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Pesquisa : D08.811.913.050.134 [Categoria DeCS]
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Texto completo SciELO Chile
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Id: lil-771616
Autor: Álvarez-Hernández, Diego Abelardo; Garza-Mayén, Gilda Sofía; Vázquez-López, Rosalno.
Título: Quinolonas: Perspectivas actuales y mecanismos de resistencia / Quinolones: Nowadays perspectives and mechanisms of resistance
Fonte: Rev. chil. infectol;32(5):499-504, oct. 2015. tab.
Idioma: es.
Resumo: Quinolones are a family of synthetic broad-spectrum antimicrobial drugs whose target is the synthesis of DNA. They directly inhibit DNA replication by interacting with two enzymes; DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV. They have been widely used for the treatment of several community and hospital acquired infections, in the food processing industry and in the agricultural field, making the increasing incidence of quinolone resistance a frequent problem associated with constant exposition to diverse microorganisms. Resistance may be achieved by three non-exclusive mechanisms; through chromosomic mutations in the Quinolone Resistance-Determining Regions of DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV, by reducing the intracytoplasmic concentrations of quinolones actively or passively and by Plasmid-Mediated Quinolones-Resistance genes, [Qnr determinant genes of resistance to quinolones, variant gene of the aminoglycoside acetyltransferase (AAC(6')-Ib-c)] and encoding genes of efflux pumps (qepA and oqxAB)]. The future of quinolones is uncertain, however, meanwhile they continue to be used in an irrational way, increasing resistance to quinolones should remain as an area of primary priority for research.

Las quinolonas son un grupo de antimicrobianos sintéticos de amplio espectro, cuyo objetivo es la síntesis del ADN. Inhiben directamente su replicación al interactuar con dos enzimas; ADN girasa y topoisomerasa IV. Se han utilizado ampliamente para el tratamiento de infecciones intra y extra-hospitalarias, en el campo de la agricultura y en el procesamiento de alimentos, lo que hace que el incremento de resistencia a quinolonas sea un problema cada vez más frecuente, asociado a la constante exposición de diversos microorganismos. La resistencia puede alcanzarse mediante tres mecanismos no excluyentes entre sí; a través de mutaciones cromosómicas en genes codificantes que afectan las regiones determinantes de resistencia a quinolonas de ADN girasa y topoisomerasa IV, al reducir las concentraciones intracitoplásmicas de quinolonas de manera activa o pasiva y por genes de resistencia a quinolonas mediados por plásmidos [genes de resistencia a quinolonas determinates de qnr, gen variante de la aminoglucósido acetil transferasa (AAC(6’)-lb-cr) y genes codificadores de bombas de eflujo (qepAy oqxAB)]. El futuro de las quinolonas es incierto; sin embargo, mientras continúen empleándose para el manejo de infecciones en el ser humano, el incremento de resistencia a quinolonas debe permanecer como un área de importancia primaria para la investigación.
Descritores: Antibacterianos/farmacologia
Enterobacteriaceae/efeitos dos fármacos
Quinolonas/farmacologia
-Acetiltransferases/genética
DNA Girase/genética
DNA Topoisomerase IV/genética
Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética
Enterobacteriaceae/enzimologia
Enterobacteriaceae/genética
Limites: Humanos
Tipo de Publ: Revisão
Responsável: CL1.1 - Biblioteca Central


