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Id: biblio-1121024
Autor: Erdmann, Johannes.
Título: Interacción entre leptina y grelina como parte del control tónico de la ingesta de alimentos / Interaction between leptin and ghrelin as part of tonic control of food intake
Fonte: Salud(i)ciencia (Impresa) = Salud(i)ciencia (En linea);15(6):998-1001, nov. 2007. graf..
Idioma: es.
Resumo: Food intake is regulated by an acute control system that conveys information between the stomach and hypothalamic centres of feeding regulation mainly via neural vagal afferent fibers for satiety and via hormonal signal transmission by ghrelin for recurrence of appetite and hunger. This acute system is under tonic control by adipocyte-derived leptin as an indicator of the nutritional status of the organism. In obese subjects plasma leptin is higher compared to normal weight subjects (NW). This is associated with lower ghrelin levels suggesting that the negative feedback loop to reduce food intake in the case of sufficient energy reserves is intact. A differential analysis of the inverse relationship between leptin and ghrelin, however, suggests an inhibitory effect of leptin is restricted to male normal and overweight subjects. In females and obese subjects of both genders this inverse relationship does exist. These findings indicate that the position of ghrelin within the control system of food intake is somewhat more sophisticated than previously thought and it requires more detailed analysis

La ingesta de alimentos está regulada por un sistema de control inmediato que transmite información entre el estómago y los centros hipotalámicos de regulación de la alimentación, principalmente a través de fibras aferentes vagales nerviosas para la saciedad y mediante la transmisión de señales hormonales de la grelina para la recurrencia del apetito y el hambre. Este sistema inmediato se encuentra bajo control tónico de la leptina derivada de los adipocitos como indicador del estado nutricional del organismo. En los individuos obesos la leptina plasmática es más alta en comparación con los individuos de peso normal. Esto se asocia con concentraciones más bajas de grelina, lo que sugiere que el asa de retroalimentación negativa para reducir la ingesta de alimento en el caso de reservas suficientes de energía está intacta. Sin embargo, el diagnóstico diferencial de la relación inversa entre leptina y grelina sugiere que el efecto inhibidor de la leptina está restringido a hombres normales y con sobrepeso. En las mujeres y en los individuos obesos de ambos sexos existe esta relación inversa. Estos hallazgos indican que la posición de la grelina dentro del sistema de control de la ingesta de alimentos es algo más sofisticada de lo que antes se creía y requiere un análisis más detallado
Descritores: Resistência à Insulina
Estado Nutricional
Leptina
Ingestão de Alimentos
Grelina
Obesidade
Tipo de Publ: Relatório Técnico
Responsável: AR392.1 - Biblioteca


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Id: biblio-887592
Autor: Ucan, Bekir; Sahin, Mustafa; Kizilgul, Muhammed; Ozbek, Mustafa; Ozdemir, Seyda; Calıskan, Mustafa; Cakal, Erman.
Título: Serum ghrelin levels in papillary thyroid carcinoma
Fonte: Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online);61(5):464-469, Sept.-Oct. 2017. tab, graf.
Idioma: en.
Resumo: ABSTRACT Objective Ghrelin plays a role in several processes of cancer progression, and numerous cancer types express ghrelin and its receptor. We aimed to investigate serum levels of ghrelin in patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) and its association with the prognostic factors in PTC. Materials and methods We enrolled 54 patients with thyroid cancer (7 male, 47 female) and 24 healthy controls (6 male, 18 female) in the study. We compared demographic, anthropometric, and biochemical data, and serum ghrelin levels between the groups. Serum ghrelin levels were measured using as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results Ghrelin levels were similar between the groups, but plasma ghrelin levels were significantly higher in tumors larger than 1 cm diameter compared with papillary microcarcinomas. Serum ghrelin levels also correlated with tumor size (r = 0.499; p < 0.001). Body mass index, thyroid-stimulating hormone, and HOMA-IR levels were similar between the groups. There were no statistically significant differences regarding average age and other prognostic parameters including lymph node invasion, capsule invasion, multifocality and surgical border invasion between patients with microcarcinoma and tumors larger than 1 cm. Conclusion In our study, no significant difference in serum ghrelin levels was determined between patients with papillary thyroid cancer and healthy controls however, serum ghrelin levels were higher in tumors larger than 1 cm compared to in those with thyroid papillary microcarcinoma.
Descritores: Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/sangue
Carcinoma Papilar/sangue
Grelina/sangue
-Prognóstico
Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática
Neoplasias da Glândula Tireoide/patologia
Carcinoma Papilar/patologia
Biomarcadores Tumorais/sangue
Estudos de Casos e Controles
Carga Tumoral
Câncer Papilífero da Tireoide
Invasividade Neoplásica
Estadiamento de Neoplasias
Limites: Humanos
Masculino
Feminino
Adulto
Responsável: BR1.1 - BIREME


