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Id: biblio-1394054
Autor: Liaqat, Aroosa; Mallhi, Tauqeer Hussain; Khan, Yusra Habib; Khokhar, Aisha; Chaman, Sadia; Ali, Muhammad.
Título: Anti-Snake Venom Properties of Medicinal Plants: A Comprehensive Systematic Review of Literature
Fonte: Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online);58:e191124, 2022. tab.
Idioma: en.
Resumo: Abstract Snakebite is one of the major health issues posing considerable morbidity and mortality. According to an estimate of World Health Organization (WHO) (World health organization, 2021) approximately 5 million people are bitten by several species of snakes resulting in up to 2.5 million envenomation cases annually. The mainstay of treatment for envenomation is intravenous administration of anti-snake venom. Although antivenom neutralizes the systemic effects but it does not relieve the symptoms such as venom-induced hemorrhage, necrosis and nephrotoxicity. Moreover, the use of antivenoms is associated with hypersensitivity reactions including urticaria, anaphylaxis, or serum sickness due to their heterologous property. Furthermore, stringent storage conditions and narrow specificity of antivenoms limit their use in both developed as well as developing countries. In this context, researchers have been searching for natural products and plant extracts to explore their antivenom activity along with anti-myotoxic, anti-hemorrhagic and anti-inflammatory properties. Plant remedies may prove to be an effective alternate for antivenom sera with less adverse events and better tolerability. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first comprehensive review of medicinal plants possessing anti-snake venom activities against certain species of snakes. The current review highlights the investigated plants with their phytochemical analysis to integrate the available information for future research and development of antivenom sera.
Descritores: Plantas Medicinais/efeitos adversos
Venenos de Serpentes/análise
Antivenenos/análise
Venenos Elapídicos/isolamento & purificação
Compostos Fitoquímicos/agonistas
-Mordeduras de Serpentes/classificação
Organização Mundial da Saúde
Extratos Vegetais
Administração Intravenosa/instrumentação
Responsável: BR40.1 - DBD - Divisão de Biblioteca e Documentacão do Conjunto das Químicas


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Id: biblio-1374503
Autor: Martínez Villota, Viviana Alexandra; Mera Martínez, Paulo Francisco; Portillo Miño, José Darío.
Título: Massive acute ischemic stroke after Bothrops spp. envenomation in southwestern Colombia: Case report and literature review / Accidente cerebrovascular isquémico agudo masivo por veneno de Bothrops spp. en el suroccidente de Colombia: reporte de caso y revisión de la literatura
Fonte: Biomédica (Bogotá);42(1):9-17, ene.-mar. 2022. tab, graf.
Idioma: en.
Resumo: Bothrops spp. envenomation and its relationship with ischemic stroke has complex pathogenesis. Local effects such as edema, pain, redness, necrosis, and systemic manifestations like coagulation disorders, thrombosis, renal failure, and hemorrhage have been reported. Hemorrhagic stroke is a common neurological complication but ischemic stroke is poorly understood. We present here the case of a 50-year-old male with no comorbidities referred from a rural area in southwest Colombia with a Bothrops spp. snakebite on the left hand. On admission, the patient presented with a deterioration of consciousness and required mechanical ventilation assistance. The MRI showed multiple ischemic areas in the bilateral frontal- temporal and occipital regions. Two months later, the patient had a favorable resolution, although central paresis in the III and VI cranial nerves and positive Babinski's sign persisted. As already mentioned, the pathophysiology of ischemic stroke due to snakebite is complex but the procoagulant activity of the venom components, the hypovolemic shock, the endothelial damage, and the thromboinflammation can explain it, and although it rarely occurs, it should be considered as a complication of ophidian accidents caused by Bothrops spp.