  2 / 11 LILACS  
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Texto completo SciELO Brasil
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Id: lil-682397
Autor: Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research; Liu, Y.; Wang, F.; Yu, X.L.; Miao, Z.M.; Wang, Z.C.; Chen, Y.; Wang, Y.G..
Título: Genetic analysis of the ELOVL6 gene polymorphism associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus
Fonte: Braz. j. med. biol. res = Rev. bras. pesqui. méd. biol;46(7):623-628, ago. 2013. tab, graf.
Idioma: en.
Resumo: Recent animal studies have indicated that overexpression of the elongation of long-chain fatty acids family member 6 (Elovl6) gene can cause insulin resistance and β-cell dysfunction. These are the major factors involved in the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). To identify the relationship between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) of ELOVL6 and T2DM pathogenesis, we conducted a case-control study of 610 Han Chinese individuals (328 newly diagnosed T2DM and 282 healthy subjects). Insulin resistance and islet first-phase secretion function were evaluated by assessment of insulin resistance in a homeostasis model (HOMA-IR) and an arginine stimulation test. Three SNPs of the ELOVL6 gene were genotyped with polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism, with DNA sequencing used to confirm the results. Only genotypes TT and CT of the ELOVL6 SNP rs12504538 were detected in the samples. Genotype CC was not observed. The T2DM group had a higher frequency of the C allele and the CT genotype than the control group. Subjects with the CT genotype had higher HOMA-IR values than those with the TT genotype. In addition, no statistical significance was observed between the genotype and allele frequencies of the control and T2DM groups for SNPs rs17041272 and rs6824447. The study indicated that the ELOVL6 gene polymorphism rs12504538 is associated with an increased risk of T2DM, because it causes an increase in insulin resistance.
Descritores: Acetiltransferases/genética
/genética
DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE TEMEFOS/genética
Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética
-China/etnologia
/etnologia
DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE TEMEFOS/etnologia
Genótipo
Resistência à Insulina/genética
Células Secretoras de Insulina/patologia
Polimorfismo de Fragmento de Restrição
Limites: Adulto
Feminino
Humanos
Masculino
Pessoa de Meia-Idade
Responsável: BR1.1 - BIREME


  3 / 11 LILACS  
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Texto completo SciELO Brasil
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Id: lil-643757
Autor: Paiva, Magna Cristina; Nascimento, Andréa Maria Amaral; Camargo, Ilana Lopes Baratella Cunha; Lima-Bittencourt, Cláudia Iracema; Nardi, Regina Maria Drummond.
Título: The first report of the qnrB19, qnrS1 and aac(6´)-Ib-cr genes in urinary isolates of ciprofloxacin-resistant Escherichia coli in Brazil
Fonte: Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz;107(5):687-689, Aug. 2012. tab.
Idioma: en.
Projeto: CNPq; . FAPEMIG; . UFMG. Pró-Reitoria de Pesquisa; . CNPq.
Resumo: In this study, we investigated the presence of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) genes among 101 ciprofloxacin-resistant urinary Escherichia coli isolates and searched for mutations in the quinolone-resistance-determining regions (QRDRs) of the DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV genes in PMQR-carrying isolates. Eight isolates harboured the qnr and aac(6')-Ib-cr genes (3 qnrS1, 1 qnrB19 and 4 aac(6')-Ib-cr). A mutational analysis of the QRDRs in qnr and aac(6')-Ib-cr-positive isolates revealed mutations in gyrA, parC and parE that might be associated with high levels of resistance to quinolones. No mutation was detected in gyrB. Rare gyrA, parC and parE mutations were detected outside of the QRDRs. This is the first report of qnrB19, qnrS1 and aac(6')-Ib-cr -carrying E. coli isolates in Brazil.
Descritores: Acetiltransferases/genética
Antibacterianos/farmacologia
Ciprofloxacino/farmacologia
Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla/genética
Proteínas de Escherichia coli/genética
Escherichia coli/genética
-DNA Girase
DNA Topoisomerase IV
Eletroforese em Gel de Campo Pulsado
Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos
Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana
Mutação
Quinolonas/farmacologia
Limites: Feminino
Humanos
Tipo de Publ: Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Responsável: BR1.1 - BIREME


