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Pesquisa : G01.311.750 [Categoria DeCS]
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Id: biblio-951821
Autor: Azam, Mudsser; Jan, Arif Tasleem; Kumar, Ashutosh; Siddiqui, Kehkashan; Mondal, Aftab Hossain; Haq, Qazi Mohd. Rizwanul.
Título: Study of pandrug and heavy metal resistance among E. coli from anthropogenically influenced Delhi stretch of river Yamuna
Fonte: Braz. j. microbiol;49(3):471-480, July-Sept. 2018. tab, graf.
Idioma: en.
Projeto: Council of Scientific & Industrial Research.
Resumo: Abstract Escalating burden of antibiotic resistance that has reached new heights present a grave concern to mankind. As the problem is no longer confined to clinics, we hereby report identification of a pandrug resistant Escherichia coli isolate from heavily polluted Delhi stretch of river Yamuna, India. E. coli MRC11 was found sensitive only to tobramycin against 21 antibiotics tested, with minimum inhibitory concentration values >256 µg/mL for amoxicillin, carbenicillin, aztreonam, ceftazidime and cefotaxime. Addition of certain heavy metals at higher concentrations were ineffective in increasing susceptibility of E. coli MRC11 to antibiotics. Withstanding sub-optimal concentration of cefotaxime (10 µg/mL) and mercuric chloride (2 µg/mL), and also resistance to their combinatorial use, indicates better adaptability in heavily polluted environment through clustering and expression of resistance genes. Interestingly, E. coli MRC11 harbours two different variants of blaTEM (blaTEM-116 and blaTEM-1 with and without extended-spectrum activity, respectively), in addition to mer operon (merB, merP and merT) genes. Studies employing conjugation, confirmed localization of blaTEM-116, merP and merT genes on the conjugative plasmid. Understanding potentialities of such isolates will help in determining risk factors attributing pandrug resistance and strengthening strategic development of new and effective antimicrobial agents.
Descritores: Metais Pesados/farmacologia
Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla
Rios/microbiologia
Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia
-Óperon
beta-Lactamases/genética
beta-Lactamases/metabolismo
Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana
Proteínas de Escherichia coli/genética
Proteínas de Escherichia coli/metabolismo
Escherichia coli/isolamento & purificação
Escherichia coli/enzimologia
Escherichia coli/genética
Índia
Responsável: BR1.1 - BIREME


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Id: biblio-974291
Autor: Agunbiade, Mayowa; Pohl, Carolina; Ashafa, Omotayo.
Título: Bioflocculant production from Streptomyces platensis and its potential for river and waste water treatment
Fonte: Braz. j. microbiol;49(4):731-741, Oct.-Dec. 2018. tab, graf.
Idioma: en.
Resumo: ABSTRACT A bacterium isolated from Sterkfontein dam was confirmed to produce bioflocculant with excellent flocculation activity. The 16S rDNA nucleotide sequence analyses revealed the bacteria to have 99% similarity to Streptomyces platensis strain HBUM174787 and the sequence was deposited in the Genbank as Streptomyces platensis with accession number FJ 486385.1. Culture conditions for optimal production of the bioflocculant included glucose as a sole carbon source, resulting in flocculating activity of 90%. Other optimal conditions included: peptone as nitrogen source; presence of Mg2+ as cations and inoculum size of 1.0% (v/v) at neutral pH of 7. Optimum dose of the purified bioflocculant for the clarification of 4 g/L kaolin clay suspension at neutral pH was 0.2 mg/mL. Energy Dispersive X-ray analysis confirmed elemental composition of the purified bioflocculant in mass proportion (%w/w): carbon (21.41), oxygen (35.59), sulphur (26.16), nitrogen (0.62) and potassium (7.48). Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) indicated the presence of hydroxyl, carboxyl, methoxyl and amino group in the bioflocculant. The bioflocculant produced by S. platensis removed chemical oxygen demand (COD) in river water and meat processing wastewater at efficiencies of 63.1 and 46.6% respectively and reduced their turbidity by 84.3 and 75.6% respectively. The high flocculating rate and removal efficiencies displayed by S. platensis suggests its industrial application in wastewater treatment.
Descritores: Streptomyces/química
Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo
Águas Residuais/química
-Streptomyces/isolamento & purificação
Streptomyces/genética
Streptomyces/metabolismo
Proteínas de Bactérias/genética
Microbiologia da Água
Carbono/metabolismo
Purificação da Água
Rios/química
Floculação
Nitrogênio/metabolismo
Responsável: BR1.1 - BIREME


