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Id: biblio-1025045
Autor: Solarte-Toro, Juan Camilo; Chacón-Pérez, Yessica; Cardona-Alzate, Carlos Ariel.
Título: Evaluation of biogas and syngas as energy vectors for heat and power generation using lignocellulosic biomass as raw material
Fonte: Electron. j. biotechnol;33:52-62, May. 2018. tab, ilus.
Idioma: en.
Projeto: Departamento Administrativo de Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovación.
Resumo: The use of nonrenewable energy sources to provide the worldwide energy needs has caused different problems such as global warming, water pollution, and smog production. In this sense, lignocellulosic biomass has been postulated as a renewable energy source able to produce energy carriers that can cover this energy demand. Biogas and syngas are two energy vectors that have been suggested to generate heat and power through their use in cogeneration systems. Therefore, the aim of this review is to develop a comparison between these energy vectors considering their main features based on literature reports. In addition, a techno-economic and energy assessment of the heat and power generation using these vectors as energy sources is performed. If lignocellulosic biomass is used as raw material, biogas is more commonly used for cogeneration purposes than syngas. However, syngas from biomass gasification has a great potential to be employed as a chemical platform in the production of value-added products. Moreover, the investment costs to generate heat and power from lignocellulosic materials using the anaerobic digestion technology are higher than those using the gasification technology. As a conclusion, it was evidenced that upgraded biogas has a higher potential to produce heat and power than syngas. Nevertheless, the implementation of both energy vectors into the energy market is important to cover the increasing worldwide energy demand.
Descritores: Biocombustíveis/análise
Lignina/metabolismo
-Centrais Elétricas
Digestão Anaeróbia
Biomassa
Energia Renovável
Temperatura Alta
Lignina/química
Metano
Tipo de Publ: Revisão
Responsável: CL1.1 - Biblioteca Central


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Id: biblio-830559 LILACS-Express
Autor: González Velandia, Krystle Danitza; Daza Rey, Dayra; Caballero Amado, Paola Andrea; Chadae Martínez, González.
Título: Evaluación de las propiedades físicas y químicas de residuos sólidos orgánicos a emplearse en la elaboración de papel / Evaluation of the physical and chemical properties of organic solid waste for use in the preparation of paper
Fonte: Rev. luna azul;(43):499-517, jul.-dic. 2016. ilus, tab.
Idioma: es.
Resumo: La producción de papel está soportada principalmente en la madera debido a su alto contenido de celulosa. Sin embargo, actualmente se buscan fuentes alternativas que desestimulen el uso de este recurso favoreciendo la protección de los bosques. La celulosa también está presente en las especies vegetales que hacen parte del consumo humano y, por lo tanto, los residuos orgánicos podrían convertirse en materia prima para la fabricación de papel. En Colombia más del 60% de los residuos que se generan son de carácter orgánico y muy pocos se están aprovechando. Esta investigación se centró en evaluar el contenido de celulosa en diferentes residuos sólidos orgánicos. También, se evaluaron otras propiedades químicas como contenido de hemicelulosa y lignina, y propiedades físicas como densidad, contenido de humedad, entre otros, ya que estas propiedades condicionan los procesos de producción de papel y son importantes para conocer la viabilidad de uso y la estrategia de la extracción de la celulosa. 21 residuos sólidos fueron analizados a través de pruebas de laboratorio basadas en las normas ASTM y TAPPI y se encontró que 9 de estos tienen un alto contenido de celulosa. Tomando en cuenta todos los demás análisis se concluyó que varios residuos tienen alto potencial para ser usados en la producción de papel. El uso de residuos sólidos, además de ser una solución que promueve la protección de los bosques, se puede convertir en una alternativa para el manejo de residuos sólidos en Colombia.