La mordedura de serpientes Bothrops spp. y el ataque cerebrovascular isquémico tienen una patogenia compleja. Se reconocen efectos locales como edema, dolor, enrojecimiento y necrosis, así como manifestaciones sistémicas como trastornos de la coagulación, trombosis, insuficiencia renal y hemorragia, por lo que el accidente cerebrovascular hemorrágico es una complicación neurológica común, pero, en cambio, el accidente cerebrovascular isquémico es poco conocido. Se presenta el caso de un paciente de 50 años, sin comorbilidades, remitido de una zona rural del suroccidente de Colombia debido a la mordedura de una serpiente Bothrops spp. en su mano izquierda. En el momento del ingreso, el paciente presentaba deterioro de la conciencia y requirió asistencia respiratoria mecánica. Mediante resonancia magnética, se observaron múltiples áreas isquémicas bilaterales en la región fronto-temporal y en la occipital. Dos meses después, el paciente había evolucionado favorablemente, pero persistían la paresia en los pares craneales III y VI y el signo de Babinski. La fisiopatología del accidente cerebrovascular isquémico por mordedura de serpiente es compleja. La actividad procoagulante de los componentes del veneno, el choque hipovolémico, el daño endotelial y la tromboinflamación pueden explicar el accidente cerebrovascular isquémico que, aunque raro, debe considerarse como una complicación del accidente ofídico causado por serpientes Bothrops spp.
Descritores: Bothrops
Acidente Vascular Cerebral
-Mordeduras de Serpentes
Venenos de Serpentes
Tipo de Publ: Relatos de Casos
Responsável: CO42.1 - Biblioteca Nacional de Salud José Celestino Mutis


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Id: biblio-1364282
Autor: Maísa, Silva,; Fernanda, Lima Margal,; Maria, de Matos, lone.
Título: Venenos animais como possíveis ferramentas terapéuticas contra o estresse oxidativo em diversas doengas: Revisao da Literatura / Animal venoms as possible therapeutic tools against oxidative stress in several diseases: Literature Review
Fonte: Acta toxicol. argent;29(2):21-30, dic. 2021. graf.
Idioma: pt.
Resumo: Resumo Venenos sao uma substancia tóxica (composta por uma ou mais toxinas) que podem causando lesao fisiológica dependente da dose. As toxinas sao moléculas bioativas formadas principalmente por compostos enzimáticos e nao enzimático que porque provocam consequéncias indesejáveis nas presas, além disso, exibem atividades biológicas únicas, diversas e específicas que perturbam os processos fisiológicos normais. Entretanto, muitas toxinas, de diferentes animais, tém sido isoladas e muitas delas sao consideradas ótimas ferramentas para pesquisa básica e alvos terapéuticos. Foi relatado que o estresse oxidativo desempenha um papel fundamental na patogénese de várias doengas, como distúrbios neurodegenerativos, distúrbios cardiovasculares e cáncer. O mecanismo pelo qual as toxinas animais atuam nos parametros de estresse oxidativo em várias doengas, ainda nao está estabelecido. O foco principal desta revisao é destacar os principais estudos com toxinas animais como ferramenta terapéutica em diversas doengas, atuando no balango redox do organismo.

Abstract Venoms are a toxic substance (comprised of one or more toxins) that can cause dose-dependent physiological injury. Toxins are bioactive molecules formed primarily by enzymatic and non-enzymatic compounds that cause undesirable conse-quences in prey, in addition, exhibit unique, diverse and specific biological activities that disrupt normal physiological processes. However, many toxins, from different animals, have been isolated and many of them are considered great tools for basic research and therapeutic targets. Oxidative stress has been reported to play a key role in the pathogenesis of various diseases such as neurodegenerative disorders, cardiovascular disorders and cancer. How animal toxins act on oxidative stress parameters in several diseases is not yet established. The main focus of this review is to highlight the main studies with animal toxins as a therapeutic tool in several diseases, acting on the organism's redox balance.

Resumen Los venenos son sustancias tóxicas (compuestas por una o más toxinas) que pueden causar daño fisiológico dependiente de la dosis. Las toxinas son moléculas bioactivas formadas principalmente por compuestos enzimáticos y no enzimáticos que debido a que causan consecuencias indeseables en las presas, además, exhiben actividades biológicas únicas, diversas y específicas que alteran los procesos fisiológicos normales. Sin embargo, se han aislado muchas toxinas de diferentes animales, y muchos de ellos se consideran grandes herramientas para la investigación básica y dianas terapéuticas. Se ha informado que el estrés oxidativo juega un papel clave en la patogenia de diversas enfermedades, como los trastornos neurodegenerativos, enfermedades cardiovasculares y cáncer. El mecanismo por el cual las toxinas animales actúan sobre los parámetros de estrés oxidativo en vários enfermedades, aún no está establecido. El enfoque principal de esta revisión es resaltar los principales estudios con toxinas animales como herramienta terapéutica en diversas enfermedades, actuando en el equilibrio redox del organismo.
Descritores: Venenos de Escorpião/uso terapêutico
Venenos de Abelha/uso terapêutico
Venenos de Anfíbios/uso terapêutico
-Venenos de Serpentes/uso terapêutico
Estresse Oxidativo
Venenos de Formiga/uso terapêutico
Antioxidantes
Tipo de Publ: Revisão
Responsável: AR658.1 - Biblioteca Central "Leopoldo Marechal"