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Id: biblio-828196
Autor: Medeiros, Julliane Dutra; Cantão, Maurício Egídio; Cesar, Dionéia Evangelista; Nicolás, Marisa Fabiana; Diniz, Cláudio Galuppo; Silva, Vânia Lúcia; Vasconcelos, Ana Tereza Ribeiro de; Coelho, Cíntia Marques.
Título: Comparative metagenome of a stream impacted by the urbanization phenomenon
Fonte: Braz. j. microbiol;47(4):835-845, Oct.-Dec. 2016. graf.
Idioma: en.
Resumo: Abstract Rivers and streams are important reservoirs of freshwater for human consumption. These ecosystems are threatened by increasing urbanization, because raw sewage discharged into them alters their nutrient content and may affect the composition of their microbial community. In the present study, we investigate the taxonomic and functional profile of the microbial community in an urban lotic environment. Samples of running water were collected at two points in the São Pedro stream: an upstream preserved and non-urbanized area, and a polluted urbanized area with discharged sewage. The metagenomic DNA was sequenced by pyrosequencing. Differences were observed in the community composition at the two sites. The non-urbanized area was overrepresented by genera of ubiquitous microbes that act in the maintenance of environments. In contrast, the urbanized metagenome was rich in genera pathogenic to humans. The functional profile indicated that the microbes act on the metabolism of methane, nitrogen and sulfur, especially in the urbanized area. It was also found that virulence/defense (antibiotic resistance and metal resistance) and stress response-related genes were disseminated in the urbanized environment. The structure of the microbial community was altered by uncontrolled anthropic interference, highlighting the selective pressure imposed by high loads of urban sewage discharged into freshwater environments.
Descritores: Urbanização
Microbiologia da Água
Rios/microbiologia
Metagenoma
Microbiota
-Filogenia
RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
Ecossistema
Metabolismo Energético
Redes e Vias Metabólicas
Metagenômica
Código de Barras de DNA Taxonômico
Limites: Seres Humanos
Responsável: BR1.1 - BIREME


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Id: lil-328279
Autor: Fogel, Ramón.
Título: La ecorregión de Ñeembucú: infortunio, dignidad y sabiduría de sus antiguos pobladores / Ñeembucuïs ecorregion: mishap, dignity and wisdom of is former settlers.
Fonte: Asunción; Centro de Estudios Rurales Interdisciplinarios; mar. 2000. 206 p. ilus, mapas, tab, graf.
Idioma: es.
Resumo: La crisis ambiental es uno de los rasgos salientes de finales del siglo XX, y en la ecorregión de Ñeembucú significó el empobrecimiento de una parte importante de sus pobladores que dependen de los recursos naturales y los afectados por la exclusión social creciente también aportan lo suyo a la degradación ambiental ante la carencia de alternativas, el libro presenta un relevamiento de los procesos socioambientales desarrollados en esta región considerados relevantes, incluye: la ecorregión de Ñeembucú el medio físico y el biológico: el enfoque socioambiental, la dependencia del ecosistema de los ríos Paraguay y Paraná, los rasgos básicos de la ecología de Ñeembucú ; alteraciones en los humedales y conflictos socioambientales: el enfoque socioambiental, actuaciones en curso y emergentes com impacto ambiental, conflictos socioambientales en la ecorregión ; análisis y resoluciones de conflictos ; la utilización de los métodos alternativos de resolución de conflictos (MARCS) en nuestro sistema judicial ; lecciones destiladas y aprendizaje : y otros
Descritores: Ecossistema
Meio Ambiente
Rios
Ecologia
Mudança Climática
Conservação dos Recursos Naturais
-Paraguai
Responsável: PY40.1 - Biblioteca
PY40.1; Py312.9


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Id: biblio-839384
Autor: Alegbeleye, Oluwadara Oluwaseun; Opeolu, Beatrice Olutoyin; Jackson, Vanessa.
Título: Bioremediation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) compounds: (acenaphthene and fluorene) in water using indigenous bacterial species isolated from the Diep and Plankenburg rivers, Western Cape, South Africa
Fonte: Braz. j. microbiol;48(2):314-325, April.-June 2017. tab, graf.
Idioma: en.
Resumo: Abstract This study was conducted to investigate the occurrence of PAH degrading microorganisms in two river systems in the Western Cape, South Africa and their ability to degrade two PAH compounds: acenaphthene and fluorene. A total of 19 bacterial isolates were obtained from the Diep and Plankenburg rivers among which four were identified as acenaphthene and fluorene degrading isolates. In simulated batch scale experiments, the optimum temperature for efficient degradation of both compounds was determined in a shaking incubator after 14 days, testing at 25 °C, 30 °C, 35 °C, 37 °C, 38 °C, 40 °C and 45 °C followed by experiments in a Stirred Tank Bioreactor using optimum temperature profiles from the batch experiment results. All experiments were run without the addition of supplements, bulking agents, biosurfactants or any other form of biostimulants. Results showed that Raoultella ornithinolytica, Serratia marcescens, Bacillus megaterium and Aeromonas hydrophila efficiently degraded both compounds at 37 °C, 37 °C, 30 °C and 35 °C respectively. The degradation of fluorene was more efficient and rapid compared to that of acenaphthene and degradation at Stirred Tank Bioreactor scale was more efficient for all treatments. Raoultella ornithinolytica, Serratia marcescens, Bacillus megaterium and Aeromonas hydrophila degraded a mean total of 98.60%, 95.70%, 90.20% and 99.90% acenaphthene, respectively and 99.90%, 97.90%, 98.40% and 99.50% fluorene, respectively. The PAH degrading microorganisms isolated during this study significantly reduced the concentrations of acenaphthene and fluorene and may be used on a larger, commercial scale to bioremediate PAH contaminated river systems.
Descritores: Bactérias/isolamento & purificação
Bactérias/metabolismo
Rios/microbiologia
Fluorenos/metabolismo
Acenaftenos/metabolismo
-África do Sul
Temperatura Ambiente
Bactérias/classificação
Biotransformação
Responsável: BR1.1 - BIREME


