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Texto completo SciELO Chile
Texto completo
Id: biblio-902564
Autor: Morong R, Germán; Brangier P, Víctor.
Título: El 'humor' de los indios en el saber médico de los siglos XVI-XVII / Indian 'humor' in medical knowledge during the 16th and 17th centuries
Fonte: Rev. méd. Chile;145(7):920-925, jul. 2017. tab.
Idioma: es.
Resumo: During the first Modern Era (15th-17th c.), bodily health and expressions of physiognomy were explained under the doctrine of humors. This doctrine -based on Corpus Hipocraticum-established a close relation between humors (blood, yellow bile, phlegm, and black bile), qualities (dry, moist, warm, and cold) and the elements (water, air, earth, and fire). One of these humors -black bile-, commonly a hallmark of the melancholic temperament, was associated to the complexion and nature of American Indians. This accusation was legitimized by the empirical examination of the physiognomy of a subject that was melancholic, sad and pusillanimous. In this article, we describe, based on the analysis of colonial texts (16th-17th c.), how the essential premises of the humor theory were transferred to the New World and in particular and how the Indian complexion was defined through the examination of subjects plagued by black humor and phlegm. With this, we determine the way these individuals -referred as 'Indians'- were inscribed in medical knowledge, during the global spread of the Hippocratic-Galenic postulates.
Descritores: Fisiognomia
Temperamento
Índios Sul-Americanos/história
Teoria Humoral
-Transtorno Depressivo/história
Limites: Humanos
História do Século XV
História do Século XVI
História do Século XVII
Tipo de Publ: Artigo Histórico
Responsável: CL1.1 - Biblioteca Central


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Texto completo SciELO Brasil
Lotufo, Paulo Andrade
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Id: biblio-904111
Autor: Nogueira, Barbara Schwair; Fraguas Júnior, Renerio; Benseñor, Isabela Martins; Lotufo, Paulo Andrade; Brunoni, Andre Russowsky.
Título: Temperament and character traits in major depressive disorder: a case control study
Fonte: Säo Paulo med. j;135(5):469-474, Sept.-Oct. 2017. tab, graf.
Idioma: en.
Projeto: CNPq; . 2013 NARSAD Young Investigator from the Brain & Behavior Research Foundation; . 2013 FAPESP Young Researcher from the São Paulo State Foundation; . National Council for Scientific and Technological Development; . Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia e Inovação - Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico; . Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo.
Resumo: ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) have distinct personality traits, compared with control subjects, although the role of anxiety and positive and negative affects in this finding is unclear. DESIGN AND SETTING: A case-control study enrolling 103 antidepressant-free depressed patients and 103 age and gender-matched controls was conducted at the University Hospital, University of São Paulo. METHODS: The self-reported scales of the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) and Cloninger's Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) were applied. Temperament and character traits were compared between groups using multivariate and bivariate analyses of variance (MANOVA and ANOVA). The influence of anxiety and affect was further investigated using ANOVA and mediation analyses. RESULTS: Depressed patients presented higher harm avoidance and lower self-directedness scores than controls. After adjustment for anxiety trait, harm avoidance was no longer significantly different between groups. Mediation analysis revealed that the anxiety trait, but not state-anxiety or affect, fully mediated the influence of group (depressed versus control subjects) on harm avoidance. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings confirm that depressed patients present personality traits distinct from those of controls and suggest that MDD is not directly associated with harm avoidance, but that this effect is fully mediated through the anxiety trait.
Descritores: Ansiedade/psicologia
Temperamento
Transtorno Depressivo Maior/psicologia
-Inventário de Personalidade
Estudos de Casos e Controles
Limites: Humanos
Masculino
Feminino
Adolescente
Adulto
Pessoa de Meia-Idade
Idoso
Adulto Jovem
Responsável: BR1.1 - BIREME


