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Id: biblio-1287096
Autor: Beraldo Neto, Emídio; Coelho, Guilherme Rabelo; Sciani, Juliana Mozer; Pimenta, Daniel Carvalho.
Título: Proteomic characterization of Naja mandalayensis venom
Fonte: J. venom. anim. toxins incl. trop. dis;27:e20200125, 2021. tab, graf.
Idioma: en.
Projeto: CAPES; . FINEP; . CNPq; . FAPESP.
Resumo: Background Naja mandalayensis is a spitting cobra from Myanmar. To the best of our knowledge, no studies on this venom composition have been conducted so far. On the other hand, few envenomation descriptions state that it elicits mainly local inflammation in the victims' eyes, the preferred target of this spiting cobra. Symptoms would typically include burning and painful sensation, conjunctivitis, edema and temporary loss of vision. Methods We have performed a liquid-chromatography (C18-RP-HPLC) mass spectrometry (ESI-IT-TOF/MS) based approach in order to biochemically characterize N. mandalayensis venom. Results A wide variety of three-finger toxins (cardiotoxins) and metallopeptidases were detected. Less abundant, but still representative, were cysteine-rich secretory proteins, L-amino-acid oxidases, phospholipases A2, venom 5'-nucleotidase and a serine peptidase inhibitor. Other proteins were present, but were detected in a relatively small concentration. Conclusion The present study set the basis for a better comprehension of the envenomation from a molecular perspective and, by increasing the interest and information available for this species, allows future venom comparisons among cobras and their diverse venom proteins.(AU)
Descritores: Proteômica/classificação
Venenos Elapídicos/enzimologia
Limites: Animais
Responsável: BR68.1 - Biblioteca Virginie Buff D'Ápice


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Id: biblio-1287090
Autor: Ahmed, Mushtaq; Khan, Shahan Zeb; Sher, Naila; Rehman, Zia Ur; Mushtaq, Nadia; Khan, Rahmat Ali.
Título: Kinetic and toxicological effects of synthesized palladium(II) complex on snake venom (Bungarus sindanus) acetylcholinesterase
Fonte: J. venom. anim. toxins incl. trop. dis;27:e20200047, 2021. tab, graf.
Idioma: en.
Projeto: higher education commission of Pakistan.
Resumo: The venom of the krait (Bungarus sindanus), an Elapidae snake, is highly toxic to humans and contains a great amount of acetylcholinesterase (AChE). The enzyme AChE provokes the hydrolysis of substrate acetylcholine (ACh) in the nervous system and terminates nerve impulse. Different inhibitors inactivate AChE and lead to ACh accumulation and disrupted neurotransmission. Methods: The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of palladium(II) complex as antivenom against krait venom AChE using kinetics methods. Results: Statistical analysis showed that krait venom AChE inhibition decreases with the increase of Pd(II) complex (0.025-0.05 µM) and exerted 61% inhibition against the AChE at a fixed concentration (0.5 mM) of ACh. Kinetic analysis using the Lineweaver Burk plot showed that Pd(II) caused a competitive inhibition. The compound Pd(II) complex binds at the active site of the enzyme. It was observed that K m (Michaelis-Menten constant of AChE-ACh into AChE and product) increased from 0.108 to 0.310 mM (45.74 to 318.35%) and V max remained constant with an increase of Pd(II) complex concentrations. In AChE K Iapp was found to increase from 0.0912 to 0.025 µM (29.82-72.58%) and did not affect the V maxapp with an increase of ACh from (0.05-1 mM). K i (inhibitory constant) was estimated to be 0.029µM for snake venom; while the K m was estimated to be 0.4 mM. The calculated IC50 for Pd(II) complex was found to be 0.043 µM at constant ACh concentration (0.5 mM). Conclusions: The results show that the Pd(II) complex can be deliberated as an inhibitor of AChE.(AU)
Descritores: Bungarus
Venenos Elapídicos/toxicidade
Biologia Sintética
-Paládio
Acetilcolinesterase
Limites: Animais
Responsável: BR68.1 - Biblioteca Virginie Buff D'Ápice


