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Id: lil-791336
Autor: Sánchez Díaz, Natalia; Osorio, Andrés Duarte; Gómez Restrepo, Carlos; Bohórquez Peñaranda, Adriana Patricia.
Título: Implementación de la guía de práctica clínica para el manejo de adultos con esquizofrenia en Colombia / Implementation of a Clinical Practice Guidelines for the Management of Adults With Schizophrenia in Colombia
Fonte: Rev. colomb. psiquiatr;45(2):60-66, abr.-jun. 2016. tab.
Idioma: es.
Resumo: Objetivos: Presentar las estrategias y actividades globales que permitan llevar a la práctica las recomendaciones contenidas en la guía (GPCE). Priorizar las recomendaciones, identificar potenciales barreras y facilitadores, plantear estrategias de solución y desarrollar un sistema de seguimiento y evaluación de la implementación de las recomendaciones contenidas en la GPCE. Método: Durante el proceso de elaboración de la GPCE, se incluyeron profesionales con dedicación primordial a implementación. En las reuniones identificaron estos tópicos y posteriormente se complementaron con revisiones de literatura sobre implementación de guías de esquizofrenia. Se tuvieron en cuenta las discusiones planteadas en las reuniones de socialización, y las reuniones conjuntas con el Ministerio de Salud y Protección Social y el Instituto de Evaluación Tecnológica en Salud. Resultados: El capítulo de implementación de la GPCE incluye la descripción de las potenciales barreras, las estrategias de solución, los facilitadores y los indicadores de seguimiento, estos últimos categorizados por estructura, proceso y resultado. Las barreras identificadas se categorizaron en 3 grupos, haciendo referencia al contexto cultural, el sistema de salud y las intervenciones propuestas. Los temas referentes a estrategias de solución y facilitadoras incluyen programas de educación a la comunidad en salud mental, entrenamiento en salud mental a trabajadores de la salud de atención primaria, descentralización de los servicios de salud mental e integración a nivel primario, utilización de tecnologías de la información y la comunicación y telemedicina. Conclusión: La implementación de la GPCE dentro del Sistema General de Seguridad Social en Salud en Colombia plantea múltiples retos. Las potenciales barreras, estrategias facilitadoras e indicadores de seguimiento y evaluación descritos en el presente artículo, pueden brindar un soporte eficiente para contribuir al éxito de este proceso en las instituciones prestadoras de servicios de salud que adopten la guía.

Objectives: To present overall strategies and activities for the implementation process of the recommendations contained in the clinical practice guideline for the management of adults with schizophrenia (GPCE) published by the Colombian Ministry of Health and Welfare (MSPS). Prioritize the proposed recommendations, identify barriers and solving strategies to implement the GPCE, and develop a monitoring and evaluation system for the key recommendations. Method: The Guideline Developer Group (GDG) included professionals with primary dedication to implementation issues that accompanied the entire process. During the GDG meetings implementation topics were identified and discussed, and later complemented by literature reviews concerning the experience of mental health guidelines implementation at national and international level. Additionally, feedback from the discussions raised during the socialization meetings, and joint meetings with the MSPS and the Institute of Technology Assessment in Health (IETS) were included. The prioritization of recommendations was made in conjunction with the GDG, following the proposed steps in the methodological guide for the development of Clinical Practice Guidelines with Economic Evaluation in the General System of Social Security in Colombian Health (GMEGPC) using the tools 13 and 14. The conclusions and final adjustments were discussed with the GPCE leaders. Results: The implementation chapter includes a description of the potential barriers, solution strategies, facilitators and monitoring indicators. The identified barriers were categorized in the following 3 groups: Cultural context, health system and proposed interventions. The issues related to solving strategies and facilitating education programs include community mental health, mental health training for health workers in primary care, decentralization and integration of mental health services at the primary care level, use of technologies information and communication and telemedicine. To monitor and evaluate o the implementation process, five (5) indicators were designed one (1) structure, two (2) process and two (2) outcome indicators. Conclusion: The GPCE implementation within the Colombian General health System of Social Security (SGSSSC) poses multiple challenges. Potential barriers, enabling strategies and indicators for monitoring and evaluation described in this article, can provide efficient support to ensure the success of this process in the institutions that will adopt the guideline.
Descritores: Esquizofrenia
Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto
Serviços de Saúde Mental
Categorias de Trabalhadores
-Ajustamento Social
Avaliação da Tecnologia Biomédica
Características de Residência
Saúde Mental
Pessoal de Saúde
Colômbia
Tecnologia da Informação
Articulações
Limites: Humanos
Masculino
Feminino
Responsável: CO78 - Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría