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Id: lil-791768
Autor: Bachert, Cristina Maria D'Antona; Wechsler, Solange Muglia; Machado, Wagner de Lara.
Título: Construção e validação do Inventário de Estilos de Temperamento do Professor (IETP) / Construct and validity od Teacher's Temperament Styles Inventory (IETP) / Construcción y validación del Inventario de los Estilos de Temperamento del Profesor (IETP)
Fonte: Psico (Porto Alegre);47(1):56-67, 2016. graf, tab.
Idioma: pt.
Resumo: O Inventário de Estilos de Temperamento do Professor (IETP) é um instrumento de autorrelato composto por quatro dimensões: Extrovertido-Introvertido, Prático-Imaginativo, Pensamento-Sentimento e Organizado-Flexível, que teve suas propriedades psicométricas avaliadas em dois estudos. O primeiro analisou as evidências de validade baseadas nos 40 itens construídos e contou com a participação de cinco pesquisadores da área de Avaliação Psicológica. O segundo investigou as evidências baseadas na estrutura interna do IETP, que foram avaliadas por meio da Análise Fatorial Exploratória com definição de quatro fatores e seus coeficientes de fidedignidade (F1 = 0,77; F2 = 0,80; F3 = 0,90; F4 = 0,70). Participaram deste estudo 400 professores que lecionavam no Ensino Fundamental II e Ensino Médio (média de idade = 41,1 anos, SD = 10,97). Uma análise de agrupamentos (Two-Step Cluster) identificou a presença de dois grupos: Catalizador (59,9%) e Compreensivo (40,1%). Conclui-se que o IETP possui qualidade científica para facilitar ao professor avaliar e aprimorar seu estilo pessoal de ensinar.

The Teacher Temperament Styles Inventory (IETP) is a self-report instrument composed of four dimensions: Extroverted-Introverted, Practical-Imaginative, Thinking-Feeling, and Organized-Flexible that had its psychometric properties evaluated in two studies. The first one analyzed the evidences based on 40 items designed and included five psychological assessment researchers. The second examined the evidences based on internal structure of IETP, which was assessed by Exploratory Factor Analysis with four factors set, their reliability coefficients (F1 = 0.77, F2 = 0.80, F3 = 0.90, F4 = 0.70). The latter study included 400 elementary and high school teachers (Mean Age = 41.1 years; SD = 10.97). The cluster analysis (Two Step Clusters) identified the existence of two profile groups discriminated between Catalyst (59.9%) and Comprehensive (40.1%). On conclusion, the IETP has scientific qualities in order to help teachers assess and improve their teaching style.

Lo Inventario de los Estilos de Temperamento del Profesor es un instrumento de auto informe compuesto por cuatro dimensiones: Extrovertido-Introvertido, Práctico-Imaginativo, Pensamiento-Sentimiento y Organizado-Flexible que tuvieron sus propiedades psicométricas evaluadas en dos estudios. El primero examinó las evidencias de validez a partir de los ítems do IETP contó con la participación de cinco investigadores del área de Evaluación Psicológica. El segundo examinó las evidencias basada en la estructura interna de IETP, los cuales fueron evaluados por Análisis Factorial Exploratorio con la definición de cuatro factores y sus coeficientes de fiabilidad (F1 = 0,77; F2 = 0,80; F3 = 0,90; F4 = 0,70). El estudio incluyó a 400 maestros que enseñaban en escuela básica (Media de Edad = 41,1 años; SD = 10,97). Un análisis de clusters (Two Step Clusters) identificó la presencia de dos grupos de perfiles Catalizador (59,9%) y Comprensivo (40,1%). Se concluyó que la IETP tiene calidad científica para permitir la mejora del estilo de enseñanza.
Descritores: Temperamento
Emoções
Docentes
Limites: Humanos
Masculino
Feminino
Adulto
Pessoa de Meia-Idade
Responsável: BR1323.1 - Biblioteca Central Irmão José Otão