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Id: lil-604286
Autor: Vaziri, Farzam; Peerayeh, Shahin Najar; Nejad, Qorban Behzadian; Farhadian, Abbas.
Título: The prevalence of aminoglycoside-modifying enzyme genes (aac (6')-I, aac (6')-II, ant (2")-I, aph (3')-VI) in Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Fonte: Clinics;66(9):1519-1522, 2011. ilus, tab.
Idioma: en.
Resumo: INTRODUCTION: Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) is one of the primary opportunistic pathogens responsible for nosocomial infections. Aminoglycosides are an import ant component of antipseudomonal chemotherapy. The inactivation of drugs by modifying enzymes is the most common mechanism of aminoglycoside resistance. OBJECTIVES: The inactivation of aminoglycosides by modifying enzymes is the primary resistance mechanism employed by P. aeruginosa. The aim of the present study was to investigate the occurrence of aminoglycoside resistance and the prevalence of four import ant modifying enzyme genes (aac (6')-I, aac (6')-II, ant (2")-I, aph (3')-VI) in P. aeruginosa in Iran. METHODS: A total of 250 clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa were collected from several hospitals in seven cities in Iran. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests (using the disk diffusion method and E-tests) were performed for all 250 isolates. In addition, all isolates were screened for the presence of modifying enzyme genes by polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: The resistance rates, as determined by the disk diffusion method, were as follows: gentamicin 43 percent, tobramycin 38 percent, and amikacin 24 percent. Of the genes examined, aac (6')-II (36 percent) was the most frequently identified gene in phenotypic resist ant isolates, followed by ant (2")-I, aph (3')-VI, and aac (6')-I. CONCLUSIONS: Aminoglycoside resistance in P. aeruginosa remains a signific ant problem in Iran. Therefore, there is considerable local surveillance of aminoglycoside resistance.
Descritores: Acetiltransferases/genética
Aminoglicosídeos/farmacologia
Antibacterianos/farmacologia
Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética
Canamicina Quinase/genética
Nucleotidiltransferases/genética
Pseudomonas aeruginosa/genética
-Aminoglicosídeos/metabolismo
Antibacterianos/metabolismo
DNA Bacteriano/genética
Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/efeitos dos fármacos
Irã (Geográfico)
Pseudomonas aeruginosa/efeitos dos fármacos
Limites: Feminino
Humanos
Masculino
Tipo de Publ: Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Responsável: BR1.1 - BIREME


  5 / 11 LILACS  
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Texto completo SciELO Chile
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Id: lil-456672
Autor: Sepúlveda A., Marcela; Bello T., Helia; Domínguez Y., Mariana; Mella M., Sergio; Zemelman Z., Raúl; González R., Gerardo.
Título: Identificación molecular de enzimas modificantes de aminoglucósidos en cepas de Enterococcus spp. aisladas en hospitales de la Octava Región de Chile / Molecular identification of aminoglycoside-modifying enzymes among strains of Enterococcus spp. isolated in hospitals of the VIII Region of Chile
Fonte: Rev. méd. Chile;135(5):566-572, mayo 2007. ilus, tab, graf.
Idioma: es.
Projeto: Universidad de Concepción. Dirección de Investigación.
Resumo: Background: Infectious diseases produced by Enterococcus spp, must be treated with a synergistic combination between a penicillin and an aminoglycoside. High level resistance to aminoglycosides is a serious therapeutic problem, since it predicts the loss of synergistic activity of this antimicrobial combination. Aim: To investigate the presence of genes encoding aminoglycoside-modifying enzymes (AMEs) among strains of Enterococcus spp with high level of resistance to aminoglycosides. Material and methods: The genes encoding some of the AMEs were investigated among 305 aminoglycoside-resistant strains of Enterococcus spp isolated in hospitals of the VIII region of Chile, by dot blot hybridization and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCS). Results: High level resistance to some aminoglycosides was observed in 104 strains (34.1 percent) and 93 of these harbored at íeast one of the genes encoding the investigated AMEs. Three genes were detected: aac(6)Ie-aph(2")Ia (14.8 percent) encoding for the enzyme AAC(6)Ie-APH(2")Ia (resistance to all aminoglycosides, except streptomycin); aph(3)IIIa (26 percent), and ant(6)la (28.5 percent) encoding for the phosphorylating enzymes APH(3)Ilia (resistance to kanamycin, amikacin and neomycin), and ANT(6)-la (resistance only to streptomycin), respectively. None of the strains harbored the gene ant (4) which encode for the enzyme ANT (4). Conclusion: The low frequency of strains harbouring the bifunctional enzyme (<15 percent), conferring an extended resistance profile to aminoglycosides, allows us to propose the empirical use of aminoglycoside-aminocyclitols, associated to a penicillin, in the treatment of serious infections produced by species of enterococci.
Descritores: Aminoglicosídeos/metabolismo
Antibacterianos/metabolismo
Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética
Enterococcus/enzimologia
-Acetiltransferases/genética
Aminoglicosídeos/farmacologia
Antibacterianos/farmacologia
Chile
Enterococcus/efeitos dos fármacos
Enterococcus/genética
Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Positivas/microbiologia
Hospitais
Dados de Sequência Molecular
Fosfotransferases (Aceptor do Grupo Álcool)/genética
Limites: Humanos
Responsável: BR1.1 - BIREME