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Id: biblio-830371
Autor: Vélez, Claudia Marcela; Villada Ramírez, Adriana C; Amaya Arias, Ana Carolina; Eslava-Schmalbach, Javier H.
Título: Validación por modelo de Rasch del Cuestionario de Calidad de Vida (PedsQL 4. 0®) en niños y adolescentes colombianos / Rasch Model in the Validation of the Paediatric Quality of Life Inventory TM 4. 0 (PedsQL 4.0TM) in Colombian Children and Adolescents
Fonte: Rev. colomb. psiquiatr;45(3):186-193, jul.-sep. 2016. ilus, tab.
Idioma: es.
Resumo: Introducción: La escala PedsQL 4.0® se ha probado confiable y sensible a los cambios en el estado de salud, y es de rápida y fácil aplicación. El propósito de este estudio es validar la PedsQL 4.0®a partir de la aplicación del modelo de Rasch en niños y adolescentes colombianos de ambos sexos. Métodos: Se llevó a cabo un estudio observacional de validación de instrumentos de medición. Se realizó un muestreo no probabilístico por conveniencia, conformado por 375 sujetos de 5 a 18 años de edad y 500 cuidadores de menores de 2 a 18 años en cinco ciudades colombianas. Las propiedades psicométricas de la escala se analizaron según el modelo de Rasch, entre ellas el ajuste, la separación y el funcionamiento diferencial del ítem. Resultados: Se encontró un adecuado ajuste de los datos al modelo de Rasch. La dimensión social presentó mayor dificultad que la dimensión de salud física en las dos versiones. Se observó consistencia interna de los ítems, mientras que para las personas, los valores de confiabilidad y separación estuvieron por debajo de lo establecido. El funcionamiento diferencial del ítem ocurrió en unas pocas variables, en especial, al comparar por ciudad. Las curvas características de los ítems presentaron umbrales desordenados. Conclusiones: Los ítems presentaron una consistencia adecuada; el análisis por personas no mostró una separación adecuada; sin embargo, se encontraron umbrales desordenados en las categorías de respuesta. No se presentó funcionamiento diferencial del ítem por sexo o por enfermedad, pero llama la atención que el sí ocurriera entre ciudades.

Introduction: The aim of this study was to validate the PedsQL 4.0TM in Colombian children and adolescents using the Rasch model. The Paediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL 4.0TM) has demonstrated to be a reliable and sensitive measurement to changes in health status, as well as being quick and easy to use. Methods: Validation study of measurement tools. The PedsQL 4.0TMwas applied to a convenience sample of 375 children and adolescents between 5 and 17 years old and 500 caregivers of children between 2 and 18 years old in five Colombian cities. The psychometric properties were analysed according to the Rasch model, including adjustment, separation, and differential item functioning (DIF). Results: The Rasch model provided adequate fits to data. The social dimension, for both versions, had greater difficulty than the physical health dimension. Internal consistency for the items was observed, while for individuals, the values of reliability and separation were lower than that established. The DIF occurred in very few variables, especially when comparing cities. The characteristic curves for the items presented disordered thresholds. Conclusions: The items had adequate internal consistency. Analysis showed adequate individual separation, but disordered thresholds were found in the response categories. No DIF was observed by sex or disease, but it is noteworthy that the DIF occurred between cities
Descritores: Psicometria
Qualidade de Vida
-Ajustamento Social
Inquéritos e Questionários
Amostragem
Cuidadores
Colômbia
Limites: Humanos
Masculino
Feminino
Criança
Adolescente
Responsável: CO78 - Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría


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Id: biblio-1003255
Autor: Klappenbach, Roberto F; Costa, Cecilia; Mendoza Beleño, Álvaro; Arce, José; Arroyave, Roberto; Rosado, Helmuth; Muñoz, Franklin; Benvenuti, Rodolfo.
Título: Complicaciones biliares en pacientes con diagnóstico previo de litiasis vesicular sintomática: Comparación entre un hospital público y otro privado del Gran Buenos Aires / Biliary complications in patients with previous diagnosis of symptomatic gallstones: Comparison between a public and a private hospital in Greater Buenos Aires
Fonte: Rev. argent. cir;111(1):15-19, mar. 2019. graf, tab.
Idioma: es.
Resumo: Antecedentes: la demora en el tratamiento de la litiasis vesicular sintomática (LVS) aumenta el riesgo de complicaciones biliares. Se plantea la hipótesis de que existen diferencias en el tratamiento de la LVS entre el sector público y el de obras sociales del Gran Buenos Aires (GBA). Objetivo: comparar la proporción de pacientes con litiasis biliar complicada (LBC) que presentaban diagnóstico previo de LVS, y evaluar la historia previa de la LBC según la presencia de síntomas y la relación con el sistema de salud. Material y métodos: estudio de corte transversal comparativo entre un hospital público (HPu) y otro privado (HPr) del GBA. Se analizó la historia clínica y se realizó una encuesta a pacientes colecistectomizados por LBC (colecistitis aguda, pancreatitis aguda y coledocolitiasis). Resultados: se incluyeron 105 pacientes del HPu y 136 del HPr. Las características basales difirieron en la edad, nivel educativo, distancia domicilio-hospital y ASA. El diagnóstico previo de LVS fue más frecuente en el HPu (60% vs. 39,7%; p = 0,02), diferencia que se mantuvo luego del ajuste multivariable (OR 2,14; IC 95%: 1,1 a 4,1; p = 0,02). Los pacientes del HPu mostraron una mayor frecuencia de dolores abdominales, tiempo desde el diagnóstico, número de consultas de urgencia luego del diagnóstico y mayor tiempo en lista de espera. Conclusiones: ell HPu mostró mayor pérdida de oportunidad quirúrgica de la litiasis vesicular en un estadio previo no complicado. Las causas podrían ser multifactoriales, pero se necesitan más estudios para corroborar esta hipótesis.