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Texto completo SciELO Brasil
Texto completo
Id: biblio-1088741
Autor: CARVALHO, HUDSON W. DE; COGO-MOREIRA, HUGO; JANSEN, KAREN; SOUZA, LUCIANO; BRANCO, JERÔNIMO; SILVA, RICARDO; LARA, DIOGO R.
Título: The latent structure and reliability of the emotional trait section of the Affective and Emotional Composite Temperament Scale (AFECTS)
Fonte: Arch. Clin. Psychiatry (Impr.) = Rev. psiquiatr. clín. (São Paulo) = Psiquiatria clínica;47(1):25-29, Jan.-Feb. 2020. tab, graf.
Idioma: en.
Resumo: Abstract Background The Emotional and Affective Composite Temperament (AFECT) model describes originally six traits of volition, anger, inhibition (fear and caution subordinate factors), control, sensitivity, and coping. However, fear and caution have shown opposite relatioships with criteria-variables, indicating factor independence. Objective The current investigation aimed to advance in the evaluation of the psychometric properties of the emotional trait section of the Emotional and Affective Composite Temperament Scale (AFECTS) by examining the suitability of a 7-factor structure and the reliability of each scale using data from a population-based sample. Methods AFECTS was administered via face-to-face assessments in a single-session, population-based cross-sectional survey. Samples was composed of teenagers and adults (14 to 35 years). The latent structure and reliability were analyzed via structural equation modeling: confirmatory factor analysis was used to test the a priori correlated 7-factor model (with fear and caution designed as single-factors) and trait-scores reliability was assessed by the estimation of information curves. Results Findings attested the suitability of the 7-factor model presumed to underline the item set of the traits section of AFECTS and information curve interpretation showed adequate levels of reliability for all trait-scores. Discussion The 7-factor model showed robust indicators of construct validity for the AFECTS.
Descritores: Psicometria/métodos
Temperamento
Emoções
Modelos Psicológicos
-Volição
Adaptação Psicológica
Estudos Transversais
Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
Afeto
Precaução
Controle Comportamental
Empatia
Medo/psicologia
Ira
Limites: Humanos
Masculino
Feminino
Adolescente
Adulto
Adulto Jovem
Responsável: BR66.1 - Divisão de Biblioteca e Documentação


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Id: lil-785380
Autor: Martínez, Marta; García, María Cristina; Aguirre-Acevedo, Daniel Camilo.
Título: Respuesta al estrés, Temperamento y Crianza en niños colombianos de 1 año / Response to stress, temperament and child rearing in Colombian children
Fonte: Rev. latinoam. cienc. soc. niñez juv;13(2):1065-1080, jul. 2015. tab.
Idioma: es.
Resumo: Este estudio busco explorar las relaciones entre el temperamento de una muestra de niños de 1 año (264), las expectativas y prácticas de crianza de sus padres y el cortisol en saliva como respuesta al estrés en una submuestra de la anterior (59). La respuesta al estrés se encontró asociada con la variable prácticas disciplinarias (R=0,31) y se correlaciono negativamente con las variables extroversión (R=-0,35) y regulación (-0,21). No se encontró correlación entre las variables de temperamento y crianza, lo cual se interpreta con la teoría de la bondad del ajuste. Estos resultados son relevantes en la planificación de los programas de formación de padres y soportan la importancia de erradicar el castigo físico y promover una crianza flexible que se acople a las diferencias individuales...
Descritores: Punição
Educação Infantil
Temperamento
-Hidrocortisona
Limites: Humanos
Responsável: CO335.1 - Centro de Estudios Avanzados en Niñez y Juventud de la Alianza CINDE


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Id: lil-565340
Autor: Cabrera, Ailin R; Valdivieso, Mónica R.
Título: Influencia del apego y el temperamento en el tratamiento odontológico del infante / Influence of attachment and temperament on paediatric dental care
Fonte: Odontol. pediatr. (Lima);8(2):25-30, jul.-dic. 2009. tab.
Idioma: es.
Resumo: En el presente artículo se desarrolla el concepto de temperamento, se explica como influye este en la interacción del infante con su medio y se revisa evidencia reciente al respecto. También se presenta la teoría del apego, sus tipos y partiendo de los planteamientos iniciales, los aportes más recientes al respecto. Finalmente se discute la forma como influyen el temperamento y el estilo de apego del infante en el campo de la odontopediatría.

This article develops the concept of the temperament, explaining how it influences the relationship between the infant and its environment and examines the literature about it. It also presents the attachment theory, its classification, starting, with the initial approach and the most recent contributions. Finally, we discuss the way how temperature and the type of attachment influence the dental care of the infant.
Descritores: Apego ao Objeto
Assistência Odontológica para Crianças
Desenvolvimento Infantil
Personalidade
Temperamento
Limites: Humanos
Masculino
Feminino
Pré-Escolar
Tipo de Publ: Revisão
Responsável: PE1.1 - Oficina Universitária de Biblioteca


