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Pesquisa : D27.505.519.625.240 [Categoria DeCS]
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Id: lil-743354
Autor: Aragão, Gislei Frota.
Título: Efeitos dos triterpenos a- e ß-amirina e de seus derivados acetilados no sistema nervoso central [manuscrito] / Effects of a- and ß-amyrin triterpenes and its acetylated derivatives in the central nervous system [manuscript].
Fonte: Fortaleza; s.n; 2008.
Idioma: pt.
Tese: Apresentada a Universidade Federal do Ceará para obtenção do grau de Doutor.
Resumo: A mistura triterpênica de α- e β-amirina (AMI) é obtida da planta Protium heptaphyllum Aubl March (Família Burseraceae), comum em vários estados brasileiros e conhecida popularmente como breu branco, também é utilizada na prática da medicina popular para tratar várias enfermidades. O acetato de α- e β-amirina (AcAMI) é a forma acetilada desta mistura triterpênica. Vários estudos experimentais já foram feitos utilizando estes triterpenos, mas estudos da ação destes no Sistema Nervoso Central (SNC) ainda são escassos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da administração destes compostos naturais em camundongos e verificar uma possível atividade sedativa, ansiolítica, antidepressiva e anticonvulsivante, procurando ainda esclarecer por que mecanismos estes compostos agem. A metodologia utilizada foi utilizando testes farmacológicos já descritos na literatura e estudos de doseamento de monoaminas e aminoácidos através de HPLC. Os resultados mostraram que tanto a AMI como o AcAMI mostraram-se bastante ativos farmacologicamente. No teste da Campo Aberto ambas misturas (AMI e AcAMI) administradas por via aguda e sub-crônica demonstraram efeitos sedativos, nas doses de 10, 25 50 mg/kg, após a constatação da diminuição do movimento exploratório dos animais e do número de grooming e de rearing, utilizando o diazepam como controle positivo. No Teste do Plus Maze também ambas as misturas demonstraram atividade ansiolítica aumentando o número de entradas e o tempo de permanência nos braços abertos...
Descritores: Antidepressivos
Burseraceae
Sistema Nervoso Central
GABAérgicos
Pentilenotetrazol
Proteína Quinase C
Triterpenos
Responsável: BR6.1 - BCS - Biblioteca de Ciências da Saúde


  2 / 19 LILACS  
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Id: lil-715546
Autor: Maciel, Ana Alice Wolf; Cunha, Paulo Rowilson; Laraia, Isabela Ortiz; Trevisan, Flávia.
Título: Efficacy of gabapentin in the improvement of pruritus and quality of life of patients with notalgia paresthetica
Fonte: An. bras. dermatol;89(4):570-575, Jul-Aug/2014. tab, graf.
Idioma: en.
Resumo: BACKGROUND: notalgia paresthetica is a subdiagnosed sensory neuropathy presenting as a condition of intense itching and hyperchromic macule on the back that interferes with daily habits. OBJECTIVES: To determine the efficacy of treatment of notalgia paresthetica using oral gabapentin, assessing the degree of improvement in itching and influence on quality of life. Moreover, to evaluate the signs and symptoms associated with notalgia paresthetica. METHODS: We conducted an experimental, non-randomized, parallel, non-blinded study including 20 patients with clinical and histopathological diagnosis of notalgia paresthetica. After application of the visual analogue scale of pain adapted for pruritus and of the questionnaire of dermatology life quality index (DLQI), ten patients with visual analogue scale > 5 were given treatment with gabapentin at the dose of 300 mg/day for four weeks. The other ten were treated with topical capsaicin 0.025% daily for four weeks. After the treatment period, patients answered again the scale of itching. RESULTS: The use of gabapentin was responsible for a significant improvement in pruritus (p=0.0020). Besides itching and hyperchromic stain on the back, patients reported paresthesia and back pain. It was observed that the main factor in the worsening of the rash is heat. CONCLUSION: Gabapentin is a good option for the treatment of severe itching caused by nostalgia paresthetica. .
Descritores: Aminas/uso terapêutico
Dor nas Costas/tratamento farmacológico
Ácidos Cicloexanocarboxílicos/uso terapêutico
GABAérgicos/uso terapêutico
Parestesia/tratamento farmacológico
Prurido/tratamento farmacológico
Qualidade de Vida
Ácido gama-Aminobutírico/uso terapêutico
-Antipruriginosos/uso terapêutico
Dor nas Costas/patologia
Capsaicina/uso terapêutico
Parestesia/patologia
Prurido/patologia
Inquéritos e Questionários
Resultado do Tratamento
Escala Visual Analógica
Limites: Adulto
Feminino
Humanos
Masculino
Pessoa de Meia-Idade
Adulto Jovem
Tipo de Publ: Estudo Comparativo
Estudo de Avaliação
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Responsável: BR1.1 - BIREME