Background: Delays in the treatment of symptomatic cholelithiasis (SCL) increases the risk of biliary complications. There may be differences in the treatment of SCL between the public sector and the social security in the Greater Buenos Aires (GBA). Objectives: The aim of this study was to compare the proportion of patients with complicated gallstone disease (CGD) with previous diagnosis of SCL and to evaluate the history of CGD according to the presence of symptoms and its relation with the health care system. Material and methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study comparing a public hospital (PH) versus a private center (PrH) in the GBA. The clinical records were analyzed and patients with a history of cholecystectomy due to CGD (acute cholecystitis, acute pancreatitis and acute choledocholithiasis) were surveyed. Results: A total of 105 PH patients and 136 PrH patients were included. The baseline characteristics differed in terms of age, educational level, distance from home to hospital and ASA physical status classification. The previous diagnosis of SCL was more common in the PH (60% vs. 39.7%; p = 0.02) and this difference persisted after multivariate adjustment (OR 2.14; 95% CI, 1.1-4.1; p = 0.02). The PH presented more patients with abdominal pain and more visits to the emergency department (ED) after the diagnosis; time after the diagnosis was greater and these patients spent more time on the waiting list. Conclusions: The PH showed greater loss of surgical opportunity of uncomplicated cholelithiasis. This may be due to multiple factors, but further studies are necessary to confirm this hypothesis.
Descritores: Pancreatite
Colecistectomia
Coledocolitíase
Colecistolitíase
Colecistite Aguda
-Pacientes
Ajustamento Social
Luto
Dor Abdominal
Estudos Transversais
Causalidade
Classificação
Diagnóstico
Métodos
Responsável: AR144.1 - CIBCHACO - Centro de Información Biomedica del Chaco


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Texto completo SciELO Brasil
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Id: biblio-1056881
Autor: Cademartori, Mariana Gonzalez; Rosa, Denise Paiva da; Brancher, Letícia Coutinho; Costa, Vanessa Polina Pereira; Goettems, Marília Leão.
Título: Association of Dental Anxiety with Psychosocial Characteristics among Children Aged 7-13 Years
Fonte: Pesqui. bras. odontopediatria clín. integr;20:e4635, 2020. tab.
Idioma: en.
Resumo: Abstract Objective: To identify psychosocial characteristics associated with dental anxiety in children aged 7-13 years in the dental setting. Material and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted with children aged 7-13 years attended at the Dentistry School of Pelotas, Brazil. Data collection was based on a questionnaire administered to mothers and children, and the behavior of children during dental treatment was evaluated using the Frankl' Scale. Data were analyzed using Chi-square and Fisher's exact tests in order to analyze the association between independent variables and dental anxiety. The effect of variables on the outcome was assessed by the Poisson regression model with robust variance (Prevalence Ratio; 95% Confidence interval). Results: A total of 187 children were included. Dental anxiety prevalence was 40.11%. After adjustments, younger children (p=0.046), only child (p=0.019), and children with negative previous dental experience (p=0.046) showed higher dental anxiety prevalence. Children with uncooperative behavior in previous (p=0.033) and current (p≤0.001) dental appointments showed higher dental anxiety prevalence. Conclusion: In this sample of children treated at a dentistry school, a report of dental anxiety was associated with age, birth order, previous dental experience and behavior in dental settings.
Descritores: Ajustamento Social
Criança
Comportamento Infantil/psicologia
Ansiedade ao Tratamento Odontológico
Mães
-Brasil/epidemiologia
Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado
Intervalos de Confiança
Estudos Transversais/métodos
Inquéritos e Questionários
Estatísticas não Paramétricas
Limites: Humanos
Masculino
Feminino
Criança
Adolescente
Responsável: BR1264.1 - Biblioteca Setorial Prof Alberto M Campos