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Id: lil-302094
Autor: Monteiro, Claudete Ferreira de Souza.
Título: Do aperreio e do nervoso: uma contribuição para assistência em enfermagem psiquiátrica / From the Harassment to the Nervousness: a contribuition for the assistance in psychiatric nursing.
Fonte: Rio de Janeiro; s.n; dez. 1999. 112 p. ilus.
Idioma: pt.
Tese: Apresentada a Escola de Enfermagem Anna Nery para obtenção do grau de Mestre.
Resumo: O presente trabalho investigou os Significados do nervoso em comunidade de classe popular, em Teresina-PI. Trata-se de um estudo de campo, de natureza qualitativa, com referencial teórico das ciências sociais, utilizando-se estudiosos que investigam o nervoso em vários contextos brasileiros, notadamente Luis Fernando Dias Duarte. O cenário é a Vila Bandeirantes e a coleta de dados se deu através de observações com anotações em diário de campo e entrevista com roteiro semi-estruturado, com questões sobre sintomas, sofrimento e noção de pessoa na sociedade. A pesquisa mostra aque os significados do nervoso para as mulheres encontram-se associadas a situações de violência, relacionamentos conflituosos, excesso de bebida pelo companheiro, abandono e insegurança no enfrentamento dos problemas do dia a dia. Para os homens, os significados do nervoso estariam mais ligadas ao trabalho fora de casa e a insegurança diante da manutenção deste trabalho.
Descritores: Temperamento
Enfermagem Psiquiátrica
-Medicina do Comportamento
Enfermagem
Limites: Humanos
Masculino
Feminino
Responsável: BR442.1 - Biblioteca Setorial de Pós-Graduação
BR442.1; T347, EEAN, 3ex


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Texto completo SciELO Brasil
Texto completo
Id: lil-798091
Autor: Dopierala, Ewa; Chrobak, Adrian A; Kapczinski, Flavio; Michalak, Michal; Tereszko, Anna; Ferensztajn-Rochowiak, Ewa; Dudek, Dominika; Dembinska-Krajewska, Daria; Siwek, Marcin; Jaracz, Jan; Rybakowski, Janusz K.
Título: The Biological Rhythms Interview of Assessment in Neuropsychiatry in patients with bipolar disorder: correlation with affective temperaments and schizotypy
Fonte: Rev. bras. psiquiatr;38(4):325-328, Oct.-Dec. 2016. tab.
Idioma: en.
Resumo: Objective: To assess the relationship of biological rhythms, evaluated by the Biological Rhythms Interview of Assessment in Neuropsychiatry (BRIAN), with affective temperaments and schizotypy. Methods: The BRIAN assessment, along with the Temperament Evaluation of Memphis, Pisa, Paris, and San Diego-Autoquestionnaire (TEMPS-A) and the Oxford-Liverpool Inventory for Feelings and Experiences (O-LIFE), was administered to 54 patients with remitted bipolar disorder (BD) and 54 healthy control (HC) subjects. Results: The TEMPS-A cyclothymic temperament correlated positively and the hyperthymic temperament correlated negatively with BRIAN scores in both the BD and HC groups, although the correlation was stronger in BD subjects. Depressive temperament was associated with BRIAN scores in BD but not in HC; conversely, the irritable temperament was associated with BRIAN scores in HC, but not in BD. Several positive correlations between BRIAN scores and the schizotypal dimensions of the O-LIFE were observed in both BD and HC subjects, especially with cognitive disorganization and less so with unusual experiences and impulsive nonconformity. A correlation with introversion/anhedonia was found only in BD subjects. Conclusion: Cyclothymic and depressive temperaments predispose to disturbances of biological rhythms in BD, while a hyperthymic temperament can be protective. Similar predispositions were also found for all schizotypal dimensions, mostly for cognitive disorganization.
Descritores: Periodicidade
Transtorno da Personalidade Esquizotípica/psicologia
Transtorno Bipolar/psicologia
-Inventário de Personalidade
Transtorno da Personalidade Esquizotípica/reabilitação
Temperamento
Transtorno Bipolar/tratamento farmacológico
Estudos de Casos e Controles
Compostos de Lítio/uso terapêutico
Limites: Humanos
Masculino
Feminino
Adulto
Responsável: BR1.1 - BIREME