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Id: lil-713279
Autor: Calderón Velasco, Rolando.
Título: Hormonas gastrointestinales y su relación con cirugía bariátrica / Gastrointestinal hormones and their relation to bariatric surgery
Fonte: Diagnóstico (Perú);52(2):100-102, abr.-jun. 2013. ilus.
Idioma: es.
Descritores: Cirurgia Bariátrica
Grelina
Hormônios Gastrointestinais
Insulina
Responsável: PE1.1 - Oficina Universitária de Biblioteca


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Id: biblio-1041205
Autor: Yagan, Özgür; Tas, Nilay; Ayyildiz, Sema Nur; Karakahya, Murat; Noyan, Tevfik.
Título: Comparison of the effects of continuous versus intermittent enteral feeding on plasma leptin and ghrelin levels in Intensive Care Units / Comparação do efeito da alimentação enteral contínua com o efeito da alimentação intermitente nos níveis plasmáticos de leptina e grelina em Unidades de Terapia Intensiva
Fonte: Rev. Nutr. (Online);30(4):409-418, July-Aug. 2017. tab, graf.
Idioma: en.
Projeto: Ordu University Scientific Research Projects Coordination Department.
Resumo: ABSTRACT Objective: The aim of this prospective randomized trial is to verify whether there is an association between the methods of administration of enteral nutrition and the leptin and ghrelin hormones, which have a major role in the regulation of energy metabolism. Methods: This study enrolled 38 enteral-fed patients aged 18 to 85 in the Intensive Care Unit. The patients were prospectively randomized to receive either continuous infusion (n=19) or intermittent feeding (n=18) of enteral nutrition. In addition to routine biochemical assays, blood samples were taken from the patients for leptin and ghrelin analyses on the 1th, 7th, and 14th days of enteral nutrition. Results: There was no statistically significant difference between the groups regarding descriptive statistics and categorical variables such as underlying diseases, complications, steroid use and others (p>0.05). The decrease in the number of white blood cells and in creatinine and C-reactive protein levels over time were statistically significant (p=0.010, p=0.026, p<0.001 respectively). There was no statistically significant difference between the groups with respect to leptin and ghrelin levels (p=0.982 and p=0.054). Leptin levels did not change over time; however, the ghrelin levels of both groups were significantly higher on the 7th and 14th days than on the first day of analysis (p=0.003). Conclusion: This study revealed that both continuous and intermittent enteral nutrition feeding regimens were well tolerated in Intensive Care Unit patients showing minor complications. The method of administration of enteral nutrition alone did not affect the leptin and ghrelin levels. Randomized controlled large cohort trials are needed to to compare intermittent and continuous enteral nutrition to determine which one is more adaptable to diurnal patterns of secretion metabolic hormones.