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Id: biblio-1024570
Autor: Lima, Márcio Jonathan Soares; Veiga, Renato Pastor; Sousa, Luciclara Ferreira de; Santana, Maxwell Barbosa de; Oliveira, Marcos Sidney Brito; Tavares-Dias, Marcos; Corrêa, Lincoln Lima.
Título: Metacercariae of Austrodiplostomum spp. (Digenea: Diplostomidae) infecting the eyes and brains of fish in Brazilian Amazon / Metacercaria de Austrodiplostomum spp. (Digenea: Diplostomidae) infectando olhos e cérebros de peixes na Amazônia Brasileira
Fonte: Arq. Inst. Biol;86:e0932018, 2019. ilus, mapas, tab.
Idioma: en.
Resumo: The aim of this paper was to report the occurrence of Austrodiplostomum spp. in the eyes and brain of Acaronia nassa, Caquetaia spectabilis, Satanoperca acuticeps, Curimatella sp. and Crenicichla marmorata in a lake of the Amazon River system in the state of Pará (Brazil). Of 49 fish examined, 10.2% were parasitized by Austrodiplostomum spp. metacercariae, and A. nassa was the host with higher number of metacercariae. In five examined fish species, a total of 51 metacercariae were collected, with 45 found in the eyes and 6 in the cranial vault. In the eyes, the metacercariae were free and active in the vitreous humor, but no opacification was observed. In the brain, the metacercariae were also free and active, and located mainly below the encephalon, on the cranial floor, at the height of the ophthalmic lobes and near the optic nerve. In laboratory observations, however, the infected fish did not exhibit any behavioral disorders, and this may be related to the low level of parasitism. This was the first report of this digenean for C. spectabilis, S. acuticeps, Curimatella sp., C. marmorata and A. nassa.(AU)

O objetivo deste trabalho foi relatar a ocorrência de Austrodiplostomum spp. nos olhos e cérebros de Acaronia nassa, Caquetaia spectabilis, Satanoperca acuticeps, Curimatella sp. e Crenicichla marmorata em um lago do rio Amazonas no estado do Pará (Brasil). Dos 49 peixes examinados, 10,2% foram parasitados por metacercárias de Austrodiplostomum spp., A. nassa sendo o hospedeiro com maior número de metacercárias. Em cinco espécies de peixes examinadas, foram coletadas 51 metacercárias, sendo 45 encontradas nos olhos e 6 na caixa craniana. Nos olhos, as metacercárias estavam livres e ativas no humor vítreo, mas nenhuma opacificação foi observada. No cérebro, as metacercárias também eram livres e ativas, localizadas principalmente abaixo do encéfalo, no assoalho do crânio, na altura dos lobos oftálmicos e próximo ao nervo óptico. Em observações laboratoriais, no entanto, o peixe infectado não apresentou distúrbios comportamentais, o que pode estar relacionado ao baixo nível de parasitismo. Este foi o primeiro relato de Austrodiplostomum spp. em C. spectabilis, S. acuticeps, Curimatella sp., C. marmorata e A. nassa.(AU)
Descritores: Metacercárias
Peixes
-Parasitos
Ecossistema Amazônico
Rios
Responsável: BR1942.1 - NID - Biblioteca - Núcleo de Informação e Documentação