Paper production is supported mainly by the wood due to its high content of cellulose. However, alternative sources that discourage the use of this resource and promoteprotection of forests are currently sough. The cellulose is also present in plants that are part of human consumption and therefore organic waste could become raw material for papermaking. In Colombia more than 60% of waste that is generated is organic and very few are reused. This research focused on evaluating the content of cellulose in several solid organic waste. Other chemical properties as hemicellulose and lignin content, and physical properties such as density, humidity, among others, were also evaluated because these properties determine the process of paper production and are important to know the feasibility to use and the strategy to extract the cellulose. 21 solid waste were analyzed by laboratory tests based on the ASTM and TAPPI standards and it was found that 9 of these solids have high cellulose content. Taking in account all the other analyses, we concluded that various solid residues have high potential to be used in the production of paper. The use of solid waste could be a solution that promotes the protection of forests and it would become in an alternative for solid waste management in Colombia.
Descritores: Celulose
-Papel
Resíduos de Alimentos
Lignina
Limites: Humanos
Tipo de Publ: Artigo Clássico
Responsável: CO54.1 - Centro de Biblioteca e Información Científica


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Id: biblio-1131470
Autor: Neumann, M; Dochwat, A; Santos, L. C; Souza, A. M; Ueno, R. K; Carletto, R; Manchur, A. D; Czelusniak, C.
Título: Fiber composition and digestibility of fodder in different ryegrass fields submitted to different harvesting management systems / [Composição da fibra e digestibilidade da forragem de diferentes cultivares de azevém submetidos a diferentes sistemas de manejo de colheita]
Fonte: Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online);72(4):1535-1544, July-Aug. 2020. tab, graf.
Idioma: en.
Resumo: This essay aims to evaluate the composition of fiber in neutral detergent, digestibility of plant components, as well as ruminal disappearance rate of fodder dry matter from five ryegrass fields submitted to different cut systems for the production of haylage. The experimental design was the randomized blocks one, at a 5 x 3 factorial scheme, with five cultivars (cv.) of ryegrass Lolium multiflorum (cv. Barjumbo, cv. BarHQ, cv. Ribeye, cv. Potro and cv. Willians) associated with three harvesting management systems: 1- single harvesting system at a pre-floral stage; 2 - double harvesting system, with a cut at vegetative stage and another at pre-floral stage; and 3 - triple harvesting system, with a cut at vegetative stage, a cut at full vegetative stage and a cut at pre-floral stage, with three repetitions each. Similarities were noticed on the results of fodder digestibility of different fields, however, cv. Potro presented a higher ruminal disappearance rate after 48 hours, with 69.27%. Generally, the harvesting management system with the increase of ryegrass cut frequency determined increments on the percentage of lignin and the reduction in the concentration of total nutrients and dry matter digestibility of the resulting hylage.(AU)

O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar a composição da fibra em detergente neutro, digestibilidade dos componentes da planta, bem como a taxa de desaparecimento ruminal da matéria seca da forragem de cinco cultivares de azevém submetidos a diferentes sistemas de cortes para produção de silagem pré-secada. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos ao acaso,, em um fatorial 5 x 3, sendo cinco cultivares de azevém Lolium multiflorum (cv. Barjumbo, cv. BarHQ, cv. Ribeye, cv. Potro e cv. Willians) associados a três sistemas de manejo de colheita: 1 - sistema com única colheita no estádio de pré-florescimento; 2 - sistema com uma colheita no estádio vegetativo e outra no estádio de pré-florescimento; e 3 - sistema com uma colheita no estádio vegetativo, uma no estádio pleno vegetativo e outra no estádio de pré-florescimento, com três repetições cada. Notou-se similaridade entre os resultados de digestibilidade da forragem entre os cultivares, porém o cv. Potro apresentou a maior taxa de desaparecimento ruminal após 48 horas, com 69,27%. De maneira geral, o sistema de manejo de colheita mostrou que o aumento do número de cortes do azevém determinou incrementos nos teores de lignina e redução na concentração de nutrientes digestíveis totais e da digestibilidade da matéria seca nas silagens pré-secadas resultantes.(AU)
Descritores: Lolium/química
Cultivos Agrícolas
Pastagens/análise
Pastagens/métodos
Lignina
Responsável: BR68.1 - Biblioteca Virginie Buff D'Ápice


