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Id: biblio-1021043
Autor: Mei, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Xianqin; Khan, Md. Asaduzzaman; Imani, Saber; Liu, Xiaoyan; Zou, Hui; Wei, Chunli; Fu, Junjiang.
Título: Genetic analysis of Penthorum chinense Pursh by improved RAPD and ISSR in China
Fonte: Electron. j. biotechnol;30:6-11, nov. 2017. ilus, tab.
Idioma: en.
Projeto: National Natural Science Foundation of China; . Research Foundation of the Science and Technology Department of Sichuan Province Joint Program of the Science & Technology Office; . of Luzhou and the Science & Technology Department of Sichuan.
Resumo: Background: Penthorum chinense Pursh (P. chinense) is a well-known traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) plant, which has long been used for the prevention and treatment of hepatic diseases. This study aimed to genetically characterize the varieties of P. chinense from different geographic localities of China by random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD)-PCR technique and verified with inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers. Results: The P. chinense samples were collected from nine different geographic localities. Previously improved RAPD and ISSR markers were utilized for genetic analysis using DNA amplification. The genetic relationship dendrogram was obtained by conducting cluster analysis to the similarity coefficient of improved RAPD and ISSR markers. Improved RAPD yielded 185 scorable amplified products, of which 68.6% of the bands were polymorphic, with an average amplification of 9.25 bands per primer. The ISSR markers revealed 156 alleles with 7.8 bands per primers, where 59.7% bands were polymorphic. Furthermore, the similarity coefficient ranges of RAPD and ISSR markers were 0.71­0.91 and 0.66­0.89, respectively. Conclusions: This study indicated that improved RAPD and ISSR methods are useful tools for evaluating the genetic diversity and characterizing P. chinense. Our findings can provide the theoretical basis for cultivar identification, standardization, and molecular-assisted breeding of P. chinense for medicinal use.
Descritores: Plantas Medicinais/genética
Magnoliopsida/genética
-Polimorfismo Genético
Variação Genética
Marcadores Genéticos
China
DNA de Plantas/genética
Técnica de Amplificação ao Acaso de DNA Polimórfico
Repetições de Microssatélites
Medicina Tradicional Chinesa
Responsável: CL1.1 - Biblioteca Central


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Id: biblio-1009005
Autor: Shen, Zhan; Zhang, Kaiquan; Ma, Luyi; Duan, Jie; Ao, Yan.
Título: Analysis of the genetic relationships and diversity among 11 populations of Xanthoceras sorbifolia using phenotypic and microsatellite marker data
Fonte: Electron. j. biotechnol;26:33-39, Mar. 2017. ilus, tab, graf.
Idioma: en.
Projeto: International S&T Cooperation Program of China.
Resumo: Background: Assessments of genetic diversity are essential for germplasm characterization and exploitation. Molecular markers are valuable tools for exploring genetic variation and identifying germplasm. They play key roles in a Xanthoceras sorbifolia breeding program. Results: We analyzed the genetic diversity of populations of this species using 23 simple sequence repeat (SSR) loci and data on kernel oil content. The 11 populations included in the study were distributed across a large geographic range in China. The kernel oil content differed significantly among populations. The SSR marker analysis detected high genetic diversity among the populations. All SSRs were polymorphic, and we identified 80 alleles across the populations. The number of alleles at each locus ranged from two to six, averaging 3.48 per primer pair. The polymorphism information content values ranged from 0.35 to 0.70, averaging 0.51. Expected heterozygosity, observed heterozygosity, and Shannon's information index calculations detected large genetic variations among populations of different provenance. The high average number of alleles per locus and the allelic diversity observed in the set of genotypes analyzed indicated that the genetic base of this species was relatively wide. The statistically significant positive correlation between genetic and geographic distances suggested adaptations to local conditions. Conclusions: Microsatellite markers can be used to efficiently distinguish X. sorbifolia populations and assess their genetic diversity. The information we have provided will contribute to the conservation and management of this important plant genetic resource.
Descritores: Variação Genética
Repetições de Microssatélites
Sapindaceae/genética
-Fenótipo
Polimorfismo Genético
Sementes/genética
Óleos Vegetais
Marcadores Genéticos
China
Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase
DNA de Plantas
Responsável: CL1.1 - Biblioteca Central