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Id: lil-519870
Autor: Leyva Pereira, Lisandro; Hernández C. , José Ignacio.
Título: Un caso de mordedura de una taya equis / A case of bothrops asper bite
Fonte: Repert. med. cir;18(2):126-128, 2009. ilus.
Idioma: es.
Resumo: En la madrugada del 25 de Abril fui llamado á prestarle los servicios profesionales á Moisés Uquira quien el día anterior por la tarde había sufrido la mordedura de una taya equis. El animal, que fue muerto, pocos momentos después de haber ocasionado la herida, medía 140 centímetros de longitud. Al momento que recibió la herida, sintió el enfermo un dolor agudísimo en el punto de la inoculación, el cual en breves instantes se extendió á todo el miembro. La herida fue hecha en la parte superior y externa de la pierna derecha. Inmediatamente el compañero tuvo la feliz idea de evitar la circulación devuelta, colocando un lío circular en la parte media del muslo y comprimiendo bastante. Cuando el amigo terminaba la operación, yá Moisés había perdido totalmente el conocimiento y era presa de ligeras convulsiones; pocos momentos después aparecieron vómitos que, biliosos al principio, se hicieron sanguinolentos en seguida; las conjuntivas se inyectaron, lágrimas mezcladas con sangre salían por el ángulo interno de la hendedura parpebral. Como medicación dieronle al enfermo una cierta cantidad de aguardiente.
Descritores: Mordeduras de Serpentes
Venenos de Serpentes
-Antivenenos/administração & dosagem
Limites: Humanos
Animais
Tipo de Publ: Artigo Histórico
Responsável: CO304.1 - Biblioteca Arturo Aparicio Jaramillo


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Id: biblio-1365074
Autor: Xiao, Gang; Liu, Junqi; Peng, Lingfeng; Yang, Yang; Sun, Zhiliang.
Título: Compositional and toxicological investigation of pooled venom from farm-raised Naja atra
Fonte: J. venom. anim. toxins incl. trop. dis;28:e20210040, 2022. tab, graf, ilus.
Idioma: en.
Resumo: Background: Naja atra is a venomous snake species medically relevant in China. In the current study, we evaluated the composition and toxicological profile of venom collected from farm-raised N. atra. Methods: Venom was collected from third-generation captive bred N. atra on a snake farm in Hunan Province, China. The venom was analyzed using sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and nano-liquid chromatography with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. In addition, hemolytic activity, median lethal dose, serum biochemical and histopathological parameters were accessed. Results: N. atra venom proteome was dominated by phospholipase A2 (46.5%) and three-finger toxins (41.4 %), and a set of common low relative abundance proteins, including cysteine-rich secretory proteins (4.7%), NGF-beta (2.4%), snake venom metalloproteinase (1.5%), glutathione peroxidase (0.6%), vespryn (0.3%), and 5ʹ-nucleotidases (0.2%) were also found. Furthermore, the venom exhibited direct hemolytic activity, neurotoxicity, myotoxicity, and high lethal potency in mice, with a subcutaneous median lethal dose of 1.02 mg/kg. Histopathological analysis and serum biochemical tests revealed that venom caused acute hepatic, pulmonary and renal injury in mice. Conclusion: This study revealed the composition and toxicity of venom collected from farm-raised N. atra, thereby providing a reference for the analysis of venom samples collected from captive-born venomous snakes in the future.(AU)
Descritores: Venenos de Serpentes/toxicidade
Fosfolipases A2
Naja naja
Miotoxicidade
-Nucleotidases
Limites: Animais
Responsável: BR68.1 - Biblioteca Virginie Buff D'Ápice