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Mazzafera, Paulo
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Id: biblio-886905
Autor: LLERENA, JUAN P P; ARAÚJO, PEDRO; MAZZAFERA, PAULO.
Título: Optimization of RT-PCR reactions in studies with genes of lignin biosynthetic route in Saccharum spontaneum
Fonte: An. acad. bras. ciênc;90(1):509-519, Mar. 2018. tab, graf.
Idioma: en.
Projeto: Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior; . Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do estado de São Paulo; . Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico; . FAPESP.
Resumo: ABSTRACT Saccharum spontaneum has been used for the development of energy cane a crop aimed to be used for the production of second-generation ethanol, or lignocellulosic ethanol. Lignin is a main challenge in the conversion of cell wall sugars into ethanol. In our studies to isolate the genes the lignin biosynthesis in S. spontaneum we have had great difficulty in RT-PCR reactions. Thus, we evaluated the effectiveness of different additives in the amplification of these genes. While COMT and CCoAOMT genes did not need any additives for other genes there was no amplification (HCT, F5H, 4CL and CCR) or the yield was very low (CAD and C4H). The application of supplementary cDNA was enough to overcome the non-specificity and low yield for C4H and C3H, while the addition of 0.04% BSA + 2% formamide was effective to amplify 4CL, CCR, F5H and CCR. HCT was amplified only by addition of 0.04% BSA + 2% formamide + 0.1 M trehalose and amplification of PAL was possible with addition of 2% of DMSO. Besides optimization of expression assays, the results show that additives can act independently or synergistically.
Descritores: Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética
Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa/métodos
Técnicas de Amplificação de Ácido Nucleico/métodos
Saccharum/genética
-Parede Celular/genética
Primers do DNA
Etanol
Lignina/biossíntese
Lignina/genética
Metiltransferases/genética
Responsável: BR1.1 - BIREME


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Id: biblio-1087252
Autor: Mohammadi, Marzieh; Shafiei, Marzieh; Karimi, Keikhosro; Abdolmaleki, Amir; Mikkola, Jyri-Pekka; Abdolmaleki, Amir.
Título: Improvement of ethanol production from birch and spruce pretreated with 1-H-3-methylmorpholinium chloride
Fonte: Electron. j. biotechnol;41:95-99, sept. 2019. graf, tab, ilus.
Idioma: en.
Resumo: Background: Pretreatment is the critically important step for the production of ethanol from lignocelluloses. In this study, hardwood birch (Betula pendula) and softwood spruce (Norway spruce) woods were pretreated with a newly synthesized morpholinium ionic liquid, 1-H-3-methylmorpholinium chloride ([HMMorph][Cl]), followed by enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation to ethanol. Results: [HMMorph][Cl] was synthesized using inexpensive raw materials, i.e., hydrochloric acid and N-methyl morpholine, following a simple process. The influence of pretreatment time (2, 3, 5, and 8 h) and temperature (120 and 140°C) in terms of hydrolysis efficiency was investigated. Glucose yields from enzymatic hydrolysis were improved from 13.7% to 45.7% and 12.9% to 51.8% after pretreatment of birch and spruce woods, respectively, under optimum pretreatment conditions (i.e., at 140°C for 3 h) as compared to those from pristine woods. Moreover, the yields of ethanol production from birch and spruce were increased to 34.8% and 44.2%, respectively, while the yields were negligible for untreated woods. Conclusions: This study demonstrated the ability of [HMMorph][Cl] as an inexpensive agent to pretreat both softwood and hardwood.
Descritores: Betula/metabolismo
Etanol/metabolismo
Etanol/síntese química
Lignina/metabolismo
-Celulose/metabolismo
Tratamento Preliminar
Cloretos/química
Abies
Biocombustíveis
Fermentação
Hidrólise
Responsável: CL1.1 - Biblioteca Central