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Id: biblio-1009846
Autor: Taski-Ajdukovic, Ksenija; Nagl, Nevena; Curcic, Zivko; Zoric, Miroslav.
Título: Estimation of genetic diversity and relationship in sugar beet pollinators based on SSR markers
Fonte: Electron. j. biotechnol;27:1-7, May. 2017. tab, ilus, graf.
Idioma: en.
Resumo: Background: Genetic diversity studies are important for the selection of parents with a greater combination capacity that, when crossed, increase the chances of obtaining superior genotypes. Thus, 26 polymorphic simple sequence repeat (SSR) primers were used to assess the genetic diversity of 140 individual samples from 12 diploid sugar beet pollinators (pollen parents) and two cytoplasmic male sterile (cms) lines (seed parents). Eight pollinators originated from three research centers in the United States Department of Agriculture, while four pollinators and cms lines were from the Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops, Novi Sad, Serbia. Results: In total, 129 alleles were obtained, with a mean of 3.2 alleles per SSR marker. The observed heterozygosity ranged from 0.00 to 0.87 (mean = 0.30). Expected heterozygosity and Shannon's information index were the lowest for marker BQ590934 and the highest for markers SB15s and FDSB502s; the same markers were the most informative, with PIC values of 0.70 and 0.69, respectively. Three private alleles were found in pollinator EL0204; two in pollinator C51; and one in pollinators NS1, FC221, and C93035. Molecular variance showed that 77.34% of the total genetic variation was attributed to intrapopulation variability. Cluster and correspondence analysis grouped sugar beet pollinators according to the breeding centers, with few exceptions, which indicate that certain amount of germplasm was shared, although centers had their own breeding programs. Conclusions: The results indicate that this approach can improve the selection of pollinators as suitable parental components and could further be applied in sugar beet breeding programs.
Descritores: Pólen/genética
Variação Genética
Beta vulgaris/genética
-Polimorfismo Genético
Sementes/genética
Seleção Genética
Cruzamento
Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase
DNA de Plantas/genética
Repetições de Microssatélites
Polinização
Genótipo
Responsável: CL1.1 - Biblioteca Central


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Id: biblio-964564
Autor: Mesquita, Ana Carolina Oliveira; Figueiró, Adriana de Andrade; Couto, Karla Rodrigues; Oliveira, Marília de Freitas; Juliatti, Fernando Cezar.
Título: Optimization of soybean dna extraction under different storage and development periods / Otimização de extração de dna de soja sob diferentes períodos de armazenamento e desenvolvimento
Fonte: Biosci. j. (Online);31(4):1102-1106, july/aug. 2015.
Idioma: en.
Resumo: DNA extraction of plants with high quality is very important to researches in molecular biology. Several extraction protocols have been used to obtain soybean DNA; however, there is a lack of papers about extraction protocols optimization and the best developmental stage of the plant to collect them. Therefore, the main purpose of the study was to extract high quantity and quality of DNA from fresh or frozen soybean samples, using different protocols. Moreover, we analyzed the best developmental stage of the plant to do the extraction. Fresh leaves or leaves kept for two years in the ultra-freezer were submitted to the DNA extraction protocols: Haberer et al., 1996 (modified); second modification from Haberer et al., 1996; Murray & Thompson, 1980 (modified) e Doyle & Doyle, 1990 (modified). Modified protocol of Doyle & Doyle was used to value the best stage to collect the leaves to do the DNA extraction. The samples were collected in the stages of development VC, V1, V2, V3, V4 and R5. The experiments were conducted in completely randomized design with 10 samples per treatment. The data underwent variance analysis and the averages were compared by the Tukey test (p<0.05). Through Doyle & Doyle, 1990 and Haberer et al., 1996 modified protocols, for both fresh and frozen samples, it was possible to obtain a higher total DNA concentration if compared to the other tested protocols. However, the quality of DNAs extracted by the protocol Doyle & Doyle, 1990 (modified) was superior, due to a minor molecular degradation. Besides that, the extractions made with these protocols have shown to be more efficient using frozen leaves' tissue. Higher DNA concentrations were obtained analyzing VC samples; however, there were no statistical differences between the stages VC, V2 and V3. It is suggested thereby to use modified of Doyle & Doyle for DNA extraction from soybean leaves in V2 and V3 stages of development from frozen samples, providing the collect of a large number of samples and its storage until the analysis.