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Id: lil-396697
Autor: Durigon, A. M; Borja-Oliveira, C. R; Dal Belo, C. A; Oshima-Franco, Y; Cogo, J. C; Lapa, A. J; Souccar, C; Rodrigues-Simioni, L.
Título: Neuromuscular activity of Bothrops neuwiedi pauloensis snake venom in mouse nerve-muscle preparations
Fonte: J. venom. anim. toxins incl. trop. dis;11(1):22-33, jan.-abr. 2005. tab, graf.
Idioma: en.
Projeto: Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo; . Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico; . Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior; . Fundação de Apoio ao Ensino e à Pesquisa. Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo; Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico; Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior; Fundação de Apoio ao Ensino e à Pesquisa.
Resumo: The pharmacological effects of Bothrops neuwiedi pauloensis venom on mouse phrenic nerve-diaphragm (PND) preparations were studied. Venom (20 mug/ml) irreversibly inhibited indirectly evoked twitches in PND preparations (60 ± 10 percent inhibition, mean ± SEM; p<0.05; n=6). At 50 mug/ml, the venom blocked indirectly and directly (curarized preparations) evoked twitches in mouse hemidiaphragms. In the absence of Ca2+, venom (50 mug/ml), produced partial blockade only after an 80 min incubation, which reached 40.3 ± 7.8 percent (p<0.05; n=3) after 120 min. Venom (20 mug/ml) increased (25 ± 2 percent, p< 0.05) the frequency of giant miniature end-plate potentials in 9 of 10 end-plates after 30 min and the number of miniature end-plate potentials which was maximum (562 ± 3 percent, p<0.05) after 120 min. During the same period, the resting membrane potential decreased from - 81 ± 1.4 mV to - 41.3 ± 3.6 mV 24 fibers; p<0.01; n=4) in the end-plate region and from - 77.4 ± 1.4 to -44.6 ± 3.9 mV (24 fibers; p<0.01; n=4) in regions distant from the end-plate. These results indicate that B. n. pauloensis venom acts primarily at presynaptic sites. They also suggest that enzymatic activity may be involved in this pharmacological action.(AU)
Descritores: Nervo Frênico
Venenos de Serpentes
Fármacos Neuromusculares
Junção Neuromuscular
-Bothrops
Potenciais da Membrana
Limites: Animais
Camundongos
Responsável: BR68.1 - Biblioteca Virginie Buff D'Ápice


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Id: lil-453688
Autor: Lee, K. H; Won, H. J; Kim, S. N; Yoo, S. H; Shin, I. S; Shin, K. H; Hong, S. H; Lee, S. H; Min, H. K; Park, S. N; Hur, S. J.
Título: Standardization of anti-lethal toxin potency test of antivenoms prepared from two different Agkistrodon halys venoms
Fonte: J. venom. anim. toxins incl. trop. dis;12(4):560-577, 2006. tab, ilus.
Idioma: en.
Resumo: In Korea, antivenoms for the treatment of patients bitten by venomous snakes have been imported from Japan or China. Although there is cross-reactivity between these antibodies and venoms from snakes indigenous to Korea (e.g. Agkistrodon genus), protection is not optimal. Antivenoms specifically prepared to neutralize Korean snake venoms could be more effective, with fewer side effects. To this end, we established an infrastructure to develop national standards and created a standardized method to evaluate the efficacy of two horse-derived antivenoms using mouse lethal toxin test. Additionally, we determined the antivenoms neutralizing activity against lethal doses (LD50) of Agkistrodon halys (from Japan) and Jiangzhe Agkistrodon halys (from China) venoms. We also performed cross-neutralization tests using probit analysis on each pairing of venom and antivenom in order to check the possibility of using Jiangzhe A. halys venom as a substitute for A. halys venom, the current standard. Slope of A. halys venom with A. halys antivenom was 10.2 and that of A. halys venom with Jiangzhe A. halys antivenom was 9.6. However, Slope of Jiangzhe A. halys venom with A. halys antivenom was 4.7 while that of Jiangzhe A. halys venom with Jiangzhe A. halys antivenom was 11.5. Therefore, the significant difference in slope patterns suggests that Jiangzhe A. halys venom cannot be used as a substitute for the standard venom to test the anti-lethal toxin activity of antivenoms (p<0.05).(AU)
Descritores: Venenos de Serpentes
Testes de Neutralização
Agkistrodon
Anticorpos
-Padrões de Referência
Limites: Animais
Responsável: BR68.1 - Biblioteca Virginie Buff D'Ápice