RESUMO Objetivo: Este ensaio aleatório prospectivo tem por objetivo verificar se existe uma associação entre o programa de administração de nutrição enteral e os hormonios leptina e grelina, os quais funcionam no metabolismo energético. Métodos: Este estudo incluiu 38 pacientes de Unidades de Terapia Intensiva, com idades entre os 18 e os 85 anos, que receberam nutrição enteral. Os pacientes foram escolhidos aleatoriamente para receberem nutrição enteral utilizando infusão contínua (n=19) ou intermitente (n=18). Além de exames bioquímicos de rotina, foram colhidas amostras de sangue dos pacientes para análises dos níveis de leptina e grelina no 1º, 7º e 14º dias de nutrição enteral. Resultados: Não houve diferença estatística significante entre os grupos em relação a dados descritivos e variáveis categóricas tais como doenças subjacentes, complicações, utilização de esteroides e outros (p>0,05). A diminuição no número de leucócitos e nos níveis de creatinina e proteína C-reativa com o tempo foi estatisticamente significativa (p=0,010, p=0,026, p<0,001, respetivamente). Não existiu diferença com significância estatística entre os grupos em relação aos níveis de leptina e grelina (p=0,982 e p=0,054). Embora os níveis de leptina não mudaram com o tempo, os níveis de grelina de ambos os grupos foram significativamente superiores no 7° e 14° dias quando comparados aos verificados na análise do primeiro dia (p=0,003). Conclusão: Este estudo revelou que os programas de nutrição enteral contínua e intermitente foram bem tolerados com pequenas complicações apresentadas pelos pacientes em Unidades de Terapia Intensiva. O padrão de administração de nutrição enteral por si só não afetou os níveis de leptina e grelina. Estudos controlados aleatórios em coortes maiores são necessários para verificar qual programa de administração de nutrição enteral, intermitente ou a contínuo, é mais adaptável ao padrão de secreção diurno de hormônios metabólicos.
Descritores: Nutrição Enteral
-Leptina
Metabolismo Energético
Grelina
Limites: Humanos
Masculino
Feminino
Tipo de Publ: Ensaio Clínico
Responsável: BR13.3 - Biblioteca das Faculdades de Odontologia e Nutrição


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Id: biblio-886276
Autor: Lyra Junior, Humberto Fenner; Rodrigues, Igor Kunze; Schiavon, Leonardo de Lucca; D`Acâmpora, Armando José.
Título: Ghrelin and gastrointestinal wound healing. A new perspective for colorectal surgery
Fonte: Acta cir. bras;33(3):282-294, Mar. 2018. tab.
Idioma: en.
Descritores: Reto/cirurgia
Colo/cirurgia
Substâncias Protetoras/uso terapêutico
Grelina/uso terapêutico
-Período Pós-Operatório
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos do Sistema Digestório/efeitos adversos
Cicatrização/efeitos dos fármacos
Anastomose Cirúrgica/efeitos adversos
Fístula Anastomótica/prevenção & controle
Limites: Humanos
Tipo de Publ: Revisão
Responsável: BR1.1 - BIREME


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Id: biblio-954227
Autor: Eid, Refaat A; Zaki, Mohamed Samir Ahmed; Alghamdi, Mansour A; Al-Shraim, Mubarak; El-kott, Attalla Farag; Al-Hashem, Fahaid H; Aldera, Hussain; Alkhateeb, Mahmoud A.
Título: Ghrelin improves the fine structure of atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) granules and intercalated disc junctions in experimentally-induced myocardial infarction in rats / La grelina mejora las estructuras finas de los gránulos de factor natriurético atrial (ANF) y las uniones intercaladas de disco en el infarto de miocardio inducido experimentalmente en ratas
Fonte: Int. j. morphol;36(3):1031-1042, Sept. 2018. tab, graf.
Idioma: en.
Projeto: King Khalid University.
Resumo: Ghrelin is a novel growth hormone-releasing peptide administered to treat myocardial infarction (MI). However, the underlying mechanism of its protective effects against MI remains unclear. A total of sixty healthy Sprague Dawley male rats were included. The first one is the sham-operated control group were the rats that underwent the same surgical used to induce MI but without tying the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) and received normal saline (0.5 ml) as vehicle; the second MI model group were rats with LAD ligation and received normal saline (0. 5 ml) and the third one is MI+ghrelin group were rats that were exposed to surgery to induce MI but received ghrelin (100 µ/kg, orally, 2x/day). At the end of the experiment after 21 days post-MI, rats were sacrificed and processed for ultrastructural demonstration. Our experiment showed that ghrelin inhibited cardiomyocyte apoptosis. Concomitant administration of ghrelin with MI treated rats of this study appeared to show a considerable protection of the atrial tissues. This study revealed that the sarcoplasm was occupied by normal myofibrils with clear striations and others appeared with minor disruption. Normal distribution of atrionatriuretic factor (ANF) granules and well preserved mitochondrial integrity (preserved cristae, normal size and shape), nucleus chromatin arrangement and striated pattern of clear bands (Z and H) compared to the MI group. Intact intercalated disc with clear identification of fully formed fascia adherence and desmosomes with a reconstruction of gap junction (nexus) was also noticed. Atrial myocytes after myocardial infarction is often associated with subsequent heart failure, which could lead to a fatal outcome. In a rat model of experimental myocardial infarction, peripheral ghrelin administration attenuated myocyte dysfunction, well-preserved desmosome, adherent and gap junction of the intercalated disc and normally distributed ANF granules.