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Id: biblio-1053552
Autor: Smuga-Kogut, Malgorzata; Piskier, Tomasz; Walendzik, Bartosz; Szymanowska-Powalowska, Daria.
Título: Assessment of wasteland derived biomass for bioethanol production
Fonte: Electron. j. biotechnol;41:1-8, sept. 2019. tab, ilus, graf.
Idioma: en.
Projeto: National Science Centre as part of MINIATURA 1.
Resumo: Background: The bioethanol produced from biomass is a promising alternative fuel. The lignocellulose from marginal areas or wasteland could be a promising raw material for bioethanol production because it is present in large quantities, is cheap, renewable and has favorable environmental properties. Despite these advantages, lignocellulosic biomass is much more difficult to process than cereal grains, due to the need for intensive pretreatment and relatively large amounts of cellulases for efficient hydrolysis. Therefore, there is a need to develop an efficient and cost-effective method for the degradation and fermentation of lignocellulosic biomass to ethanol. Results: The usefulness of lignocellulosic biomass from wasteland for the production of bioethanol using pretreatment with the aid of ionic liquids of 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate and 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride was evaluated in this study. The pretreatment process, enzymatic hydrolysis and alcoholic fermentation lasted a total of 10 d. The largest amounts of bioethanol were obtained from biomass originating from agricultural wasteland, in which the dominant plant was fireweed (Chamaenerion angustifolium) and from the field where the common broom (Cytisus scoparius) was the dominant. Conclusions: The plants such as fireweed, common broom, hay and goldenrod may be useful for the production of liquid biofuels and it would be necessary in the further stage of research to establish and optimize the conditions for the technology of ethyl alcohol producing from these plant species. Enzymatic hydrolysis of biomass from agricultural wastelands results in a large increase in fermentable sugars, comparable to the enzymatic hydrolysis of rye, wheat, rice or maize straw.
Descritores: Solo/química
Biomassa
Etanol/metabolismo
-Biodegradação Ambiental
Celulases/análise
Enzimas/metabolismo
Líquidos Iônicos
Biocombustíveis
Hidrólise
Lignina/análise
Responsável: CL1.1 - Biblioteca Central


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Id: lil-586474
Autor: Zocatelli, Renata; Cecanho, Fernanda; Amorim, Marcelo; Bernardes, Marcelo; Moreira-Turcq, Patricia; Turcq, Bruno; Sifeddine, Abdelfettah; Cordeiro, Renato Campello.
Título: Uso dos fenóis da lignina no estudo da matéria orgânica na várzea do Lago Grande Curuái, Pará e no Lago do Caçó, Maranhão, Brasil / Use of lignin phenols in the study of organic matter in the Lago Grande Curuái floodplain, Pará and Lake Caçó, Maranhão, Brazil
Fonte: Acta amaz;41(2):195-204, 2011. ilus, tab.
Idioma: pt.
Resumo: Este estudo tem por objetivo caracterizar os sedimentos superficiais, quanto ao seu teor e qualidade dos fenóis da lignina, em dois sistemas lacustres distintos: a Várzea do Lago Grande Curuái (PA) e o Lago do Caçó (MA). A Várzea do Lago Grande Curuái é localizada na margem direita do Rio Amazonas, aproximadamente 850 km da foz e é caracterizada pela presença de lagos de águas brancas e pretas. O Lago do Caçó está localizado no Maranhão, na borda do ecossistema amazônico. Foram realizadas análises da concentração de lignina (λ), carbono orgânico total (COT), nitrogênio e isótopos do carbono (δ13C). Os resultados indicam que os sedimentos superficias de lagos de águas brancas apresentam baixos valores de COT (1,5 a 3,6 por cento), baixa concentração de λ (0,73 a 1,28 mg.100mg CO-1) e alto índice de degradação (0,29 a 2,01). Os sedimentos superficiais de lagos de águas pretas apresentam maiores valores de COT (6,0 a 12,1 por cento) e de λ (1,44 a 1,93 mg.100mg CO-1) em relação aos sedimentos de lagos de águas brancas, porém baixos em comparação com os sedimentos do Lago do Caçó (7,2 ~ 15,3 por cento e 1,83 ~ 4,64 mg .100mg CO-1, respectivamente). Através das análises realizadas foi possível identificar diferentes contribuições de fontes assim como diferentes estados de preservação da matéria orgânica sedimentada nos dois sistemas apresentados.