  6 / 11 LILACS  
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Id: lil-409933
Autor: Jorge, L. F; Arias, T. D.
Título: La biodiversidad humana y sus efectos sobre la variabilidad farmacologica: enzimas CYP2D6 y NAT2 en poblaciones amerindias de Panama, Colombia y Costa Rica / Human biodiversity and its effects on the pharmacological variability: CYP2D6 and NAT2 enzymes in Amerind populations of Panama, Colombia and Costa Rica
Fonte: Rev. méd. Panamá;20(3):98-107, Sept. 1995.
Idioma: es.
Resumo: Human biodiversity originates partially from human microevolution, which have produced different populations. This biodiversity is responsible for most of the variability in drug response. We present the methodology employed in population pharmacology studies and general information about the CYP2D6 and NAT2 systems. We report results obtained in Embera and Ngawbe Amerindians, who are characterized by a low phenotypic and genotypic CYP2D6 diversity. In regard to NAT2, Amerindians are distinguished by a high allelic frequency of S3 and low ones of S1 and S2, situation which is reversed in Caucasians
Descritores: Acetiltransferases/genética
Variação Genética
Índios Centro-Americanos/genética
Índios Sul-Americanos/genética
Oxigenases de Função Mista/genética
Farmacogenética
/genética
SISTEMA ENZIMATICO DO CITOCROMO P-ALDEHYDES/genética
-Alelos
Acetiltransferases/metabolismo
Colômbia
Costa Rica
CITOCROMO P-ALDEHYDES CYPTEMEFOSDABDOMEN, ACUTE
Genótipo
Oxigenases de Função Mista/metabolismo
Panamá
Fenótipo
/metabolismo
SISTEMA ENZIMATICO DO CITOCROMO P-ALDEHYDES/metabolismo
Limites: Humanos
Tipo de Publ: Estudo Comparativo
Responsável: BR1.1 - BIREME


  7 / 11 LILACS  
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Id: lil-187390
Autor: Calandra, R. S; Rulli, S. B; Frumgieri, M. B; Suescun, M. O; Gonzalez-Calvar, S. L.
Título: Polyamines in the male reproductive system
Fonte: Acta physiol. pharmacol. ther. latinoam;46(4):209-22, 1996. ilus.
Idioma: en.
Resumo: This review covers some common aspects of the biosynthesis, interconversion pathways and biochemical functions of polyamines. A particular emphasis is given in experitemtal models as well as humans, to their presence in the male gonad, postate gland, seminal vesicles, epididymis and semen. The interaction between hormones (androgens, LH, FSH and PRL) and the main enzymes involved on the polymine biosynthesis, and the relationship of these compounds on cell growth and differentation, are also discussed. In this regard, an attention is offered to the potential role of polymines during early spermatogenesis stages and the use of some enzymed involved in their biosynthesis as sensitive and specific markers of the action of androgens and antiandrogens in the epididymis. Finally, a special issue is addressed to the controversial information documented on polymines, their oxidation products and the relationship with male fertility.
Descritores: Poliaminas Biogênicas/fisiologia
Epididimo/metabolismo
Ornitina/metabolismo
Próstata/metabolismo
Putrescina/biossíntese
Sêmen/metabolismo
Glândulas Seminais/metabolismo
Espermidina/biossíntese
Espermina/biossíntese
Testículo/metabolismo
-Acetiltransferases/metabolismo
Poliaminas Biogênicas/metabolismo
Mamíferos
Mesocricetus
Limites: Humanos
Masculino
Animais
Cricetinae
Camundongos
Ratos
Tipo de Publ: Revisão
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Responsável: BR1.1 - BIREME