  3 / 19 LILACS  
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Id: lil-686577
Autor: Silva, L.L.; Garlet, Q.I.; Benovit, S.C.; Dolci, G.; Mallmann, C.A.; Burger, M.E.; Baldisserotto, B.; Longhi, S.J.; Heinzmann, B.M..
Título: Sedative and anesthetic activities of the essential oils of Hyptis mutabilis (Rich.) Briq. and their isolated components in silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen)
Fonte: Braz. j. med. biol. res = Rev. bras. pesqui. méd. biol;46(9):771-779, 19/set. 2013. tab, graf.
Idioma: en.
Projeto: FAPERGS/PRONEX; . CNPq.
Resumo: This study evaluated the sedative and anesthetic effects of the essential oils (EO) of Hyptis mutabilis (Rich.) Briq. and their isolated components on silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen). Quantitative chemical differences between the EOs obtained from leaves and inflorescences were verified, and a new chemotype rich in globulol was described. Although there were no significant differences in the time of induction for sedation and anesthesia between the EOs, only the leaf EO at 344 mg/L anesthetized all fish without side effects. Fractionation of the leaf EO was carried out by column chromatography. The isolated compounds [(+)-1-terpinen-4-ol and (-)-globulol] showed different activity from that detected for the leaf EO in proportional concentrations and similar sedation to a eugenol control at 10 mg/L. However, fish exposed to 1-terpinen-4-ol (3 and 10 mg/L) did not remain sedated for 30 min. Anesthesia was obtained with 83-190 mg/L globulol, but animals showed loss of mucus during induction and mortality at these concentrations. Synergism of the depressor effects was detected with the association of globulol and benzodiazepine (BDZ), compared with either drug alone. Fish exposed to BDZ or globulol+BDZ association showed faster recovery from anesthesia in water containing flumazenil, but the same did not occur with globulol. In conclusion, the use of globulol in aquaculture procedures should be considered only at sedative concentrations of 10 and 20 mg/L, and its mechanism of action seems not to involve the GABAA-BDZ system.
Descritores: Anestésicos/farmacologia
Peixes-Gato
Hipnóticos e Sedativos/farmacologia
Hyptis/química
Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia
-Análise de Variância
Anestésicos/isolamento & purificação
GABAérgicos/metabolismo
Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas
Hipnóticos e Sedativos/isolamento & purificação
Inflorescência/química
Mortalidade
Óleos Voláteis/isolamento & purificação
Folhas de Planta/química
Estatísticas não Paramétricas
Sesquiterpenos/isolamento & purificação
Sesquiterpenos/farmacocinética
Terpenos/isolamento & purificação
Terpenos/farmacologia
Limites: Animais
Tipo de Publ: Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Responsável: BR1.1 - BIREME


