prácticas para el control químico de An. albimanus en el sur de la PY.

OBJECTIVE: To diagnose susceptibility levels and insecticide resistance mechanisms in Anopheles albimanus from the southern Yucatan Peninsula (YP), Mexico. MATERIAL AND METHODS: F1 generation of An. albimanus females, collected from November to December 2005 in six villages in the Othon P. Blanco municipality in Quintana Roo and the Calakmul municipality in Campeche, were exposed to deltamethrin, DDT, pirimiphos-methyl and bendiocarb in susceptibility tests, as well as to biochemical assays in order to calculate the enzyme levels related to insecticide resistance. RESULTS: High levels of DDT and deltamethrin resistance were found in An. albimanus collected from the six villages, and a high resistance to pirimiphos-methyl was found in those from La Union, Quintana Roo. Biochemical assays showed high levels of glutathione S-transferase (GST), cytochrome P450 and esterases (with pNPA substrate) in all villages. The frequency of An. albimanus with altered acetylcholinesterase (AChE) was high in La Union (33 percent). CONCLUSIONS: The An. albimanus populations collected in the south of the YP are resistant to DDT and deltamethrin, whereas resistance to pirimiphos-methyl was significant only in those collected from La Union. The mechanisms explaining this resistance are based on high concentrations of GST, cytochrome P450 and esterasas, the former being responsible for DDT metabolism and the others for pyrethroid metabolism. The altered AChE was the mechanism correlated to pirimiphos-methyl resistance in La Union. The results of the present study have important practical consequences for the chemical control of An. albimanus in the south of the YP.
Descritores: Anopheles
Inseticidas
-Acetilcolinesterase/análise
Anopheles/enzimologia
/análise
CYTOCHROME P-ALDEHYDES ENZYME SYSTEM/análise
Interpretação Estatística de Dados
DDT
Esterases/análise
Glutationa Transferase/análise
Resistência a Inseticidas/efeitos dos fármacos
México
Controle de Mosquitos
Nitrilos
Compostos Organotiofosforados
Piretrinas
Estações do Ano
Limites: Animais
Feminino
Tipo de Publ: Estudo Comparativo
Responsável: BR1.1 - BIREME


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Id: lil-444860
Autor: Karabay, N. U; Oguz, M. G.
Título: Cytogenetic and genotoxic effects of the insecticides, imidacloprid and methamidophos
Fonte: Genet. mol. res. (Online);4(4):653-662, 2005. tab.
Idioma: en.
Projeto: Ege University Research Foundation.
Resumo: We examined the cytogenetic and genotoxic effects of the neonicotinoid insecticide imidacloprid and the organophosphate insecticide methamidophos, when administered alone or in combination. These insecticides were tested with the bone marrow chromosome aberration assay and micronucleus test in rats and by the bacterial mutation assay (Salmonella/microsome mutagenicity assay). Wistar albino rats were orally fed daily with laboratory chow treated with various concentrations of insecticides, 50 and 100 mg/kg imidacloprid, 2.5 and 5 mg/kg methamidophos, and 2.5 and 5 mg/kg imidacloprid plus methamidophos, respectively, for 90 days. Numerical and structural chromosomal aberrations were evaluated. Significant differences were detected between all the insecticide-administered groups versus the control group and between the two concentrations of the pesticide-treated groups. Both concentrations of the insecticides induced a dose-related increase in the micronucleus frequency (P < 0.05). Dose-related increases in the number of revertants were observed with the two Salmonella strains (TA98 and TA100). All tested doses of the insecticides demonstrated mutagenic activity in the presence of S9 mix. These results lead us to the conclusion that the synergistic effect of methamidophos and imidacloprid causes an increase in potential damage to non-target organisms.
Descritores: Aberrações Cromossômicas/induzido quimicamente
Compostos Organotiofosforados/toxicidade
Imidazóis/toxicidade
Inseticidas/toxicidade
-Células da Medula Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos
Compostos Organotiofosforados/administração & dosagem
Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga
Sinergismo Farmacológico
Imidazóis/administração & dosagem
Inseticidas/administração & dosagem
Testes de Mutagenicidade
Ratos Wistar
Limites: Animais
Masculino
Ratos
Responsável: BR1.1 - BIREME



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