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Texto completo SciELO Chile
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Id: biblio-959521
Autor: Adauy, Arlette; Sandoval, Jorge; Ríos, Rafael; Cartes, Alejandra; Salinas, Hugo.
Título: Terapia hormonal en la transición femenino a masculino (ftm), androgénica, para trans masculino o para hombre transgénero / Hormone Therapy in Female to Male Transition (FTM), Androgenic, Trans Male, or Transgender Male
Fonte: Rev. chil. obstet. ginecol. (En línea);83(3):318-328, jun. 2018. tab.
Idioma: es.
Resumo: RESUMEN La transexualidad, o el ser transgénero según la nomenclatura actual, describe a personas que persistentemente buscan ser aceptados como miembros del sexo opuesto, desean cambiar sus caracteres sexuales primarios y/o secundarios a través de intervenciones médicas tanto hormonales como quirúrgicas para feminizarse o masculinizarse. (Tabla 1) Esta discordancia entre su "sexo biológico" y "psicológico" genera estrés clínicamente significativo con rechazo profundo al cuerpo del sexo anatómico, al género asignado al nacer y, por ende, alteración persistente en el funcionamiento diario (mayor a 6 meses), se denomina disforia de género, sienten que nacieron en el "cuerpo equivocado". El objetivo de la intervención médica es mejorar la disforia de género y, por consiguiente, mejora el bienestar y la calidad de vida de las personas trans. En Revista de la Sociedad Chilena de Obstetricia y Ginecología Infantil y de la Adolescencia, recientemente hemos publicado dos artículos de revisión sobre la introducción a la Hormonoterapia en personas transexuales, objetivos de la terapia, transición en la adolescencia, y la transición masculino a femenino, por lo que éste escrito se concentrará sólo en la Terapia Hormonal de la transición femenino a Masculino (FTM), son personas que transitan de Mujer a Hombre, o transgénero masculino o trans masculino. (1,2)

ABSTRACT Transsexuality, or being transgender according to the current nomenclature, describes people who persistently seek to be accepted as members of the opposite sex, wish to change their primary and / or secondary sexual characteristics through both hormonal and surgical medical interventions to feminize or masculinize themselves. (Table 1) This discordance between their "biological" and "psychological" sex, generates clinically significant stress with profound rejection of the body of the anatomical sex, the gender assigned at birth and, therefore, persistent alteration in daily functioning (more than 6 months), is called gender dysphoria feel that they were born in the "wrong Body". The goal of medical intervention is to improve gender dysphoria and, consequently, improve the well-being and quality of life of transgender people. In the Journal of the Chilean Society of Obstetrics and Child and Adolescent Gynecology, we have recently published two review articles on the introduction of Hormonotherapy in transgender people, goals of therapy, transition in adolescence, and the male-to-female transition, so this paper will focus only on Hormonal Therapy of the female to male transition (FTM), are people who transit from woman to man, or male trans, male transgender. (1,2)
Descritores: Pessoas Transgênero/psicologia
Disforia de Gênero/psicologia
Hormônios/uso terapêutico
-Ajustamento Social
Estradiol/uso terapêutico
Procedimentos de Readequação Sexual
Identidade de Gênero
Limites: Humanos
Masculino
Feminino
Tipo de Publ: Revisão
Responsável: CL126.2 - Biblioteca Médica Dr. Profesor Hernán Alessandri R.


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Texto completo SciELO Cuba
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Id: lil-726993
Autor: Segura Massó, Arturo Alexander.
Título: Estado de la información acerca del paciente epiléptico y su inserción social en Cuba / State of information about the epileptic patient and its social integration in Cuba
Fonte: Rev. cuba. salud pública;40(4), oct.-dic. 2014.
Idioma: es.
Resumo: Introducción: los problemas más relevantes relacionados con los aspectos psicosociales de la epilepsia están vinculados a las creencias erróneas que existen a nivel mundial sobre las limitantes propias de la enfermedad, que afectan a las personas que la padecen. Objetivo: realizar una aproximación al estado actual del tema sobre la inserción social del paciente epiléptico en Cuba, en los últimos 12 años. Métodos: se revisaron 3 794 artículos publicados entre 2000 y 2012 en seis revistas médicas cubanas certificadas, en las bases de datos SciELO y CUMED. La selección se basó en su frecuencia de publicación y la calidad de sus artículos. La estrategia de búsqueda se realizó con los descriptores: epilepsia, paciente epiléptico, inserción social, sociedad, trastornos psicosociales y tratamiento. Síntesis de la información: del total de trabajos revisados solo 29 eran de epilepsia, de ellos, 14 trataban el tema de la inserción social del paciente epiléptico y 15 abordaban aspectos de su atención médica. En estos últimos, se aboga fundamentalmente, por el aumento de la calidad vida en este paciente desde el paradigma clínico y hacen escasa o ninguna referencia a su atención desde el paradigma psicológico salubrista que permite comprobar los niveles de adaptación psicosocial en el enfermo. Conclusiones: las evidencias encontradas apuntan a una escasa divulgación de artículos que traten el tema de la inserción social del paciente epiléptico desde el enfoque psicológico salubrista, que debería considerarse componente activo del tratamiento general(AU)