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Id: biblio-1154772
Autor: Grego, Kathleen Fernandes; Vieira, Samira Emanuela Maria; Vidueiros, Jarbas Prado; Serapicos, Eliana de Oliveira; Barbarini, Cibele Cíntia; Silveira, Giovanni Perez Machado da; Rodrigues, Fabíola de Souza; Alves, Lucas de Carvalho Francisco; Stuginski, Daniel Rodrigues; Rameh-de-Albuquerque, Luciana Carla; Furtado, Maria de Fátima Domingues; Tanaka-Azevedo, Anita Mitico; Morais-Zani, Karen de; Rocha, Marisa Maria Teixeira da; Fernandes, Wilson; SantAnna, Sávio Stefanini.
Título: Maintenance of venomous snakes in captivity for venom production at Butantan Institute from 1908 to the present: a scoping history
Fonte: J. venom. anim. toxins incl. trop. dis;27:e20200068, 2021. tab, graf.
Idioma: en.
Projeto: FAPESP.
Resumo: Maintenance of snakes at Butantan Institute started in the last century, intending to produce a different antivenom serum to reduce death caused by snakebites. Through a successful campaign coordinated by Vital Brazil, farmers sent venomous snakes to Butantan Institute by the railway lines with no cost. From 1908 to 1962, the snakes were kept in an outdoor serpentarium, where venom extraction was performed every 15 days. During this period, the snake average survival was 15 days. In 1963, the snakes were transferred to an adapted building, currently called Laboratory of Herpetology (LH), to be maintained in an intensive system. Although the periodicity of venom extraction remained the same, animal average survival increased to two months. With the severe serum crisis in 1983, the Ministry of Health financed remodeling for the three public antivenom producers, and with this support, the LH could be improved. Air conditioning and exhausting systems were installed in the rooms, besides the settlement of critical hygienic-sanitary managements to increase the welfare of snakes. In the early 1990s, snake survival was ten months. Over the years to the present day, several improvements have been made in the intensive serpentarium, as the establishment of two quarantines, feeding with thawed rodents, an interval of two months between venom extraction routines, and monitoring of snake health through laboratory tests. With these new protocols, average snake survival increased significantly, being eight years for the genus Bothrops, ten years for genus Crotalus and Lachesis, and four years for the genus Micrurus. Aiming the production of venoms of good quality, respect for good management practices is essential for the maintenance of snakes in captivity. New techniques and efficient management must always be sought to improve animal welfare, the quality of the venom produced, and the safety of those working directly with the venomous snakes.(AU)
Descritores: Mordeduras de Serpentes
Viperidae
Venenos Elapídicos/biossíntese
-Bem-Estar do Animal
Custos e Análise de Custo
Limites: Animais
Responsável: BR68.1 - Biblioteca Virginie Buff D'Ápice


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Id: biblio-896971
Autor: Oliveira, Fabiana da Rocha; Noronha, Maria das Dores Nogueira; Lozano, Jorge Luis Lopez.
Título: Biological and molecular properties of yellow venom of the Amazonian coral snake Micrurus surinamensis
Fonte: Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop;50(3):365-373, May-June 2017. tab, graf.
Idioma: en.
Resumo: Abstract INTRODUCTION: The coral snake Micrurus surinamensis, which is widely distributed throughout Amazonia, has a neurotoxic venom. It is important to characterize the biological and molecular properties of this venom in order to develop effective antitoxins. METHODS: Toxins from the venom of M. surinamensis were analyzed by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and their neurotoxic effects in vivo were evaluated. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: Most proteins in the venom had masses < 14kDa, low phospholipase A2 activity, and no proteolytic activity. The toxins inhibited the coagulation cascade. The venom had neurotoxic effects in mice, with a median lethal dose upon intravenous administration of 700 µg/kg. Immunogenic studies revealed abundant cross-reactivity of antielapidic serum with 14kDa toxins and limited cross-reactivity with toxins < 10kDa. These results indicate that antielapidic serum against M. surinamensis venom has weak potency (0.35mg/ml) in mice.
Descritores: Elapidae
Venenos Elapídicos/enzimologia
Venenos Elapídicos/genética
Venenos Elapídicos/química
Fosfolipases A2/metabolismo
-Reações Cruzadas
Eletroforese
Fosfolipases A2/química
Dose Letal Mediana
Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C
Limites: Animais
Responsável: BR1.1 - BIREME