A extração de DNA de plantas com alta qualidade é de suma importância para pesquisas em biologia molecular. Diversos protocolos de extração vêm sendo utilizados para a obtenção de DNA de soja; contudo, há uma carência de trabalhos de otimização de protocolos de extração e de escolha do melhor estádio de desenvolvimento da planta para a coleta. Desta forma, o objetivo do estudo foi extrair DNA com alta quantidade e qualidade a partir de amostras frescas ou congeladas de soja, utilizando diferentes protocolos de extração. Além disso, foi analisado o melhor estádio de desenvolvimento da planta para a extração. Folhas frescas e armazenadas por cerca de dois anos em ultrafreezer foram submetidas aos protocolos de extração de DNA: Haberer et al., 1996 (modificado); segunda modificação de Haberer et al., 1996; Murray & Thompson, 1980 (modificado) e Doyle & Doyle, 1990 (modificado). Para a avaliação do melhor estádio de coleta das folhas para a extração de DNA foi utilizado o protocolo de Doyle & Doyle modificado. As coletas de amostras foram realizadas nos estádios de desenvolvimento VC, V1, V2, V3, V4 e R5. Os experimentos foram conduzidos em delineamento inteiramente casualizado com 10 amostras por tratamento. Os dados foram submetidos à análise de variância e as médias comparadas pelo teste de Turkey (p<0,05). Através dos protocolos modificados de Doyle & Doyle, 1990 e Haberer et al., 1996, tanto para amostras frescas como para congeladas, foi possível obter uma maior concentração de DNA total se comparado aos demais protocolos testados. Porém, a qualidade dos DNAs extraídos pelo protocolo Doyle & Doyle, 1990 (modificado) foi superior, devido a menor degradação da molécula. Além disso, as extrações efetuadas com estes protocolos se mostraram mais eficientes quando foram utilizados tecidos foliares congelados. Maiores concentrações de DNA foram obtidas quando amostras em VC foram analisadas; porém, não houve diferença estatística entre os estádios VC, V2 e V3. Assim, sugere-se a utilização do protocolo modificado de Doyle & Doyle para extração de DNA de folhas de soja nos estádios de desenvolvimento V2 e V3 a partir de amostras congeladas, viabilizando a coleta de um grande número de amostras e o seu armazenamento até a análise.
Descritores: Soja
Manejo de Espécimes
DNA de Plantas
Otimização
Biologia Molecular
Responsável: BR396.1 - Biblioteca Central