La grelina es un nuevo péptido liberador de hormona de crecimiento administrado para tratar el infarto de miocardio (IM). Sin embargo, el mecanismo subyacente de sus efectos protectores contra el IM aún no se conocen. Se incluyeron un total de 60 ratas macho Sprague Dawley saludables. En el grupo control se incluyeron ratas que fueron sometidas a una cirugía utilizada para inducir el IM, pero sin ligar la arteria coronaria descendente anterior izquierda (ACDAI) y recibieron suero fisiológico normal (0,5 ml) como vehículo; el segundo grupo modelo de IM fueron ratas con ligadura de ACDAI y recibieron suero fisiológico normal (0,5 ml); el tercer grupo estuvo formado por ratas con IM + grelina, expuestas a la cirugía para inducir IM pero luego recibieron grelina (100 m/kg, oralmente, 2x/día). Al final del experimento, 21 días después del infarto de miocardio, los animales fueron sacrificados y procesados para el estudio ultraestructural. Nuestro experimento mostró que la grelina inhibe la apoptosis de los cardiomiocitos. La administración concomitante de grelina en ratas con IM parece indicar una protección considerable de los tejidos atriales. Además, el estudio reveló que el sarcoplasma estaba ocupado por miofibrillas normales con estriaciones claras y otras con una alteración menor. Se encontró una distribución normal de los gránulos del factor natriurético atrial (FNA) e integridad mitocondrial bien conservada (crestas conservadas, tamaño y forma normales), disposición de la cromatina del núcleo y patrón estriado de bandas claras (Z y H) en comparación con el grupo IM. También se observó un disco intercalado intacto con una clara identificación de la adherencia de la fascia completamente formada y desmosomas con una reconstrucción de la unión gap (nexo). Los miocitos atriales, después de un infarto de miocardio, a menudo se asocian con insuficiencia cardíaca posterior, que podría conducir a un desenlace fatal. En un modelo de rata de infarto de miocardio experimental, la administración de grelina periférica atenuó la disfunción de miocitos, con conservación del desmosoma, adherencia y unión de la brecha del disco intercalado y una distribución normal de los los gránulos de FNA.
Descritores: Fator Natriurético Atrial/metabolismo
Hormônios Peptídicos/metabolismo
Infarto do Miocárdio/metabolismo
-Fator Natriurético Atrial/ultraestrutura
Ratos Sprague-Dawley
Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão
Modelos Animais de Doenças
Grelina
Limites: Animais
Masculino
Ratos
Responsável: CL1.1 - Biblioteca Central


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Id: biblio-893129
Autor: Jia-xiang, Wang; Peng, Li; Xiao-ting, Zhang; Li-xun, Ye.
Título: Distribution and morphology of ghrelin-immunopositive cells in the liver of the African ostrich / Distribución y morfología de las células inmunopositivas a la gregina en el hígado de avestruz africana
Fonte: Int. j. morphol;35(4):1285-1290, Dec. 2017. graf.
Idioma: en.
Projeto: National Natural Science Foundation Project of China.
Resumo: SUMMARY: Ghrelin is the endogenous ligand for the growth hormone secretagogue receptor, and has been found in the liver of multiple vertebrates. While ghrelin has been identified in the gastrointestinal tract of African ostrich chicks, little is known regarding its distribution in the liver of the African ostrich. In the present study, the distribution and morphological characteristics of ghrelin-immunopositive (ghrelin-ip) cells in the liver of the African ostrich were investigated using immunohistochemistry. Our results indicate that the liver is divided into two sections: the capsule and the parenchyma, which comprises hepatic lobules and the hepatic portal area. The hepatic lobules include the central vein, hepatocellular cord, and the hepatic sinusoid. The hepatocellular cord is composed of hepatocytes, and Macrophagocytus stellatus (Kupffer cells) as well as endothelial cells reside within the hepatic sinusoid. ghrelin-ip cells were detected among both the Macrophagocytus stellatus and endothelial cells of the hepatic sinusoid in the African ostrich liver. In contrast, no ghrelinip cells were located within the hepatocytes or the hepatic portal area. These results clearly demonstrated the presence of ghrelin-ip cells in the liver of the African ostrich. Therefore, ghrelin may have a physiological function in the liver of the African ostrich.