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Id: lil-453691
Autor: Morais, V; Baraibar, M; Carreira, S.
Título: Intraspecific variation of Bothrops pubescens (cope, 1869) venom in Uruguay (serpentes: viperidae)
Fonte: J. venom. anim. toxins incl. trop. dis;12(4):604-611, 2006. tab, ilus.
Idioma: en.
Resumo: In Uruguay, there was no information about the variations degree in Bothrops pubescens venoms until the present work, in which we investigated intraspecific venom variation using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). We found some differences in the venom protein profile; however, they were not related to the parameters studied (geographic distribution, weight, sex, and captivity time). Moreover, we distinguished two different groups in relation to band densities at 49 and 57 kDa. Specimens with predominant density in the 49kDa band tend to be predominantly females. Weight distribution in this group extended for all the range (150-1500 g) with an average weight of 720 g. The other group (57kDa predominant band) showed restricted weight range (150-400 g) with an average weight of 280 g. Cluster analysis was also performed. The variability observed in the venom profile probably corresponds to genetic variations.(AU)
Descritores: Venenos de Serpentes
Análise por Conglomerados
Viperidae
Bothrops
Eletroforese
Eletroforese em Gel de Poliacrilamida
-Padrões de Referência
Limites: Animais
Responsável: BR68.1 - Biblioteca Virginie Buff D'Ápice


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Id: lil-453694
Autor: Reddy, C. M; Gawade, S. P.
Título: Evaluation of the effects of photooxidized Echis carinatus venom on learning, memory and stress
Fonte: J. venom. anim. toxins incl. trop. dis;12(4):632-652, 2006. graf, tab.
Idioma: en.
Resumo: Snake venoms are a mixture of complex proteins, which have many physical and pharmacological properties. Photochemical detoxification has been suggested to generate photooxidized Echis carinatus venom product (POECVP). Antigenically-active photooxidized species of Echis carinatus venom could be obtained by exposing the venom to ultraviolet radiation (UVR) in the presence of methylene blue. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of POECVP on learning, memory and stress in rats. Detoxification of the photooxidized venom was evident since the POECVP-treated group had longer survival time than the group of mice treated with Echis carinatus venom product (ECVP) following intraperitoneal and intracerebral injections. Photooxidized Echis carinatus venom product showed antidepressant activity by prolonging sleep onset and shortening the duration of pentobarbitone-induced hypnosis in mice. In single and chronic dose studies with rats, we observed that POECVP significantly decreased the time needed to reach food in T-maze, shortened transfer latency in elevated plus-maze, and decreased immobility time in forced swim test. We concluded that although there is a possibility of employing POECVP in the treatment of depressive and chronic degenerative illnesses as a nonherbal and nonsynthetic alternative for patients not responding to the available therapy, further investigation is still needed.(AU)
Descritores: Pentobarbital
Venenos de Serpentes/análise
Foto-Oxidação/efeitos adversos
Teste de Labirinto em Cruz Elevado
-Azul de Metileno
Limites: Animais
Responsável: BR68.1 - Biblioteca Virginie Buff D'Ápice


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Id: lil-444617
Autor: Nayak, S. G; Satish, R; Nityanandam, S; Thomas, R. K.
Título: Uveitis following anti-snake venom therapy
Fonte: J. venom. anim. toxins incl. trop. dis;13(1):130-134, 2007.
Idioma: en.
Resumo: Snakebite is a common medical emergency in the tropics, causing multisystemic involvement. Ophthalmic manifestations after snakebite have included ptosis and ophthalmoplegia. Uveitis as an immunological complication following therapy with anti-snake venom (ASV) serum has been rarely reported in literature. We reported two patients who developed uveitis and acute renal failure following snakebite treatment with ASV serum. Both patients recovered uneventfully with appropriate therapy.(AU)
Descritores: Mordeduras de Serpentes
Venenos de Serpentes
Uveíte
Oftalmoplegia
Responsável: BR68.1 - Biblioteca Virginie Buff D'Ápice



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