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Id: lil-727029
Autor: Burgdorf, R.J.; Laing, M.D.; Morris, C.D.; Jamal-Ally, S.F..
Título: A procedure to evaluate the efficiency of surface sterilization methods in culture-independent fungal endophyte studies
Fonte: Braz. j. microbiol;45(3):977-983, July-Sept. 2014. ilus, tab.
Idioma: en.
Resumo: Extraneous DNA interferes with PCR studies of endophytic fungi. A procedure was developed with which to evaluate the removal of extraneous DNA. Wheat (Triticum aestivum) leaves were sprayed with Saccharomyces cerevisiae and then subjected to physical and chemical surface treatments. The fungal ITS1 products were amplified from whole tissue DNA extractions. ANOVA was performed on the DNA bands representing S. cerevisiae on the agarose gel. Band profile comparisons using permutational multivariate ANOVA (PERMANOVA) and non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) were performed on DGGE gel data, and band numbers were compared between treatments. Leaf surfaces were viewed under variable pressure scanning electron microscopy (VPSEM). Yeast band analysis of the agarose gel showed that there was no significant difference in the mean band DNA quantity after physical and chemical treatments, but they both differed significantly (p < 0.05) from the untreated control. PERMANOVA revealed a significant difference between all treatments (p < 0.05). The mean similarity matrix showed that the physical treatment results were more reproducible than those from the chemical treatment results. The NMDS showed that the physical treatment was the most consistent. VPSEM indicated that the physical treatment was the most effective treatment to remove surface microbes and debris. The use of molecular and microscopy methods for the post-treatment detection of yeast inoculated onto wheat leaf surfaces demonstrated the effectiveness of the surface treatment employed, and this can assist researchers in optimizing their surface sterilization techniques in DNA-based fungal endophyte studies.
Descritores: Endófitos/isolamento & purificação
Técnicas Microbiológicas/métodos
Esterilização/métodos
Triticum/microbiologia
-Eletroforese em Gel de Gradiente Desnaturante
DNA Fúngico/genética
DNA Fúngico/isolamento & purificação
DNA de Plantas/química
DNA de Plantas/genética
DNA Espaçador Ribossômico/genética
DNA Espaçador Ribossômico/isolamento & purificação
Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura
Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase
Folhas de Planta/microbiologia
Folhas de Planta/ultraestrutura
Propriedades de Superfície
Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética
Saccharomyces cerevisiae/isolamento & purificação
Saccharomyces cerevisiae/ultraestrutura
Triticum/ultraestrutura
Tipo de Publ: Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Responsável: BR1.1 - BIREME


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Id: lil-715469
Autor: de Viana, Marta L.; Giamminola, Eugenia; Russo, Roberta; Ciaccio, Mirella.
Título: Morphology and genetics of Anadenanthera colubrina var. cebil (Fabaceae) tree from Salta (Northwestern Argentina) / Morfología y genética del árbol Anadenanthera colubrina var. cebil (Fabaceae) en Salta (noroeste de Argentina)
Fonte: Rev. biol. trop;62(2):757-767, Jun.-Aug. 2014. ilus, graf, tab.
Idioma: en.
Resumo: Anadenanthera colubrina var. cebil is an important tree species for its cultural, economic, and medicinal uses in South America. In order to characterize A. colubrina populations, we collected fruits from four different sites (San Bernardo, El Cebilar, Metán and El Gallinato) within the species distribution area in Salta Province, Northwestern Argentina. For this, a total of 75 fruits and seeds per site were collected and described using morphological (fruits size and weight; seed weight and number per fruit) and genetic descriptors (ribo-somic DNA extraction and PCR; nucleotide alignment and phylogenetic analysis) with standard protocols. Our results showed that the San Bernardo population had the heaviest fruits and seeds (7.89±0.2g and 0.19±0.002, respectively), and the Cebilar population the lightest (6.25±0.18g and 0.15±0.002g, respectively). Fruits and seeds from Metán and El Gallinato showed similar and intermediate values. The proportion viable (39 to 55%) and aborted (43 to 57%) seeds was different, while the proportion of predated (1.7 to 4.2%) seeds was similar among populations. The genetic analysis showed variability of ITS sequences within the especies, and also when compared with the same Brazilian species. Both, morphologic and genetic descriptors showed a high level of similarity between San Bernardo and Metán, and between El Cebilar and El Gallinato populations. Further studies are needed to assess levels of phenotypic and genetic variability within and between populations of different plant species, since this information is crucial for biodiversity and germplasm long-term conservation.