Introduction: the most relevant problems related to psychosocial aspects of epilepsy lie in wrong beliefs worldwide on the restrictions inherent to this disease that affect the people suffering it. Objective: to approach the current state of information about the social integration of the epileptic patient in Cuba in the last 12 years. Methods: a review of 3 794 articles published from 2000 to 2012 in six Cuban recognized medical journals and in SciELO and CUMED databases. The selection of journals took into consideration frequency of publication and quality of articles. The search subject headings were epilepsy, epileptic patient, social involvement, society, psychosocial disorders and treatment. Data synthesis: of the total number of articles, just 29 dealt with epilepsy, 14 of them with the social involvement of the epileptic patient and 15 addressed medical care. The latter fundamentally advocates the improvement in the quality of life of these patients from the clinical viewpoint but little or no reference was made to their care from the psychological and health approach that allows verifying the level of psychosocial adjustment in this patient. Conclusions: the evidence reveals poor dissemination of articles dealing with the topic of social integration of the epileptic patient from a psychological health care approach that should be regarded an active element of the general treatment(AU)
Descritores: Ajustamento Social
Epilepsia/psicologia
-Qualidade de Vida
Limites: Humanos
Responsável: CU1.1 - Biblioteca Médica Nacional


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Texto completo SciELO Cuba
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Id: lil-726996
Autor: Hernández Triana, Manuel.
Título: Envejecimiento / Aging
Fonte: Rev. cuba. salud pública;40(4), oct.-dic. 2014.
Idioma: es.
Resumo: Embelleciendo la vida se puede alcanzar una tercera edad enriquecedora, edificante y larga. El adaptismo es una corriente explicativa de la nutrición y alimentación humana que pretende matizar la vergüenza de la existencia de malnutrición en el siglo xxi con pinceladas lingüísticas tranquilizantes para sus generadores. Las actuales generaciones son el resultado de alternos períodos de hambrunas y plétora, los cuales seleccionaron a los sobrevivientes. Según la hipótesis de la Programación Fetal o del Fenotipo Ahorrador, las enfermedades de la adultez se programan por hormonas y neurotransmisores, durante períodos críticos del desarrollo fetal. Ella centra la atención de los debates sobre el alarmante comportamiento epidemiológico de diabetes, obesidad y cáncer en la actualidad. La prolongación de la esperanza de vida, como resultado de una muy exitosa combinación de un sistema inmune bien preservado, buena capacidad para enfrentar al estrés, estilo de vida apropiado y carga genética, va acompañada de la prevención de enfermedades no transmisibles. Las acciones para ello deben comenzar antes de la vida intrauterina. La vejez, en si misma, no es un problema sin solución: el problema consiste en la marginación, la enfermedad y la pobreza, que no permiten alcanzar una vida digna en muchas regiones del mundo para este grupo de edad(AU)

Making life beautiful is a way of reaching a long, enriching and fruitful older age. Adaptism is an explanatory current of human nutrition and feeding that intends to attenuate the shameful existence of malnutrition in the 21st century with reassuring linguistic phrases for its generators. Today's generations are the result of alternative periods of famine and plethora which selected the survivors. According to the Fetal Programming or Saving Phenotype hypothesis, diseases at adulthood is programmed by hormones and neurotransmitters during the critical periods of fetal development. This hypothesis becomes the center of debates on the alarming epidemiological behavior of diabetes, obesity and cancer at present. Extension of life expectancy, as a result of a very successful combination of well-preserved system, good capacity to face stress, adequate life style and genetic load, is accompanied by the prevention of non-communicable diseases. The actions to attain this goal should begin before the intrauterine life of the fetus. Aging as such is not an unsolved issue; the problem lies in marginalization, disease and poverty that do not allow the elderly to have a decent life in many regions of the world(AU)
Descritores: Adaptação Psicológica
Ajustamento Social
Envelhecimento
Estado Nutricional
Limites: Humanos
Idoso
Responsável: CU1.1 - Biblioteca Médica Nacional