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Id: biblio-894172
Autor: El-Aziz, Tarek Mohamed Abd; Khoury, Sawsan Al; Jaquillard, Lucie; Triquigneaux, Mathilde; Martinez, Guillaume; Bourgoin-Voillard, Sandrine; Sève, Michel; Arnoult, Christophe; Beroud, Rémy; Waard, Michel De.
Título: Actiflagelin, a new sperm activator isolated from Walterinnesia aegyptia venom using phenotypic screening
Fonte: J. venom. anim. toxins incl. trop. dis;24:2, 2018. graf, ilus.
Idioma: en.
Projeto: Agence Nationale de la Recherche to the LabEx Ion Channels, Science and Therapeutics.
Resumo: Sperm contains a wealth of cell surface receptors and ion channels that are required for most of its basic functions such as motility and acrosome reaction. Conversely, animal venoms are enriched in bioactive compounds that primarily target those ion channels and cell surface receptors. We hypothesized, therefore, that animal venoms should be rich enough in sperm-modulating compounds for a drug discovery program. Our objective was to demonstrate this fact by using a sperm-based phenotypic screening to identify positive modulators from the venom of Walterinnesia aegyptia. Methods Herein, as proof of concept that venoms contain interesting compounds for sperm physiology, we fractionated Walterinnesia aegyptia snake venom by RP-HPLC and screened for bioactive fractions capable of accelerating mouse sperm motility (primary screening). Next, we purified each compound from the positive fraction by cation exchange and identified the bioactive peptide by secondary screening. The peptide sequence was established by Edman sequencing of the reduced/alkylated compound combined to LC-ESI-QTOF MS/MS analyses of reduced/alkylated fragment peptides following trypsin or V8 protease digestion. Results Using this two-step purification protocol combined to cell phenotypic screening, we identified a new toxin of 7329.38 Da (actiflagelin) that activates sperm motility in vitro from OF1 male mice. Actiflagelin is 63 amino acids in length and contains five disulfide bridges along the proposed pattern of disulfide connectivity C1-C5, C2-C3, C4- C6, C7-C8 and C9-C10. Modeling of its structure suggests that it belongs to the family of three finger toxins with a noticeable homology with bucandin, a peptide from Bungarus candidus venom. Conclusions This report demonstrates the feasibility of identifying profertility compounds that may be of therapeutic potential for infertility cases where motility is an issue.(AU)
Descritores: Motilidade Espermática
Espermatozoides/química
Venenos Elapídicos/isolamento & purificação
Venenos Elapídicos/uso terapêutico
Fosfolipases A2
-Acetilcolinesterase
Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos
Fracionamento Químico/métodos
Camundongos
Limites: Animais
Masculino
Ratos
Responsável: BR33.1 - Divisão Técnica de Biblioteca e Documentação