Anadenanthera colubrina var. cebil es una especie arbórea de importancia cultural, económica y medicinal en Sur América. Para estudiar las poblaciones de A. colubrina, recolectamos frutos de cuatro sitios diferentes dentro del área de distribución de la especie en la provincia de Salta (Noroeste de Argentina) y se caracterizaron con base en descriptores morfológicos (tamaño de frutos, semillas y peso y número de semillas por fruto) y genéticos (ADN ribosómico). La población de San Bernardo presentó los frutos y semillas más pesados y la de El Cebilar los más livianos. Los frutos y semillas de Metán y El Gallinato fueron similares e intermedios. La proporción de semillas viables y abortadas fue similar en todas las poblaciones, mientras que la de semillas depredadas fue diferente. El análisis genético mostró variabilidad de las secuencias ITS dentro de la especie y también en comparación con la misma especie de Brasil. Los descriptores morfológicos y genéticos mostraron un mayor nivel de similitud entre las poblaciones de San Bernardo y Metán y entre El Cebilar y El Gallinato. Se necesitan más estudios para evaluar los niveles de variabilidad fenotípica y genética dentro y entre poblaciones de diferentes especies de plantas, ya que esta información es fundamental para la conservación de la biodiversidad y del germoplasma a largo plazo.
Descritores: Biodiversidade
Fabaceae/genética
Frutas/genética
Sementes/genética
-Argentina
Sequência de Bases
DNA de Plantas
DNA Espaçador Ribossômico/genética
Fabaceae/anatomia & histologia
Fabaceae/classificação
Frutas/anatomia & histologia
Frutas/classificação
Filogenia
Análise de Sequência de DNA
Sementes/anatomia & histologia
Sementes/classificação
Tipo de Publ: Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Responsável: CR1.1 - BINASSS - Biblioteca Nacional de Salud y Seguridad Social


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Id: lil-688573
Autor: Ragonezi, Carla; Caldeira, A. Teresa; Rosário Martins, M.; Salvador, Cátia; Santos-Silva, Celeste; Ganhão, Elsa; Klimaszewska, Krystyna; Zavattieri, Amely.
Título: Molecular approach to characterize ectomycorrhizae fungi from Mediterranean pine stands in Portugal
Fonte: Braz. j. microbiol;44(2):657-665, 2013. ilus, tab.
Idioma: en.
Projeto: Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology; . FEDER Funds. Operational Programme for Competitiveness Factors - COMPETE; . National Funds. FCT - Foundation for Science and Technology under the Strategic Project.
Resumo: Stone pine (Pinus pinea L.), like other conifers, forms ectomycorrhizas (ECM), which have beneficial impact on plant growth in natural environments and forest ecosystems. An in vitro co-culture of stone pine microshoots with pure mycelia of isolated ECM sporocarps was used to overcome the root growth cessation not only in vitro but also to improve root development during acclimation phase. Pisolithus arhizus (Scop.) Rauschert and Lactarius deliciosus (L. ex Fr.) S.F. Gray fungi, were collected, pure cultured and used in in vitro co-culture with stone pine microshoots. Samples of P. arhizus and L. deliciosus for the in vitro co-cultures were collected from the pine stands southwest Portugal. The in situ characterization was based on their morphotypes. To confirm the identity of the collected material, ITS amplification was applied using the pure cultures derived from the sporocarps. Additionally, a molecular profile using PCR based genomic fingerprinting comparison was executed with other genera of Basidiomycetes and Ascomycetes. Our results showed the effectiveness of the techniques used to amplify DNA polymorphic sequences, which enhances the ­characte­rization of the genetic profile of ECM fungi and also provides an option to verify the fungus identity at any stage of plant mycorrhization.
Descritores: Micorrizas/classificação
Micorrizas/isolamento & purificação
Pinus/microbiologia
-Análise por Conglomerados
DNA Fúngico/química
DNA Fúngico/genética
DNA de Plantas/química
DNA de Plantas/genética
DNA Espaçador Ribossômico/química
DNA Espaçador Ribossômico/genética
Dados de Sequência Molecular
Micorrizas/genética
Micorrizas/crescimento & desenvolvimento
Filogenia
Portugal
Análise de Sequência de DNA
Tipo de Publ: Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Responsável: BR1.1 - BIREME