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Texto completo SciELO Brasil
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Id: biblio-1091756
Autor: Silva, Mirella Cassia da; Arantes, Ana; Elias, Nassim Chamel.
Título: Uso de histórias sociais em sala de aula para crianças com autismo / Uso de historias sociales en clase para niños con autismo / Use of social stories in classroom to children with autism
Fonte: Psicol. Estud. (Online);25:e43094, 2020. graf.
Idioma: pt.
Resumo: RESUMO Indivíduos com o Transtorno do Espectro do Autismo (TEA) podem apresentar déficits em comportamentos sociais, como linguagem e interações interpessoais. Intervenções utilizando histórias sociais têm mostrado resultados promissores no ensino de comportamentos socialmente adequados e na redução de comportamentos socialmente inadequados em sala de aula, entre outros ambientes. Histórias sociais são personalizadas a partir do repertório comportamental de cada criança e apresentam as contingências de reforçamento envolvidas no comportamento desejado, no próprio ambiente em que o comportamento ocorre. O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar os efeitos da apresentação de histórias sociais na aprendizagem de comportamentos adequados e na redução de comportamentos inadequados de crianças com TEA em sala de aula. Os participantes foram dois meninos de seis e nove anos de idade, com diagnóstico de TEA, que apresentavam comportamentos inadequados diante de demanda social em ambiente escolar. Comportamentos-alvo para cada participante foram inseridos nas histórias sociais que mostravam as contingências do comportamento inadequado e da resposta alternativa adequada. Antes do início do período em que os comportamentos ocorriam com maior frequência, as histórias foram lidas para as crianças e as frequências dos comportamentos-alvo foram registradas durante a aula. Comportamentos adequados eram reforçados e os inadequados eram seguidos de procedimentos de correção. Os resultados indicaram aumento nos comportamentos adequados e diminuição nos inadequados para os dois participantes, e a diminuição da frequência de outros comportamentos inadequados não tratados diretamente na história social como efeito do engajamento em repertórios adequados de participação nas tarefas em sala de aula. Portanto, as histórias sociais parecem representar uma estratégia promissora na redução de comportamentos inadequados e aumento de adequados em sala de aula, com tempo curto de aplicação e baixo custo de construção dos materiais utilizados.

RESUMEN Los individuos con autismo pueden presentar déficit en comportamientos sociales, como lenguaje e interacciones interpersonales. Las intervenciones que utilizan historias sociales han apuntado resultados prometedores en la enseñanza de comportamientos socialmente adecuados y en la reducción de comportamientos socialmente inadecuados en clase, entre otros ambientes. Las historias sociales son personalizadas a partir del repertorio conductual de cada niño y presentan las contingencias de refuerzo involucradas en el comportamiento deseado, en el propio ambiente en que el comportamiento ocurre. El objetivo de este estudio fue verificar los efectos de la presentación de historias sociales en el aprendizaje de comportamientos adecuados y en la reducción de comportamientos inadecuados de niños con autismo en clase. Los participantes fueron dos niños de 6 y 9 años de edad, con diagnóstico de autismo, que presentaban comportamientos inadecuados ante demanda social en ambiente escolar. Los comportamientos objetivo para cada participante fueron insertados en las historias sociales que mostraban las contingencias del comportamiento inadecuado y de la respuesta alternativa adecuada. Antes del inicio del período en que los comportamientos ocurrían con más frecuencia, las historias fueron leídas para los niños y las frecuencias de los comportamientos objetivo se registraron durante la clase. Los comportamientos adecuados se reforzaban y los inadecuados se seguían de procedimientos de corrección. Los resultados indicaron aumento en los comportamientos adecuados y disminución en los inadecuados para los dos participantes, y también la disminución de la frecuencia de otros comportamientos inadecuados no tratados directamente en la historia social como efecto del compromiso en repertorios adecuados de participación en las tareas en el aula. Por lo tanto, las historias sociales parecen representar una estrategia prometedora en la reducción de comportamientos inadecuados y aumento de adecuados en el aula, con tiempo corto de aplicación y bajo costo de construcción de los materiales utilizados.

ABSTRACT Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) may present deficits in social behaviors such as language and interpersonal interactions. Interventions that use social stories have shown promising results in teaching socially appropriate behaviors and in reducing socially inappropriate behaviors in the classroom, among other environments. Social stories are personalized from behavioral repertoire of each child and present the contingencies of reinforcement involved in the desired behavior, in the very environment in which the behavior occurs. The aim of this study was to verify the effects of social stories in the learning of appropriate behaviors and in the reduction of inappropriate behaviors of children with ASD in the classroom. The participants were two boys, 6 and 9 years old, diagnosed with ASD, who presented inadequate behaviors in response to social demands in school environment. Target behaviors for each participant were inserted into social stories that showed contingencies of inappropriate behavior and the appropriate alternative response. Before the beginning of the period in which the behaviors occurred more frequently, the stories were read to the children and the frequencies of target behaviors were recorded during class. Appropriate behaviors were encouraged and inappropriate ones were followed by correction procedures. Results indicated an increase in appropriate behaviors and a decrease in inappropriate behaviors for both participants, as well as a decrease in frequency of other inappropriate behaviors not directly addressed in the social stories as an effect of engagement in adequate repertoires of participation in classroom tasks. Therefore, social stories seem to represent a promising strategy in reducing inappropriate behaviors and increasing appropriate ones in the classroom, with short application time and low cost of construction of the materials used.
Descritores: Ensino/psicologia
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/psicologia
História
-Leitura
Instituições Acadêmicas/tendências
Ajustamento Social
Comportamento Social
Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas
Comunicação
Habilidades Sociais
Professores Escolares/psicologia
Relações Interpessoais
Aprendizagem
Limites: Humanos
Masculino
Criança
Responsável: BR513.1 - Biblioteca Central