This study aims to characterize the superficial sediments of lakes in black and white waters of an Amazonian floodplain system in terms of carbon content and quality of lignin phenols. "Várzea do Lago Grande Curuái" floodplain is located on the right bank of the Amazon River about 850 km from the estuary. Superficial sediments samples were compared with superficial samples from Lake Caçó, located in Maranhão, the edge of the Amazon ecosystem. Concentration of lignin (λ), Total Organic Carbon (COT), nitrogen and isotope of carbon (δ13C) were undertaken. The results indicate that, in general, the superficial sediments of lakes of white water have low values of COT (1,5 to 3,6 percent), low concentrations of λ (0,73 to 1,28 mg.100mg CO-1) and high degradation index (0.29 to 2.01). Superficial sediments of lakes of black water had higher values of COT (6,0 to 12,1 percent) and λ (1,44 to 1,93 mg.100mg CO-1) than the sediments of lakes of white waters, but lower in comparison with the sediments of Caçó Lake. Through such analysis, it was possible to identify different contributions of organic matter sources and the preservation states to the superficial sediments at both sites.
Descritores: Carbono
Matéria Orgânica
Lignina
Responsável: BR6.1 - BCS - Biblioteca de Ciências da Saúde


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Id: biblio-1087705
Autor: Sagia, Sajish; Sharma, Anamika; Singh, Surender; Chaturvedi, Shivani; Singh Nain, Pawan Kumar; Nain, Lata.
Título: Single cell oil production by a novel yeast Trichosporon mycotoxinivorans for complete and ecofriendly valorization of paddy straw
Fonte: Electron. j. biotechnol;44:60-68, Mar. 2020. tab, graf, ilus.
Idioma: en.
Resumo: Background: Oleaginous yeasts can be grown on different carbon sources, including lignocellulosic hydrolysate containing a mixture of glucose and xylose. However, not all yeast strains can utilize both the sugars for lipogenesis. Therefore, in this study, efforts were made to isolate dual sugar-utilizing oleaginous yeasts from different sources. Results: A total of eleven isolates were obtained, which were screened for their ability to utilize various carbohydrates for lipogenesis. One promising yeast isolate Trichosporon mycotoxinivorans S2 was selected based on its capability to use a mixture of glucose and xylose and produce 44.86 ± 4.03% lipids, as well as its tolerance to fermentation inhibitors. In order to identify an inexpensive source of sugars, nondetoxified paddy straw hydrolysate (saccharified with cellulase), supplemented with 0.05% yeast extract, 0.18% peptone, and 0.04% MgSO4 was used for growth of the yeast, resulting in a yield of 5.17 g L−1 lipids with conversion productivity of 0.06 g L−1 h−1 . Optimization of the levels of yeast extract, peptone, and MgSO4 for maximizing lipid production using Box­Behnken design led to an increase in lipid yield by 41.59%. FAME analysis of single cell oil revealed oleic acid (30.84%), palmitic acid (18.28%), and stearic acid (17.64%) as the major fatty acids. Conclusion: The fatty acid profile illustrates the potential of T. mycotoxinivorans S2 to produce single cell oil as a feedstock for biodiesel. Therefore, the present study also indicated the potential of selected yeast to develop a zero-waste process for the complete valorization of paddy straw hydrolysate without detoxification
Descritores: Trichosporon/metabolismo
-Oryza
Xilose/isolamento & purificação
Trichosporon/química
Óleos/química
Lipogênese
Biocombustíveis
Fermentação
Glucose/isolamento & purificação
Hidrólise
Lignina/metabolismo
Lipídeos/biossíntese
Responsável: CL1.1 - Biblioteca Central