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Id: lil-674083
Autor: Kumar, Sushil; Sharma, Ramavtar; Kumar, Vinod; Vyas, Govind K.; Rathore, Abhishek.
Título: Combining molecular-marker and chemical analysis of Capparis deciduas (Capparaceae) in the Thar Desert of Western Rajasthan (India)
Fonte: Rev. biol. trop;61(1):311-320, Mar. 2013. ilus.
Idioma: en.
Resumo: The Thar Desert, a very inhospitable place, accommodates only plant species that survive acute drought, unpredictable precipitation, and those can grow in the limited moisture of sandy soils. Capparis decidua is among one of the few plants able to grow well under these conditions. This species is highly exploited and has been naturally taken, as local people use it for various purposes like food, timber and fuel, although, no management or conservation efforts have been established. The present study was conducted in this arid area of Western Rajasthan (India) with the aim to obtain preliminary molecular information about this group of plants. We evaluated diversity among 46 samples of C. decidua using chemical parameters and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers. Fourteen chemical parameters and eight minerals (total 22 variables) of this species fruits were estimated. A total of 14 RAPD primers produced 235 band positions, of which 81.27% were polymorphic. Jaccard s similarity coefficients for RAPD primers ranged from 0.34 to 0.86 with a mean genetic similarity of 0.50. As per observed coefficient of variation, NDF (Neutral Detergent Fiber) content was found to be the most variable trait followed by starch and soluble carbohydrate. The Manhattan dissimilarity coefficient values for chemical parameters ranged between 0.02-0.31 with an average of 0.092. The present study revealed a very low correlation (0.01) between chemical parameters and RAPD-based matrices. The low correlation between chemical- and RAPD-based matrices indicated that the two methods were different and highly variable. The chemical-based diversity will assist in selection of nutritionally rich samples for medicinal purpose, while genetic diversity to face natural challenges and find sustainable ways to promote conservation for future use.

El desierto de Thar, un lugar muy inhóspito, alberga sólo a las especies de plantas capaces de resistir a condiciones de sequía extrema, a las precipitaciones impredecibles, y a las plantas que pueden crecer en la humedad limitada de los suelos arenosos. Capparis decidua se encuentra entre una las pocas plantas capaces de crecer bien en estas condiciones. Esta especie es altamente explotada y se ha tomado de forma natural, así los habitantes locales las han usado para varios propósitos, como alimento, madera y combustible, aunque sin ningún programa de manejo o esfuerzo por conservación. El presente estudio se llevó a cabo en esta zona árida del oeste de Rajastán (India) con el objetivo de obtener información molecular preliminar sobre este grupo de plantas. Se evaluó la diversidad entre 46 muestras de C. decidua usando parámetros químicos y marcadores de ADN polimórfico amplificado al azar (RAPD por sus siglas en inglés). Catorce parámetros químicos y ocho minerales (22 variables en total) de los frutos de esta especie fueron estimados. Un total de 14 cebadores para RAPD produjeron 235 posiciones de bandas, de las cuales 81.27% fueron polimórficas. El coeficiente de similitud de Jaccard para los cebadores del RAPD varió entre 0.34 y 0.86 con un promedio de similitud genética de 0.50. De acuerdo con el coeficiente de variación observado, se encontró que el contenido de NDF fue el rasgo más variable, seguido por el almidón y los carbohidratos solubles. Los valores del coeficiente de disimilitud de Manhattan para los parámetros químicos osciló entre 0.02-0.31 con un promedio de 0.092. El presente estudio reveló una correlación muy baja (0.01) entre los parámetros químicos y las matrices basadas en RAPD. La baja correlación entre las matrices químicas y la basada en RAPD indicó que los dos métodos fueron diferentes y altamente variables. El estudio de la diversidad basada en su química ayudará en la selección de muestras nutricionalmente ricas para fines medicinales, mientras que la diversidad genética ayudará a enfrentar los desafíos naturales y encontrar formas sostenibles para promover la conservación de esta plana para uso futuro.
Descritores: Biodiversidade
Capparis/química
Capparis/genética
DNA de Plantas/genética
-Capparis/classificação
Clima Desértico
Índia
Técnica de Amplificação ao Acaso de DNA Polimórfico
Tipo de Publ: Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Responsável: CR1.1 - BINASSS - Biblioteca Nacional de Salud y Seguridad Social