RESUMEN: La ghrelina es el ligando endógeno para el receptor secretagogo de la hormona del crecimiento, y se ha encontrado en el hígado de múltiples vertebrados. A pesar que la ghrelina ha sido identificada en el tracto gastrointestinal de polluelos de avestruz africanas, poco se sabe sobre su distribución en el hígado de esta ave. En el presente estudio se investigó la distribución y características morfológicas de las células ghrelininmunopositivas (ghrelin-ip) en el hígado del avestruz africana mediante inmunohistoquímica. Nuestros resultados indican que el hígado se divide en dos secciones: la cápsula y el parénquima, que comprende los lóbulos hepáticos y el área portal hepática. Los lóbulos hepáticos incluyen la vena central, el cordón hepatocelular y el sinusoide hepático. El cordón hepatocelular está compuesto de hepatocitos y de Macrophagocytus stellatus (células de Kupffer) y las células endoteliales se localizan dentro del sinusoide hepático. Fueron detectacas células ghrelin-ip entre los Macrophagocytus stellatus y las células endoteliales del sinusoide hepático en el hígado de avestruz africana. En contraste, no se localizaron células de ghrelin-ip dentro de los hepatocitos o en el área portal hepática. Estos resultados demuestran claramente la presencia de células de ghrelin-ip en el hígado. Por lo tanto, la ghrelina puede tener una función fisiológica en el hígado de avestruz africana.
Descritores: Struthioniformes/anatomia & histologia
Grelina/metabolismo
Fígado/citologia
-Imuno-Histoquímica
Limites: Animais
Responsável: CL1.1 - Biblioteca Central


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Id: biblio-893018
Autor: Wang, Jia-xiang; Li, Peng; Zhang, Xiao-ting; Ye, Li-xun.
Título: Distribution and morphology of ghrelin-immunopositive cells in the thymus of the African ostrich / Distribución y morfología de células inmunopositivas de la ghrelina en el timo de la avestruz africana
Fonte: Int. j. morphol;35(2):541-546, June 2017. ilus.
Idioma: en.
Projeto: National Natural Science Foundation Project of China.
Resumo: Ghrelin, an endogenous ligand for the growth hormone secretagogue receptor, has been detected in the thymus of multiple vertebrates. However, little is known about its distribution in the thymus of the African ostrich. In this study, we evaluated the distribution and morphological characteristics of ghrelin-producing cells in the thymus of the African ostrich. Our results revealed that the thymus consists of a capsule and a parenchyma, which comprises the cortex and medulla. Compared to the cortex, the medulla had a fewer number of thymocytes and a greater number of epithelial cells. Additionally, three thymic corpuscles were identified. Ghrelin-immunopositive (ghrelin-ip) cells were detected both in the cortex and medulla of the African ostrich thymus, specifically within epithelial cells and thymic corpuscles. On the other hand, no ghrelin-ip cells were detected within thymocytes. These results clearly demonstrate the presence of ghrelin-ip cells in the thymus of the African ostrich.

La ghrelina, un ligando endógeno para el receptor secretor de la hormona del crecimiento, se ha detectado en el timo de múltiples vertebrados. Sin embargo, poco se sabe sobre su distribución en el timo de la avestruz africana. En este estudio se evaluó la distribución y características morfológicas de las células productoras de ghrelina en el timo de la avestruz africana. Nuestros resultados revelaron que el timo consiste en una cápsula y un parénquima, que comprende la corteza y la médula. En comparación con la corteza, se observó un número menor de timocitos en la médula y un mayor número de células epiteliales. Además, se identificaron tres corpúsculos tímicos. Se detectaron células inmunopositivas a la ghrelina (ghrelin-ip) tanto en la corteza como en la médula del timo de la avestruz africana, específicamente dentro de células epiteliales y corpúsculos tímicos. Por otra parte, no se detectaron células ghrelin-ip dentro de los timocitos. Estos resultados demuestran claramente la presencia de células ghrelin-ip en el timo de la avestruz africana.
Descritores: Timo/anatomia & histologia
Timo/metabolismo
Struthioniformes
Grelina/metabolismo
-Imuno-Histoquímica
Limites: Animais
Masculino
Feminino
Responsável: CL1.1 - Biblioteca Central