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Id: biblio-894166
Autor: Charoenpitakchai, Mongkon; Wiwatwarayos, Kulachet; Jaisupa, Nattapon; Rusmili, Muhamad Rusdi Ahmad; Mangmool, Supachoke; Hodgson, Wayne C; Ruangpratheep, Chetana; Chanhome, Lawan; Chaisakul, Janeyuth.
Título: Non-neurotoxic activity of Malayan krait (Bungarus candidus) venom from Thailand
Fonte: J. venom. anim. toxins incl. trop. dis;24:9, 2018. tab, graf, ilus.
Idioma: en.
Projeto: National Science and Technology Development Agency (NSTDA).
Resumo: Envenoming by kraits (genus Bungarus) is a medically significant issue in South Asia and Southeast Asia. Malayan krait (Bungarus candidus) venom is known to contain highly potent neurotoxins. In recent years, there have been reports on the non-neurotoxic activities of krait venom that include myotoxicity and nephrotoxicity. However, research on such non-neurotoxicity activities of Malayan krait venom is extremely limited. Thus, the aim of the present study was to determine the myotoxic, cytotoxic and nephrotoxic activities of B. candidus venoms from northeastern (BC-NE) and southern (BC-S) Thailand in experimentally envenomed rats. Methods: Rats were administered Malayan krait (BC-NE or BC-S) venom (50 µg/kg, i.m.) or 0.9% NaCl solution (50 µL, i.m.) into the right hind limb. The animals were sacrificed 3, 6 and 24 h after venom administration. The right gastrocnemius muscle and both kidneys were collected for histopathological analysis. Blood samples were also taken for determination of creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels. The human embryonic kidney cell line (HEK-293) was used in a cell proliferation assay to determine cytotoxic activity. Results: Administration of BC-NE or BC-S venom (50 µg/kg, i.m.) caused time-dependent myotoxicity, characterized by an elevation of CK and LDH levels. Histopathological examination of skeletal muscle displayed marked muscle necrosis and myofiber disintegration 24 h following venom administration. Both Malayan krait venoms also induced extensive renal tubular injury with glomerular and interstitial congestion in rats. BC-NE and BC-S venoms (100­0.2 µg/ mL) caused concentration-dependent cytotoxicity on the HEK-293 cell line. However, BC-NE venom (IC50 =8 ± 1 µg/mL; at 24 h incubation; n = 4) was found to be significantly more cytotoxic than BC-S venom (IC50 =15 ± 2 µg/mL; at 24 h incubation; n = 4). In addition, the PLA2 activity of BC-NE venom was significantly higher than that of BC-S venom. Conclusions: This study found that Malayan krait venoms from both populations possess myotoxic, cytotoxic and nephrotoxic activities. These findings may aid in clinical diagnosis and treatment of envenomed patients in the future.(AU)
Descritores: Bungarus/fisiologia
Citotoxinas/análise
Venenos Elapídicos/sangue
Venenos Elapídicos/toxicidade
-Bungarotoxinas/sangue
Venenos Elapídicos/isolamento & purificação
Rim/patologia
Limites: Animais
Ratos
Responsável: BR33.1 - Divisão Técnica de Biblioteca e Documentação


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Id: lil-686616
Autor: Salmanizadeh, Hossein; Babaie, Mahdi; Zolfagharian, Hossein.
Título: In vivo evaluation of homeostatic effects of Echis carinatus snake venom in Iran
Fonte: J. venom. anim. toxins incl. trop. dis;19:3-3, maio 2013. ilus, tab, graf.
Idioma: en.
Resumo: Background: The venom of the family Viperidae, including the saw-scaled viper, is rich in serine proteinases and metalloproteinases, which affect the nervous system, complementary system, blood coagulation, platelet aggregation and blood pressure. One of the most prominent effects of the snake venom of Echis carinatus (Ec) is its coagulation activity, used for killing prey. Materials and methods: Subfractions F1A and F1B were isolated from Ec crude venom by a combination of gel chromatography (Sephadex G-75) and ion exchange chromatography on a DEAE-Sepharose (DE-52). These subfractions were then intravenously (IV) injected into NIH male mice. Blood samples were taken before and after the administration of these subfractions. Times for prothrombin, partial thromboplastin and fibrinogen were recorded. Results and conclusions: Comparison of the prothrombin time before and after F1A and F1B administrations showed that time for blood coagulation after injection is shorter than that of normal blood coagulation and also reduced coagulation time after Ec crude venom injection. This difference in coagulation time shows the intense coagulation activity of these subfractions that significantly increase the coagulation cascade rate and Causes to quick blood coagulation. The LD50 of the Ec crude venom was also determined to be 11.1 µg/mouse. Different crude venom doses were prepared with physiological serum and injected into four mice. Comparison of the prothrombin times after injection of subfractions F1A and F1B showed that the rate of mouse blood coagulation increases considerably. Comparing the partial thromboplastin times after injecting these subfractions with this normal test time showed that the activity rate of intrinsic blood coagulation system rose sharply in mice. Finally, by comparing the fibrinogen time after subfraction injections and normal test time, we can infer intense activation of coagulation cascade and fibrin production.(AU)
Descritores: Coagulação Sanguínea/fisiologia
Venenos Elapídicos/administração & dosagem
Venenos Elapídicos/sangue
Homeostase/efeitos dos fármacos
-Testes de Coagulação Sanguínea/métodos
Cromatografia por Troca Iônica/métodos
Venenos Elapídicos/isolamento & purificação
Dose Letal Mediana
Limites: Masculino
Camundongos
Responsável: BR33.1 - Divisão Técnica de Biblioteca e Documentação