  4 / 19 LILACS  
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Id: lil-682401
Autor: Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research; Jansen-Amorim, A.K.; Fiorani, M.; Gattass, R..
Título: GABA-induced inactivation of Cebus apella V2 neurons: effects on orientation tuning and direction selectivity
Fonte: Braz. j. med. biol. res = Rev. bras. pesqui. méd. biol;46(7):589-600, ago. 2013. graf.
Idioma: en.
Resumo: We investigated the GABA-induced inactivation of V2 neurons and terminals on the receptive field properties of this area in an anesthetized and paralyzed Cebus apella monkey. Extracellular single-unit activity was recorded using tungsten microelectrodes in a monkey before and after pressure-injection of a 0.25 or 0.5 M GABA solution. The visual stimulus consisted of a bar moving in 8 possible directions. In total, 24 V2 neurons were studied before and after blocker injections in 4 experimental sessions following GABA injection into area V2. A group of 10 neurons were studied over a short period. An additional 6 neurons were investigated over a long period after the GABA injection. A third group of 8 neurons were studied over a very long period. Overall, these 24 neurons displayed an early (1-20 min) significant general decrease in excitability with concomitant changes in orientation or direction selectivity. GABA inactivation in area V2 produced robust inhibition in 80% and a significant change in directional selectivity in 60% of the neurons examined. These GABA projections are capable of modulating not only levels of spontaneous and driven activity of V2 neurons but also receptive field properties such as direction selectivity.
Descritores: GABAérgicos/farmacologia
Inibição Neural
Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos
Orientação/efeitos dos fármacos
Córtex Visual/efeitos dos fármacos
Ácido gama-Aminobutírico/farmacologia
-Cebus
Eletrocardiografia
Lidocaína/metabolismo
Microeletrodos
Inibição Neural/efeitos dos fármacos
Estimulação Luminosa
Fatores de Tempo
Ácido gama-Aminobutírico/fisiologia
Limites: Animais
Masculino
Tipo de Publ: Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Responsável: BR1.1 - BIREME


  5 / 19 LILACS  
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Id: lil-611096
Autor: Santos, Julia Maria dos; Brandão, Marcus Lira.
Título: Gabaergic mechanisms of anterior and ventromedial hypothalamic nuclei in the expression of freezing in response to a light-conditioned stimulus
Fonte: Psychol. neurosci. (Impr.);4(2):211-217, 2011.
Idioma: en.
Resumo: The amygdala, dorsal periaqueductal gray (dPAG), and medial hypothalamus have long been recognized to comprise a neural system responsible for the generation and elaboration of unconditioned fear in the brain. This neural substrate is well known to be under tonic inhibitory control exerted by ã-aminobutyric acid (GABA) mechanisms. Some evidence also suggests that these structures integrate conditioned fear. A recent study using the fear-potentiated startle paradigm showed that GABAergic mechanisms in the anterior hypothalamic nucleus (AHN) and dorsomedial part of the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus (VMHDM) regulate conditioned fear. The present study examined the extent to which GABAergic mechanisms in these brain regions are involved in conditioned fear by measuring freezing in response to a light used as a conditioned stimulus (CS). The GABA A receptor agonist muscimol and the GABA-synthesizing enzyme glutamic acid decarboxylase inhibitor semicarbazide were used as an enhancer and inhibitor of GABA mechanisms, respectively. Muscimol and semicarbazide were injected into the AHN or VMHDM of rats before fear conditioning. Muscimol injections into the AHN and VMHDM significantly reduced conditioned freezing, whereas inhibition of GABA transmission increased this conditioned response in the AHN. The present study further supports the hypothesis that GABAergic mechanisms in the AHN and VMHDM exert inhibitory control on the neural substrates of conditioned fear in the hypothalamus.
Descritores: Condicionamento Psicológico
GABAérgicos
Hipotálamo Anterior
Limites: Animais
Ratos
Responsável: BR85.1 - Biblioteca Dante Moreira Leite