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Id: lil-641965
Autor: Fiszlejder, León.
Título: Ghrelin en la Amenorrea Hipotalámica Funcional relacionada con la desnutrición / Ghrelin in Functional Hypothalamic Amenorrohea related with undernourished
Fonte: Rev. argent. endocrinol. metab;47(1):27-35, ene.-abr. 2010.
Idioma: es.
Resumo: La amenorrea hipotalámica funcional (AHF)presenta un proceso de adaptación homeostática frente al disbalance energético (consumo/gasto calórico) . En este síndrome participan hormonas hipotalámicas y neuropéptidos periféricos provenientes del tejido graso (leptina, adiponectina y otras adipokinas), el tracto gastrointestinal superior Ghrelin y el páncreas (insulina). Este "circuito periférico” está funcionalmente interrelacionado con un "circuito central "o hipotalámico. El descenso de la leptina, (un péptido anorexígeno), potencia el efecto orexígeno del Ghrelin. Los niveles basales de esta citokina están elelevados en la AHF e inducen en el hipotálamo, un aumento de la actividad del CRH. Esta hormona, a su vez, inhibe la secreción pulsátil del GnRH. El Ghrelin, además de ser un potente GH secretagogo, influye en la secreción de insulina e interviene en la metabolización de los glúcidos y lípidos. Normalmente se puede observar un ascenso preprandial del Ghrelin, seguido por un descenso posprandial relacionado con la sensación de saciedad. En los obesos, este descenso es menos pronunciado y lento. En cambio, en las mujeres anoréxicas la caída de este orexígeno es más rápida. Ambos comportamientos resultan ser acciones desfavorables para sus respectivas patologías. La administración de Ghrelin induce un rápido incremento de la glucemia y reducción de los niveles de insulina. Este aumento de la glucemia precede al descenso de la insulina, sugiriendo que el Ghrelin podría estimular directamente la glucogenólisis en el hígado. La hiperghrelemia podría entonces ser considerada como un probable mecanismo defensivo tendiente a prevenir la hipoglucemia de estas pacientes amenorreicas y desnutridas. Por otro lado, la hiperghrelemia basal en la AHF sería un efecto secundario a la resistencia a la insulina, la cual a su vez, es inducida por los niveles elevados de los ácidos grasos provenientes de la lipólisis que se encuentra acentuada en estas pacientes. La correlación negativa entre la insulina y el Ghrelin probablemente es mediada por el sistema vagal, como lo sugiere el aumento del polipéptido pancreático, un marcador confiable de la actividad vagal. Adicionalmente, el hipercortisolismo de estas pacientes y posiblemente la somatostatina a través de sus receptores en el páncreas, podrían regular en forma negativa la actividad de los receptores de insulina, con el consiguiente incremento del Ghrelin. Conclusión: el ascenso del Ghrelin en la AHF y sus particulares interrelaciones con la insulina y el eje adrenal convergen para mantener el equilibrio homeostático, intentando facilitar así el aporte de metabolitos energéticos a estas pacientes desnutridas, frecuentemente osteosporóticas, inmunodeprimidas y con un alto riesgo cardiovascular.