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Id: lil-662221
Autor: Karasawa, Marines M. G; Vencovsky, Roland; Silva, Cynthia M; Cardim, Daruska C; Bressan, Eduardo de A; Oliveira, Giancarlo C.X; Veasey, Elizabeth A..
Título: Comparison of microsatellites and isozymes in genetic diversity studies of Oryza glumaepatula (Poaceae) populations
Fonte: Rev. biol. trop;60(4):1463-1478, Dec. 2012. graf, mapas, tab.
Idioma: en.
Resumo: The study of the genetic structure of wild plant populations is essential for their management and conservation. Several DNA markers have been used in such studies, as well as isozyme markers. In order to provide a better comprehension of the results obtained and a comparison between markers which will help choose tools for future studies in natural populations of Oryza glumaepatula, a predominantly autogamous species, this study used both isozymes and microsatellites to assess the genetic diversity and genetic structure of 13 populations, pointing to similarities and divergences of each marker, and evaluating the relative importance of the results for studies of population genetics and conservation. A bulk sample for each population was obtained, by sampling two to three seeds of each plant, up to a set of 50 seeds. Amplified products of eight SSR loci were electrophoresed on non-denaturing polyacrylamide gels, and the fragments were visualized using silver staining procedure. Isozyme analyses were conducted in polyacrylamide gels, under a discontinuous system, using six enzymatic loci. SSR loci showed higher mean levels of genetic diversity (A=2.83, p=0.71, A P=3.17, Ho=0.081, He=0.351) than isozyme loci (A=1.20, p=0.20, A P=1.38, Ho=0.006, He=0.056). Interpopulation genetic differentiation detected by SSR loci (R ST=0.631, equivalent to F ST=0.533) was lower than that obtained with isozymes (F ST=0.772). However, both markers showed high deviation from Hardy-Weinberg expectations (F IS=0.744 and 0.899, respectively for SSR and isozymes). The mean apparent outcrossing rate for SSR ( =0.14) was higher than that obtained using isozymes ( =0.043), although both markers detected lower levels of outcrossing in Amazonia compared to the Pantanal. The migrant number estimation was also higher for SSR (Nm=0.219) than isozymes (Nm=0.074), although a small number for both markers was expected due to the mode of reproduction of this species, defined ...

El estudio de la estructura genética de poblaciones de plantas silvestres es esencial para su manejo y conservación. Varios marcadores de ADN e isoenzimas se han utilizado en este tipo de análisis. Con el fin de proporcionar una mejor comprensión de los resultados obtenidos y saber que marcador codominante elegir para futuros estudios en poblaciones naturales de Oryza glumaepatula, este trabajo busco evaluar y comparar dos marcadores de ADN, isoenzimas y microsatélites, en la diversidad y estructura genética de 13 poblaciones, destacando las similitudes y divergencias de cada marcador, así como la importancia relativa de los resultados en genética de poblaciones y conservación. Para los SSR, ocho loci SSR fueron evaluados, y los fragmentos se visualizaron utilizando el procedimiento de coloración con plata. Los análisis de isoenzimas se realizaron en geles de poliacrilamida, en los seis loci enzimáticos. Los loci SSR mostraron mayores niveles de diversidad genética que los loci isoenzimáticos, en promedio. La diferenciación genética entre los loci SSR (R ST=0.631, equivalente a F ST=0.533) fue inferior a la obtenida con las isoenzimas (F ST=0.772). Ambos marcadores mostraron alta desviación del equilibrio de Hardy-Weinberg (F IS=0.744 y 0.899, respectivamente, para SSR e isoenzimas). La tasa media aparente de cruzamiento para SSR ( =0.14) fue mayor que la obtenida con isoenzimas ( =0.043), aunque ambos marcadores detectaron niveles más bajos en la tasa de fecundación cruzada para la Amazonia, en comparación con la región del Pantanal. La estimación de número de migrantes también fue mayor para los SSR (Nm=0.219) que en isoenzimas (Nm=0.074). No se obtuvo ninguna correlación entre las distancias genéticas y geográficas para los SSR, y para las isoenzimas se obtuvo una correlación positiva entre las distancias genéticas y geográficas. Llegamos a la conclusión de que estos marcadores son divergentes en la detección de los parámetros de la diversidad genética en O. glumaepatula y que los microsatélites son más eficientes para detectar la información a nivel intra-poblacional, mientras que las isoenzimas son más potentes para detectar la diversidad entre poblaciones.
Descritores: Variação Genética/genética
Isoenzimas/análise
Repetições de Microssatélites/genética
Oryza/enzimologia
Oryza/genética
-Brasil
DNA de Plantas/genética
Marcadores Genéticos
Polimorfismo Genético
Tipo de Publ: Estudo Comparativo
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Responsável: CR1.1 - BINASSS - Biblioteca Nacional de Salud y Seguridad Social