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Id: lil-87716
Autor: Ligueros S., Mónica; Saavedra C., Hernán; Neira U., Susana; Cruz Coke Madrid, Ricardo; Saavedra G., Alvaro; Kramer A., Verónica; Gelman B., Miriam; Núñez, América; Prieto D., Juan.
Título: Medicamentos antituberculosos: influencias farmacogenéticas en el desarrollo de reacciones adversas / Antitubercular agents: pharmacogenetic factors in the development of adverse effects
Fonte: Rev. méd. Chile;118(7):727-35, jul. 1990. tab, ilus.
Idioma: es.
Projeto: FONDECYT.
Descritores: Acetiltransferases
Antituberculosos/efeitos adversos
-Acetilação
Acetiltransferases/genética
Acetiltransferases/metabolismo
Fosfatase Alcalina/genética
Fosfatase Alcalina/metabolismo
Antituberculosos/metabolismo
Aspartato Aminotransferases/genética
Aspartato Aminotransferases/metabolismo
Chile
Isoniazida/metabolismo
Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos
Fígado/enzimologia
Fenótipo
Estudos Prospectivos
Limites: Adolescente
Adulto
Pessoa de Meia-Idade
Humanos
Masculino
Feminino
Responsável: CL1.1 - Biblioteca Central


  9 / 11 LILACS  
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Id: lil-65588
Autor: Arias, Tomás D; Jorge, Lucía F; Nuñez, Gonzalo; Inaba, Tadanobu.
Título: Estudio preliminar sobre el fenotipo de acetilador de los amerindios Teribes / Preliminar study on the phenotype of acetylator of Teribe Amerindians
Fonte: Rev. méd. Panamá;12(1):30-6, ene. 1987. tab, ilus.
Idioma: es.
Resumo: El estudio de la capacidad de acetilación en 62 voluntarios teribes, procedentes de Sieykin, Sieyic y Santa Rosa, demonstró que 48.4% eran acetiladores rápidos y 51.6%, acetiladores lentos. Al comprobar estos resultados con los que obtuvimos en una población cuna, en la cual encontramos que el 78% era de acetiladores rápidos, se observa que tanto la distribución de los sujetos estudiados, según el porcentaje de isoniacida que acetilaron, como el porcentaje de acetiladores lentos y rápidos indican que, en ambos grupos, existen diferencias en la actividad de la N-acetiltransferasa. Estos resultados sugieren que pueden existir diferencias fundamentales entre los diferentes grupos amerindios, en la habilidade de biotransformar los medicamentos
Descritores: Acetilação
Índios Centro-Americanos
Isoniazida/metabolismo
-Acetiltransferases/metabolismo
Panamá
Fenótipo
Limites: Humanos
Masculino
Feminino
Tipo de Publ: Estudo Comparativo
Responsável: BR1.1 - BIREME


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Id: lil-29121
Autor: Broussain, Maria Teresa; Pinto, María Eugenia; Cona, Erna.
Título: Resistencia de bacilos Gram negativos frente a seis aminoglicósidos / Resistance of Gram-negative bacilli to 6 aminoglycosides
Fonte: Rev. méd. Chile;113(12):1210-6, dic. 1985. tab.
Idioma: es.
Descritores: Antibacterianos/farmacologia
Bactérias Gram-Negativas/efeitos dos fármacos
Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos
-Acetiltransferases/metabolismo
Aminoglicosídeos/farmacologia
Bactérias Gram-Negativas/enzimologia
Nucleotidiltransferases/metabolismo
Fosfotransferases/metabolismo
Plasmídeos
Responsável: BR1.1 - BIREME



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