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Id: biblio-1039268
Autor: Cardoso, Wilton Soares; Queiroz, Paula Viana; Tavares, Gabriella Peterlini; Santos, Fernando Almeida; Soares, Filippe Elias de Freitas; Kasuya, Maria Catarina Megumi; Queiroz, José Humberto de.
Título: Multi-enzyme complex of white rot fungi in saccharification of lignocellulosic material
Fonte: Braz. j. microbiol;49(4):879-884, Oct.-Dec. 2018. tab, graf.
Idioma: en.
Resumo: ABSTRACT The multi-enzyme complex (crude extract) of white rot fungi Pleurotus ostreatus, Pleurotus eryngii, Trametes versicolor, Pycnosporus sanguineus and Phanerochaete chrysosporium were characterized, evaluated in the hydrolysis of pretreated pulps of sorghum straw and compared efficiency with commercial enzyme. Most fungi complexes had better hydrolysis rates compared with purified commercial enzyme.
Descritores: Proteínas Fúngicas/química
Sorghum/química
Celulases/química
Fungos/enzimologia
Lignina/química
-Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo
Caules de Planta/microbiologia
Caules de Planta/química
Sorghum/microbiologia
Celulases/metabolismo
Biocatálise
Fungos/química
Hidrólise
Lignina/metabolismo
Responsável: BR1.1 - BIREME


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Id: lil-780841
Autor: Bottino, Flávia; Cunha-Santino, Marcela Bianchessi; Bianchini Jr, Irineu.
Título: Cellulase activity and dissolved organic carbon release from lignocellulose macrophyte-derived in four trophic conditions
Fonte: Braz. j. microbiol;47(2):352-358, Apr.-June 2016. tab, graf.
Idioma: en.
Projeto: São Paulo Research Foundation.
Resumo: Abstract Considering the importance of lignocellulose macrophyte-derived for the energy flux in aquatic ecosystems and the nutrient concentrations as a function of force which influences the decomposition process, this study aims to relate the enzymatic activity and lignocellulose hydrolysis in different trophic statuses. Water samples and two macrophyte species were collected from the littoral zone of a subtropical Brazilian Reservoir. A lignocellulosic matrix was obtained using aqueous extraction of dried plant material (≈40 °C). Incubations for decomposition of the lignocellulosic matrix were prepared using lignocelluloses, inoculums and filtered water simulating different trophic statuses with the same N:P ratio. The particulate organic carbon and dissolved organic carbon (POC and DOC, respectively) were quantified, the cellulase enzymatic activity was measured by releasing reducing sugars and immobilized carbon was analyzed by filtration. During the cellulose degradation indicated by the cellulase activity, the dissolved organic carbon daily rate and enzyme activity increased. It was related to a fast hydrolysable fraction of cellulose that contributed to short-term carbon immobilization (ca. 10 days). After approximately 20 days, the dissolved organic carbon and enzyme activity were inversely correlated suggesting that the respiration of microorganisms was responsible for carbon mineralization. Cellulose was an important resource in low nutrient conditions (oligotrophic). However, the detritus quality played a major role in the lignocelluloses degradation (i.e., enzyme activity) and carbon release.
Descritores: Bactérias/enzimologia
Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo
Celulase/metabolismo
Araceae/metabolismo
Paspalum/metabolismo
Água Doce/química
Lignina/metabolismo
-Brasil
Carbono/metabolismo
Celulose/genética
Celulose/metabolismo
Ecossistema
Araceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento
Araceae/microbiologia
Paspalum/crescimento & desenvolvimento
Paspalum/microbiologia
Água Doce/microbiologia
Responsável: BR1.1 - BIREME



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