  6 / 19 LILACS  
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Id: lil-594584
Autor: Madiedo Clavijo, Cristina Nohora; Perea Solano, Dario José.
Título: Avances en las bases moleculares de la anestesiología / Advances in the molecular basis of anaesthesiology
Fonte: Rev. colomb. anestesiol;37(2):141-151, may-jul. 2009. ilus, tab.
Idioma: en; es.
Resumo: Aunque la primera anestesia se dio hace más de 100 años, el posterior surgimiento de múltiples anestésicos permitió desarrollar todos los componentes implicados durante su administración. Solo hasta hace aproximadamente 30 años se han venido conociendo las bases moleculares de los mecanismos de acción de los anestésicos gracias a la biología molecular, con un vertiginoso desarrollo en los últimos 10 años. Es de vital importancia para el anestesiólogo conocer las bases moleculares de la anestesia, lo cual le permitirá entender efectos, interacciones y toxicidad de los anestésicos e impactará en la adecuada administración de los medicamentos disponibles, a la vez que influirá en el desarrollo de nuevos fármacos con acciones más específicas.

Although the first anaesthetic was given more than a century ago, the subsequent emergence of several anaesthetic drugs enabled several components involved in its administration to be identified. Only during the past 30 years has the molecular basis for anaesthetics' mechanisms of action become known (especially undergoing vertiginous progress during the last decade). It is of vital importance for an anaesthesiologist to know the molecular basis of anaesthesia and ensure complete comprehension of anaesthetics' effects, interactions and toxicity. Such knowledge will have an impact on the suitable administration of available drugs and the creation of new ones having more specific action.
Descritores: Amnésia
Anestesia
Biologia Molecular
Receptores de GABA-A
-GABAérgicos
Limites: Humanos
Masculino
Adolescente
Adulto
Feminino
Adulto Jovem
Pessoa de Meia-Idade
Tipo de Publ: Revisão
Responsável: CO99.1 - Revista Colombiana de Anestesiologia


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Id: lil-567688
Autor: Reimer, Adriano Edgar; Oliveira, Amanda Ribeiro de; Brandão, Marcus Lira.
Título: Involvement of GABAergic mechanisms of the dorsal periaqueductal gray and inferior colliculus on unconditioned fear
Fonte: Psychol. neurosci. (Impr.);2(1):51-58, June 2009. ilus, graf.
Idioma: en.
Projeto: FAPESP; . CNPq; . FAPESP; . CNPq.
Resumo: The fact that the dorsal periaqueductal gray (dPAG) and inferior colliculus (IC), together with superior colliculus, medial hypothalamus and amygdala, constitute the brain aversion system has been well-established. Stepwise increases in the intensity of electrical stimulation of dPAG or IC cause freezing and escape responses, which are followed by a freezing behavior that lasts after the interruption of the stimulation. Freezing and escape are unconditioned defensive behaviors derived from the stimulation of the output centers for the defense reaction, whereas the post-stimulation freezing is the behavioral counterpart of the processing of aversive information. Although GABA-A mechanisms of the midbrain tectum exert a tonic inhibitory influence on the neural substrates of unconditioned fear, their influence on the processing of aversive information is not completely understood. Thus, the present study examines the effects of injections of the GABA-A receptor agonist muscimol (1 and 2 nmol/0.2 µL) or the glutamic acid decarboxylase blocker semicarbazide (5 and 7.5 µg/0.2 µL) into dPAG or IC of Wistar rats on freezing and escape thresholds determined by electrical stimulation of these same structures and on post-stimulation freezing. Intra-dPAG injections of muscimol increased and semicarbazide decreased the freezing and escape thresholds of electrical stimulation of the dPAG. Only semicarbazide enhanced the dPAG post-stimulation freezing. Intra-IC injections of muscimol significantly increased aversive thresholds, while having no effect on IC post-stimulation freezing. Intra-IC injections of semicarbazide had no significant effects. These findings suggest that GABAergic mechanisms are important regulators of the expression of unconditioned fear in dPAG and IC, whereas only in dPAG GABA appears to play a role on the sensory gating towards aversive information during post-stimulation freezing.
Descritores: Terapia Aversiva
Medo
GABAérgicos
Colículos Inferiores
Substância Cinzenta Periaquedutal
Limites: Animais
Responsável: BR85.1 - Biblioteca Dante Moreira Leite