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Texto completo SciELO Brasil
Texto completo
Id: biblio-1039099
Autor: Isik-Ulusoy, Selen.
Título: Evaluation of affective temperament and anxiety-depression levels in fibromyalgia patients: a pilot study
Fonte: Braz. J. Psychiatry (São Paulo, 1999, Impr.);41(5):428-432, Sept.-Oct. 2019. tab.
Idioma: en.
Resumo: Objective: Fibromyalgia (FM) patients have higher rates of depression and anxiety disorders than healthy controls. Affective temperament features are subclinical manifestations of mood disorders. Our aim was to evaluate the affective temperaments of FM patients and investigate their association with depression and anxiety levels and clinical findings. Methods: This cross-sectional study included FM patients and healthy controls. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) was used to determine patient anxiety and depression levels, and the Temperament Scale of Memphis, Pisa and San Diego, self-administered version was applied to assess affective temperaments in all subjects. Disease severity was assessed in FM patients with the Fibromyalgia Criteria and Severity Scales and the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ). Differences between groups were evaluated using Student's t-tests. Correlations among parameters were performed. Results: This study involved 38 patients with FM (30 female) and 30 healthy controls (25 female). Depressive, anxious and cyclothymic temperaments were significantly higher in FM patients than healthy controls. Statistically significant positive correlations were found between HADS depression score and all temperaments except hyperthymic, as well as between HADS anxiety score and cyclothymic and anxious temperaments. HADS depression and anxiety scores were correlated with symptom severity. We found a higher risk of depression and anxiety among FM patients with higher FIQ scores. Conclusion: This study is the first to evaluate affective temperament features of FM patients. Evaluating temperamental traits in FM patients may help clinicians determine which patients are at risk for depression and anxiety disorders.
Descritores: Transtornos de Ansiedade/psicologia
Temperamento
Fibromialgia/psicologia
Transtornos do Humor/psicologia
Transtorno Depressivo/psicologia
-Inventário de Personalidade
Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica
Índice de Gravidade de Doença
Estudos de Casos e Controles
Projetos Piloto
Estudos Transversais
Inquéritos e Questionários
Estatísticas não Paramétricas
Sintomas Afetivos/psicologia
Pessoa de Meia-Idade
Limites: Humanos
Masculino
Feminino
Adulto
Responsável: BR1.1 - BIREME


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Texto completo
Id: biblio-844198
Autor: Alminhana, Letícia O; Farias, Miguel; Claridge, Gordon; Cloninger, Claude R; Moreira-Almeida, Alexander.
Título: How to tell a happy from an unhappy schizotype: personality factors and mental health outcomes in individuals with psychotic experiences
Fonte: Rev. bras. psiquiatr;39(2):126-132, Apr.-June 2017. tab.
Idioma: en.
Resumo: Objective: It is unclear why some individuals reporting psychotic experiences have balanced lives while others go on to develop mental health problems. The objective of this study was to test if the personality traits of harm avoidance, self-directedness, and self-transcendence can be used as criteria to differentiate healthy from unhealthy schizotypal individuals. Methods: We interviewed 115 participants who reported a high frequency of psychotic experiences. The instruments used were the Temperament and Character Inventory (140), Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV, and the Oxford-Liverpool Inventory of Feelings and Experiences. Results: Harm avoidance predicted cognitive disorganization (β = 0.319; t = 2.94), while novelty seeking predicted bipolar disorder (β = 0.136, Exp [β] = 1.146) and impulsive non-conformity (β = 0.322; t = 3.55). Self-directedness predicted an overall decrease in schizotypy, most of all in cognitive disorganization (β = -0.356; t = -2.95) and in impulsive non-conformity (β = -0.313; t = -2.83). Finally, self-transcendence predicted unusual experiences (β = 0.256; t = 2.32). Conclusion: Personality features are important criteria to distinguish between pathology and mental health in individuals presenting high levels of anomalous experiences (AEs). While self-directedness is a protective factor, both harm avoidance and novelty seeking were predictors of negative mental health outcomes. We suggest that the impact of AEs on mental health is moderated by personality factors.
Descritores: Transtornos Psicóticos/fisiopatologia
Transtornos Psicóticos/psicologia
Transtorno da Personalidade Esquizotípica/fisiopatologia
Transtorno da Personalidade Esquizotípica/psicologia
Saúde Mental
-Ansiedade/psicologia
Inventário de Personalidade
Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica
Religião e Psicologia
Temperamento/fisiologia
Brasil
Caráter
Fatores Sexuais
Estudos Transversais
Inquéritos e Questionários
Fatores Etários
Estatísticas não Paramétricas
Limites: Humanos
Masculino
Feminino
Adulto
Pessoa de Meia-Idade
Responsável: BR1.1 - BIREME



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