Functional Hypothalamic Amenorrhoea (FHA) reflects a homeostatic adaptive process resulting from a negative energy balance (increased caloric output/expenditure with inadequate nutrient replenishment). Hypothalamic hormones and peripheral neuropeptides from the fat tissue (leptin, adiponectin and other adipokines), the upper gastrointestinal tract (Ghrelin) and pancreas (insulin) are involved in this syndrome. This "peripheral circuit” is functionally interrelated with the central hypothalamic circuit controlling appetite and satiety. The decrease in leptin, an anorexigenic signal, potentiates the orexigenic effect of Ghrelin (the basal levels of Ghrelin are elevated in FHA) and induces an increased CRH activity within the hypothalamus. This hormone, in turn, inhibits pulsatile GnRH secretion. Besides its potent GH secretagogue activity, Ghrelin is a peptide that influences insulin secretion and affects the metabolism of carbohydrates and lipids. Usually, a preprandial increase in Ghrelin levels is observed, followed by a postprandial decrease related to satiety. In obese subjects, this decrease is less marked and slower. Conversely, in anorexic women, the drop in this orexigenic peptide is faster. Both behaviours are unfavourable for the pathologies in which they occur. Ghrelin administration induces a rapid increase in blood glucose and a decrease in insulin levels. The fact that an increase in blood glucose precedes a decrease in insulin might suggest that Ghrelin could directly stimulate hepatic glucogenolysis activity. Thus, hyperghrelinemia might be considered as a potential defence mechanism to prevent hypoglycaemia in undernourished amenorrheic patients. Basal hyperghrelinemia in FHA is secondary to insulin resistance and it is induced by elevated free fatty acids resulting from lipolysis, a process that is increased in patients with FHA. The negative correlation between insulin and Ghrelin is probably mediated by the vagal system, as suggested by the increase in the pancreatic polypeptide, a reliable marker of vagal activity. Additionally, the hypercortisolism that typically occurs in patients with FHA, and possibly somastotatin through its pancreas receptors, could negatively regulate the activity of insulin receptors, with a consequent increase in Ghrelin. Conclusion: the increase in Ghrelin in FHA and its particular interrelations with insulin and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis reflect an attempt to maintain the homeostatic balance, contributing to facilitate the supply of energy metabolites in these undernourished patients. These patients commonly develop osteoporosis, immunosuppression and a high risk of cardiovascular disease.
Descritores: Desnutrição Energética
Grelina/análise
Grelina/metabolismo
-Desnutrição/fisiopatologia
Grelina/uso terapêutico
Homeostase
Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário/fisiologia
Insulina/análise
Insulina/metabolismo
Limites: Humanos
Feminino
Tipo de Publ: Revisão
Responsável: AR635.1 - FCVyS - Servicio de Información y Documentación


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Id: biblio-889100
Autor: Ren, Keyu; Yong, Chunming; Yuan, Hao; Cao, Bin; Zhao, Kun; Wang, Jin.
Título: TNF-α inhibits SCF, ghrelin, and substance P expressions through the NF-κB pathway activation in interstitial cells of Cajal
Fonte: Braz. j. med. biol. res = Rev. bras. pesqui. méd. biol;51(6):e7065, 2018. graf.
Idioma: en.
Resumo: Ulcerative colitis is a chronic inflammatory disease of the colon where intestinal motility is disturbed. Interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) are required to maintain normal intestinal motility. In the present study, we assessed the effect of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) on viability and apoptosis of ICC, as well as on the expression of stem cell factor (SCF), ghrelin, and substance P. ICC were derived from the small intestines of Swiss albino mice. Cell viability and apoptosis were measured using CCK-8 assay and flow cytometry, respectively. ELISA was used to measure the concentrations of IL-1β, IL-6, ghrelin, substance P, and endothelin-1. Quantitative RT-PCR was used to measure the expression of SCF. Western blotting was used to measure the expression of apoptosis-related proteins, interleukins, SCF, and NF-κB signaling pathway proteins. TNF-α induced inflammatory injury in ICC by decreasing cell viability and increasing apoptosis and levels of IL-1β and IL-6. TNF-α decreased the levels of SCF, ghrelin, and substance P, but had no effect on endothelin-1. TNF-α down-regulated expressions of SCF, ghrelin, and substance P by activating the NF-κB pathway in ICC. In conclusion, TNF-α down-regulated the expressions of SCF, ghrelin, and substance P via the activation of the NF-κB pathway in ICC.
Descritores: Grelina/metabolismo
Células Intersticiais de Cajal/efeitos dos fármacos
NF-kappa B/metabolismo
Fator de Células-Tronco/metabolismo
Substância P/metabolismo
Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/farmacologia
-Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos
Western Blotting
Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática
Motilidade Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos
Grelina/antagonistas & inibidores
Células Intersticiais de Cajal/metabolismo
Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real
Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
Limites: Animais
Masculino
Camundongos
Responsável: BR1.1 - BIREME



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