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Id: lil-657760
Autor: Arias, Dulce M.; Albarrán-Lara, Ana L.; González-Rodríguez, Antonio; Peñaloza-Ramírez, Juan; Dorado, Oscar; Leyva, Esaú.
Título: Genetic diversity and structure of wild populations of the tropical dry forest tree Jacaratia Mexicana (Brassicales: Caricaceae) at a local scale in Mexico
Fonte: Rev. biol. trop;60(1):1-10, Mar. 2012. ilus, graf, tab.
Idioma: en.
Resumo: The tropical dry forest is a greatly endangered ecosystem, from which Jacaratia mexicana is a native tree. With the aim to assess the levels of genetic variation and population structure, four wild populations of J. mexicana were studied in the Sierra de Huautla Biosphere Reserve, Morelos, Mexico. For this, DNA was extracted from 159 individuals and were amplified with six random primers using the Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD). A total of 54 bands were obtained, of which 50 (92.6%) were polymorphic. The total genetic diversity found within the four populations was 0.451 when estimated by Shannon’s index. An AMOVA analysis showed that 84% of the total genetic variation was found within populations and 16% was among populations. The UPGMA dendrogram showed that all individuals from one of the populations (Huaxtla) formed one distinct genetic group, while the rest of the individuals did not cluster according to population. A Mantel test did not show an association between genetic and geographical distances among populations (r=0.893, p=0.20). A Bayesian cluster analysis performed with STRUCTURE, showed that the most probable number of genetic groups in the data was four (K=4), and confirmed the distinctness of Huaxtla population. Our results showed that important genetic differentiation among populations can occur even at this small geographic scale and this has to be considered in conservation actions for this genetic resource.

Jacaratia mexicana es un árbol nativo del bosque tropical seco, que es considerado el tipo de vegetación en mayor riesgo de desaparecer completamente. Se utilizaron polimorfismos de ADN amplificados al azar (RAPD, Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA), para evaluar los niveles de variación y estructura genética en cuatro poblaciones silvestres de J. mexicana en la Reserva de la Biósfera Sierra de Huautla (Morelos, México). Se amplificó el ADN de 159 individuos utilizando seis oligonucleótidos (“primers”) aleatorios. Se obtuvieron en total 54 bandas, de las cuales 50 (92.6%) fueron polimórficas. La diversidad genética total que se encontró en las cuatro poblaciones de J. mexicana fue de 0.451 de acuerdo con el índice de Shannon. Un análisis de varianza molecular (AMOVA) mostró que el 84% de la variación genética total se encuentra dentro de las poblaciones y el 16% entre las poblaciones. Un dendrograma construido mediante el algoritmo UPGMA mostró que los individuos de una población (Huaxtla) formaron un grupo, mientras que el resto de los individuos no se agruparon de acuerdo a su población de origen. Una prueba de Mantel no mostró una asociación entre las distancias genéticas y geográficas entre las poblaciones (r=0.893, p=0.20). Un análisis de agrupamiento Bayesiano realizado mediante STRUCTURE mostró que el número más probable de grupos genéticos es cuatro (K=4) y confirmó la diferenciación de la población Huaxtla. Nuestros resultados muestran que una considerable diferenciación genética entre poblaciones puede existir incluso a esta escala geográfica, lo cual es de interés para la conservación de este recurso genético.
Descritores: Caricaceae/genética
Variação Genética
Árvores/genética
-Teorema de Bayes
DNA de Plantas/análise
México
Técnica de Amplificação ao Acaso de DNA Polimórfico
Responsável: CR1.1 - BINASSS - Biblioteca Nacional de Salud y Seguridad Social



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