  8 / 19 LILACS  
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Id: lil-557741
Autor: Hünig, Guillermo Joaquin.
Título: Alteraciones de la Corteza Prefrontal en la esquizofrenia (Tercera parte) / Alterations in the Prefrontal Cortex in Schizophrenia (Third Part)
Fonte: Psicofarmacologia (B. Aires);9(54):25-33, feb. 2009.
Idioma: es.
Resumo: La Corteza Prefrontal (CPF) y específicamente la Corteza Prefrontal Dorso Lateral es una corteza de asociación heteromodal, particular y selectivamente alterada en la esquizofrenia. La CPFDL (Corteza Prefrontal Dorso Lateral) presenta disminución selectiva de su conectividad sináptica, con disminución del neuropilo y del tamaño de los somas neuronales, con aumento de la densidad neuronal. Hay disminución de las aferencias provenientes del ATV (área tegmental ventral) en las capas medias y de las provenientes del NDM (núcleo dorso medial) del Tálamo en las medias y profundas, con disminución del volumen del mismo. Las alteraciones se agravan con el podado fisiológico en la adolescencia, produciendo fallas en los circuitos córtico-talámicos, córtico-estrio-tálamo-corticales y córtico-tálamo-cerebelares, con fallas en la regulación del filtro talámico y estados de hiperdopaminergia subcortical secundaria, relacionados con los síntomas positivos de la enfermedad. Esta revisión será presentada en tres partes. En la primera y segunda parte del trabajo se desarrollaron las alteraciones cognitivas descriptas en la esquizofrenia, específicamente la Memoria de Trabajo y la circuitería de la Corteza Prefrontal. En la tercera parte se tratará la importancia de la neurotransmisión dopaminérgica y neurofisiopatología de la CPF en la esquizofrenia.

The Prefrontal Cortex (PFC), and specifically, the Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex is a heteromodal association cortex, which is particularly and selectively altered in schizophrenia. The DLPC (Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex) displays a selective decrease of its synaptic connectivity, with a reduction of the neuropile as well as the size of neural somas, with an increased neural density. There is a decrease in the afferents of the ventral tegmental area (VTA), in the medium layers and the layers of the MDN (medial dorsal nucleus) of the Thalamus, in the medium and deep layers, with a reduction of its volume. Alterations become worse with physiological crop in adolescence, leading to impairments of the corticothalamic, cortico-striatal-thalamic-cortical and cortico-thalamic-cerebellar circuits, with impairments in the regulation of the thalamic filter, and states of secondary subcortical hyperdopaminergia, associated with the pisitive symptoms of the disease. This review will be divided in three parts. The first and the second part consist in the cognitive alterations described in schizophrenia, specifically, the Working Memory as well as the Prefrontal Cortex circuitry. The Third part deals with the importance of dopaminergic neurotransmission and the neurophysiopathology of the PFC in schizophrenia.
Descritores: Ciência Cognitiva
Córtex Pré-Frontal/fisiopatologia
Esquizofrenia/fisiopatologia
GABAérgicos
Transtornos da Memória
Receptores de Dopamina D1
Receptores de Glutamato Metabotrópico
Limites: Humanos
Responsável: AR392.1 - Biblioteca