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Id: lil-690401
Autor: Oliveira, José Sabino de.
Título: Conduta nos acidentes por animais peçonhentos / Conduct accidents by venomous animals
Fonte: In: Nestlé. 56º Curso Nestlé de atualização em pediatria. Foz do Iguaçu, Nestlé, 1999. p.25-31, tab.
Idioma: pt.
Conferência: Apresentado em: Curso Nestlé de atualização em pediatria, 56, Foz do Iguaçu, 11-15 set. 1999.
Descritores: Acidentes Domésticos
Animais Venenosos
Venenos de Formiga
Venenos Elapídicos
Himenópteros
Pediatria
Limites: Humanos
Responsável: BR408.1 - Biblioteca da Faculdade de Medicina - BFM
BR408.1; CD618.92bC977, 1999


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Id: lil-686627
Autor: McCue, Marshall D.
Título: What is the most dangerous snake?
Fonte: J. venom. anim. toxins incl. trop. dis;19:19-19, maio 2013.
Idioma: en.
Resumo: Letter to Editor of Journal of Venomous Animals and Toxins.
Descritores: Venenos Elapídicos/toxicidade
Elapidae
Limites: Animais
Tipo de Publ: Carta
Responsável: BR1.1 - BIREME


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Id: lil-686620
Autor: Balde, Mamadou C; Chippaux, Jean-Philippe; Boiro, Mamadou Y; Stock, Roberto P; Massougbodji, Achille.
Título: Use of antivenoms for the treatment of envenomation by Elapidae snakes in Guinea, Sub-Saharan Africa
Fonte: J. venom. anim. toxins incl. trop. dis;19:6-6, maio 2013.
Idioma: en.
Resumo: Background In Guinea Elapids are responsible for 20% of envenomations. The associated case fatality rate (CFR) ranged 15-27%, irrespective of treatment. Results We studied 77 neurotoxic envenomations divided in 3 groups: a set of patients that received only traditional or symptomatic treatments, and two other groups that received either 2 or 4 initial vials of Antivipmyn® Africa renewed as necessary. CFR was 27.3%, 15.4% and 17.6%, respectively. Although antivenom treatment was likely to reduce CFR, it didn’t seem to have an obvious clinical benefit for the patients, suggesting a low treatment efficacy. Mean delay to treatment or clinical stages were not significantly different between the patients who recovered and the patients who died, or between groups. Interpretation of these results is complicated by the lack of systematic studies under comparable conditions. Of particular importance is the absence of assisted ventilation, available to patients in all the other clinical studies of neurotoxic envenomation. Conclusion The apparent lack of clinical benefit may have several causes. The hypothesis of a limited therapeutic window, i.e. an insufficient formation of antigen-antibody complexes once toxins are bound to their targets and/or distributed beyond the reach of antivenom, should be explored. .
Descritores: Antivenenos/uso terapêutico
Venenos Elapídicos/toxicidade
Elapidae
-Antivenenos/efeitos adversos
Guiné/epidemiologia
Neurotoxinas
Envenenamento/mortalidade
Limites: Humanos
Masculino
Feminino
Responsável: BR1.1 - BIREME



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