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Id: biblio-1138608
Autor: Hun, Nelson; Urzúa, Alfonso; López-Espinoza, Antonio; Calderón, Carlos.
Título: Comportamiento alimentario en inmigrantes: escala de estrategias de aculturación alimentaria EdeAA / Food behavior in immigrants: food acculturation strategies scale- EdeAA
Fonte: Rev. chil. nutr;47(5):724-729, set. 2020. tab, graf.
Idioma: es.
Projeto: FONDECYT.
Resumo: RESUMEN Este estudio tuvo por objetivo analizar las propiedades psicométricas de la Escala de Estrategias de Aculturación Alimentaria - EdeAA, instrumento diseñado para evaluar dichas habilidades basándose en el modelo categórico de estrategias de aculturación propuesto por Berry. Trecientos tres inmigrantes colombianos residentes en la ciudad de Antofagasta, Chile participaron del estudio. Se testeó la comprensión y pertinencia cultural de la redacción de los ítems, paralelamente se realizó validación de expertos y finalmente se realizó un análisis factorial confirmatorio. Como resultados, los índices de bondad de ajuste indican que el modelo propuesto en este trabajo presenta un ajuste global aceptable (x2= 55,9; gl= 19; p<0,001; CFI= 0,960; RMSEA= 0,080 (0,056 - 0,105)). Se concluye que los resultados sustentan empíricamente la validez de la estructura interna de la Escala de Estrategias de Aculturación Alimentaria - EdeAA. Se sugiere replicar estos resultados en diferentes condiciones (distintas muestras, otros métodos de estimación, etc.). En esta línea es necesario realizar análisis de invarianza factorial con diversos grupos de migrantes residentes en distintos países.

ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to analyze the psychometric properties of the Food Acculturation Strategies Scale - EdeAA (in Spanish Escala de Estrategias de Aculturación Alimentaria), an instrument designed to evaluate skills based on the categorical model of acculturation strategies proposed by Berry. Three hundred and three Colombian immigrants living in the city of Antofagasta, Chile participated in the study. The understanding and cultural relevance of the writing of the items was tested, in parallel with expert validation and finally a confirmatory factor analysis was carried out. Goodness-of-fit indices indicated that the model proposed in this work had an acceptable global adjustment (x2 = 55.9; gl= 19; p < 0.001; IFC= 0.960; RMSEA= 0.080 (0.056 - 0.105)). We conclude that the results empirically support the validity of the internal structure of the Food Acculturation Strategies Scale - EdeAA. Replicating these results under different conditions (different samples, other estimation methods, etc.) is suggested. In this line, it is necessary to carry out factor invariance analyses with different groups of migrants residing in different countries.
Descritores: Migrantes
Emigrantes e Imigrantes
Alimentos
Aculturação
-Psicometria
Ajustamento Social
Comportamento Alimentar
Limites: Adulto
Pessoa de Meia-Idade
Tipo de Publ: Artigo Clássico
Responsável: CL334.1 - Biblioteca UBO