  9 / 19 LILACS  
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Id: lil-556273
Autor: Hobaika, Adriano Bechara de Souza; Fantini, Cristiana Nunes Coelho; Figueiredo, Carolina Lamac; Santos, Pedro Ribeiro; Alves, Nilo Garonci.
Título: Monitorização dos níveis de consciência em anestesiologia / Consciousness level monitorization in anesthesia
Fonte: Rev. méd. Minas Gerais;17(1/2):54-59, jan.-jun. 2007. tab, ilus.
Idioma: pt.
Resumo: A anestesia geral é o conjunto de vários estados fisiológicos, incluindo o estado de inconsciência. O receptor do ácido gama-aminobutírico, subtipo A, tem se revelado importante alvo de drogas anestésicas, na medida em que contribuiu para indução de sedação e inconsciência. O anestesiologista deve ter conhecimento dos mecanismos de ação dos fármacos na transmissão do sistema gabaérgico e saber utilizar os meios disponíveis para monitorizar a consciência do paciente anestesiado. Nesse contexto, os aparelhos que processam os sinais do eletroencefalograma têm se mostrado muito úteis na motorização da inconsciência.
Descritores: Anestesia Geral
Estado de Consciência
-GABAérgicos
Eletroencefalografia
Monitorização Intraoperatória
Receptores de GABA
Limites: Humanos
Tipo de Publ: Revisão
Responsável: BR21.1 - Biblioteca J Baeta Vianna- Campus Saúde UFMG


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Id: lil-540793
Autor: Scolari, Mariano José.
Título: Hipótesis epigenética de la esquizofrenia: bases moleculares y modelos experimentales / Epigenetic Hypothesis for Schizophrenia: Molecular bases and Experimental Models
Fonte: Psicofarmacologia (B. Aires);9(55):29-32, abr. 2009. tab.
Idioma: es.
Resumo: Si bien la predisposición a desarrollar esquizofrenia ha sido, en parte, atribuida a un componente genético, la evidencia experimental de los últimos años sugiere que este trastorno puede ser el resultado de una aberración epigenética. De ahí que a las hipótesis hiperdopaminérgica e hipoglutamatérgica, se le sume la hipótesis epigenética de la esquizofrenia. Esta última propone que la fisiopatología de la enfermedad se sostiene en cambios en la expresión génica por una estructura aberrante de la cromatina, más que por cambios en la secuencia del ADN. De los múltiples blancos moleculares propuestos en la etiología de la enfermedad, cobra particular importancia la enzima ácido glutámico descarboxilasa, encargada de sintetizar el ácido γ - amino butírico (GABA), en especial la isoforma de 67 kDa, y la reelina, cuyos genes codificantes parecen estar hipermetilados en pacientes con esquizofrenia cuando se los compara con individuos sanos. Esto determina un menor nivel de expresión de la enzima y niveles disminuidos de GABA, lo que involucra íntimamente a este neurotransmisor en el desarrollo de la esquizofrenia.

Although the tendency to develop shizophrenia has partly been ascribed to a genetic component, experimental evidence gathered in recent years suggests that this disorder may be the producto of an epigenetic aberration. Hence, the hyperdopaminergic and hupoglutamatergic hypotheses add on the epigenetic hypothesis for shizophrenial. The latter proposes that the physiopathology of schizophrenia stems from changes in the gene expression, into an aberrant structure of the chromatin, rather than from DNA sequence variations. Oif the multiple molecular targets proposed in the etiology of shizophrenia, one which acquires particular significance is the enzyme, glutamic acid decarboxylase, which synthesizes Y-aminobutyric acid (GABA), especially 67-kDa isoform and reelin, whose codifying genes seem to be hypermethylated in patients with schizophrenia, as compared with healthy individuals. This determines a lower level of expression of the enzyme, as well as rduced GABA levels, which evidences the close relationship betweeen this neurotransmissor and the development of schizophrenia.
Descritores: Ácido Valproico/antagonistas & inibidores
DNA
Epigênese Genética/genética
Esquizofrenia/genética
Esquizofrenia/terapia
GABAérgicos
Histonas/genética
Metionina/administração & dosagem
Neurópilo/patologia
Regulação da Expressão Gênica/fisiologia
Limites: Camundongos
Responsável: AR392.1 - Biblioteca



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