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Autor: Silva, Magda Aparecida dos Santos.
Título: Efetividade de duas modalidades de equipe de cuidado no controle de sintomas em pacientes com câncer avançado / Effectiveness of two modalities of team care in symptoms control in patients with advanced cancer.
Fonte: São Paulo; s.n; 2014. 121 p.
Idioma: pt.
Tese: Apresentada a Universidade de São Paulo para obtenção do grau de Doutor.
Resumo: Introdução. Embora existam diferentes estratégias para a prestação de cuidados paliativos ao paciente com câncer, pouco se conhece sobre a efetividade desses modelos. Objetivos. Comparar os efeitos da equipe de cuidado paliativo integrada ao cuidado tradicional com o cuidado tradicional sozinho no controle de sintomas em paciente com câncer avançado hospitalizado. Método. Estudo longitudinal composto por dois grupos não randomizados. 73 pacientes foram admitidos para a equipe de cuidado paliativo integrada ao cuidado tradicional (Grupo ECP) e comparados a 75 atendidos no modelo de cuidado tradicional (Grupo CT). Os sintomas foram avaliados pela Escala de Avaliação de Sintomas de Edmonton (ESAS), a satisfação por escala numérica verbal (0-10), a funcionalidade pela Escala de Desempenho Funcional Físico Karnofsky (KPS) e a adequação analgésica pelo Índice de Manejo da Dor (IMD). Os pacientes foram avaliados na admissão, após 24 e 48 horas. O desfecho primário foi a melhora clinica significativa de 2 pontos na intensidade da dor e da náusea em 48 horas, comparados com a admissão. Os dados demográficos, os sintomas e sua redução foram comparados entre os Grupos pelo Teste Exato de Fisher ou Mann Whitney. O Teste de Wilcoxon analisou alterações dos sintomas intragrupos. A regressão múltipla de Poisson controlou fatores de confusão para a melhora do sintoma. O nível de significância adotado foi de 5%. Resultados. A prevalência de sintomas foi alta em ambos os grupos: no Grupo ECPa variação foi de 43.8% (depressão) a 87.7% (sensação de bem estar), e no Grupo CT, de 24% (dispneia) a 85.5% (dor). A magnitude dos sintomas, pelo escore da mediana, foi importante em ambos os Grupos: na admissão, no Grupo ECP, variou entre 5.5 (sensação de bem estar) a 8.0 (ansiedade, apetite, constipação e tristeza), e no Grupo CT, variou de 6.0 (sensação de bem estar e dispneia) a 9.0 (perda do apetite). A mediana de sobrecarga de sintomas, avaliada pelo ESAS, foi de 50.0 em ambos os grupos. Na análise de 24 horas (intragrupo), no Grupo ECP cinco sintomas (dor, náusea, perda do apetite, dispneia, prejuízo do sono) e sobrecarga de sintomas foram reduzidos (p.

Introduction. Although there are many different strategies for provision of palliative care to patients with cancer, little is known about the effectiveness of these modalities. Objective.To compare the effects of a palliative care team integrated with traditional care to traditional care alone on symptom control in inpatients with advanced cancer. Method. Longitudinal study composed of two non-randomized groups. Seventy-three patients were admitted to the palliative care team integrated to traditional care (PCT Group) and compared to 75 patients treated in the traditional care model (TC Group). Symptoms were assessed by the Edmonton Symptom Assessment Scale (ESAS), satisfaction with treatment by the verbal numeric scale (0-10), performance status by the Karnofsky Performance Status Scale (KPS) and analgesic adequacy by the Pain Management Index (PMI). Patients were assessed upon admission, and after 24 and 48 hours. The primary outcomes were significant clinical improvements of 2 points in pain intensity and nausea in 48 hours, compared to admission. The demographic data, symptoms, and reduction in symptoms were compared between the groups by using Fisher\'s or Mann Whitneys Exact Tests. The Wilcoxon test examined the intragroup alteration of symptoms. The Poisson multiple regression controlled for confounding factors of improvement in symptoms. A p-value of 0.05 indicated statistical significance for all analyses. Results. The prevalence of symptoms at admission was highin both groups. In the PCT Group, it ranged from 43.8% (depression) to 87.7% (loss of well-being) and, in the TC Group, it ranged from 24% (dyspnoea) to 85.5% (pain). The magnitude of median score of symptoms was substantial in both groups: at admission for the PCT group, it ranged from 5.5 (sense of well-being) to 8.0 (anxiety, appetite, constipation, sadness), while for the TC Group, it ranged from 6.0 (sense of well-being and dyspnoea) to 9.0 (loss of appetite). The median score of the symptom burden assessed by ESAS was 50.0 in both groups. In 24 hours (intragroup), the PCT Group had significant reductions in intensity of five symptoms (pain, nausea, loss of appetite, dyspnoea, and sleep disturbance) and symptom burden, while the TC Group had significant reductions in intensity of three symptoms (pain, nausea, and sleep disturbance). In 48 hours (intragroup), the PCT Group had significant reductions in intensity of ten symptoms and symptom burden and while the TC Group had significant improve in intensity of four symptoms. Multiple regression analysis showed that pain (RR = 2.2 [95% CI 1.27-3.81]) and loss of well-being (RR = 4.6 [95% CI 1.34-15.88]) were reduced by two points and it was significantly more favourable only in the PCT Group. The PMI revealed better adequacy of analgesia in the PCT Group. Satisfaction was high and similar in both groups. Conclusion. Patients with advanced cancer in both groups showed a pronounced burden of symptoms and only pain wasproperly controlled in the PCT Group. The results indicate that factors that can improve treatment strategy should be implemented to improve the effectiveness of clinical assistance. Examples of factors that can improve treatment are frequent and systematic assessment of symptoms in short periods, and strategies that allow for timely adjustment of therapy when necessary.
Descritores: Ajustamento Social
-Pacientes Internados
Neoplasias
Limites: Humanos
Masculino
Feminino
Responsável: BR41.1 - Biblioteca Wanda de Aguiar Horta
BR41.1



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