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Id: lil-482183
Autor: Jardim, G. M; Armas, E. D; Monteiro, R. T. R.
Título: Ecotoxicological assessment of water and sediment of the Corumbataí River, SP, Brazil
Fonte: Braz. j. biol;68(1):51-59, Feb. 2008. ilus, tab, mapas.
Idioma: en.
Projeto: Foundation for the Support of Research in the State of São Paulo. Evaluating Water Quality by Ecotoxicological Assays in the Corumbataí Sub-basin.
Resumo: The Corumbataí River drains an economically important area which is mainly represented by the municipalities of Piracicaba and Rio Claro. In view of the impacts caused by the discharge of industrial waste and domestic sewage into the Piracicaba River, the Corumbataí has become increasingly significant as a source of water for the municipality of Piracicaba. However, chemical, physical, and microbiological analyses carried out prior to the present study had already indicated a decline in the quality of the Corumbataí waters. This study aimed to assess, through water and sediment samples, both acute and chronic toxicity to Daphnia magna and Daphnia similis, and to analyze acid-volatile sulfide (AVS) and simultaneously extracted metal (SEM) in the sediment. Resulting data were intended to be a contribution to future projects for the management and recuperation of this system. To that aim, water and sediment were collected at seven Corumbataí sampling stations in November 2003 and March 2004. Acute toxicity to D. similis was detected in water and sediment samples from the Piracicaba station, located at the mouth of the Corumbataí River. Chronic toxicity was identified in the water or sediment samples of all stations, with the exception of Analândia Montante (upstream), at the head of the river. This was found to affect survival, growth, and fecundity of the test-organisms. The AVS and SEM analyses showed the bioavailability of the metals, thus explaining toxicity found in bioassaying samples of water and sediment. The use of two test-organism species made it possible to obtain a better assessment of the condition of both water and sediment samples of the Corumbataí River.

O rio Corumbataí drena uma área de importância econômica representada principalmente pelos municípios de Piracicaba e Rio Claro. Face aos impactos causados pelos lançamentos de efluentes industriais e domésticos no rio Piracicaba, o rio Corumbataí assumiu importância para o abastecimento do município de Piracicaba. Entretanto, análises químicas, físicas e microbiológicas realizadas no rio Corumbataí anteriormente a este estudo, indicaram a queda da qualidade de suas águas. Os objetivos deste estudo foram a avaliação da toxicidade aguda e da toxicidade crônica das amostras de água e sedimento, para Daphnia magna e Daphnia similis, e a análise do sulfeto volatilizável por acidificação (SVA) e dos metais simultaneamente extraídos do sedimento (MSE), no sentido de fornecer dados que possam contribuir com projetos futuros de manejo e recuperação desse sistema. Para tanto, água e sedimento provenientes de sete estações de coleta do rio Corumbataí foram coletados em novembro de 2003 e março de 2004. Foi detectada toxicidade aguda para D. similis das amostras de água e sedimento da estação Piracicaba, na foz do rio Corumbataí. A toxicidade crônica foi identificada na água ou no sedimento de todas as estações de coleta, exceto Analândia Montante (nascente do rio), influenciando a sobrevivência, crescimento e fecundidade dos organismos-teste. As análises do SVA e MSE revelaram a biodisponibilidade dos metais, explicando a toxicidade das amostras de água e de sedimento encontrada nos bioensaios. A adoção de duas espécies de organismos-teste possibilitou uma melhor avaliação dos compartimentos amostrados.
Descritores: Daphnia/efeitos dos fármacos
Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos
Sedimentos Geológicos/química
Rios
Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
-Brasil
Testes de Toxicidade
Limites: Animais
Tipo de Publ: Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Responsável: BR1.1 - BIREME


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Id: biblio-984766
Autor: Ilha, Paulo; Rosso, Sergio; Schiesari, Luis.
Título: Effects of deforestation on headwater stream fish assemblages in the Upper Xingu River Basin, Southeastern Amazonia
Fonte: Neotrop. ichthyol;17(1):e180099, 2019. tab, graf.
Idioma: en.
Projeto: FAPESP; . CNPq; . CAPES.
Resumo: The expansion of the Amazonian agricultural frontier represents the most extensive land cover change in the world, detrimentally affecting stream ecosystems which collectively harbor the greatest diversity of freshwater fish on the planet. Our goal was to test the hypotheses that deforestation affects the abundance, richness, and taxonomic structure of headwater stream fish assemblages in the Upper Xingu River Basin, in Southeastern Amazonia. Standardized sampling surveys in replicated first order streams demonstrated that deforestation strongly influences fish assemblage structure. Deforested stream reaches had twice the fish abundance than reference stream reaches in primary forests. These differences in assemblage structure were largely driven by increases in the abundance of a handful of species, as no influence of deforestation on species richness was observed. Stream canopy cover was the strongest predictor of assemblage structure, possibly by a combination of direct and indirect effects on the provision of forest detritus, food resources, channel morphology, and micro-climate regulation. Given the dynamic nature of change in land cover and use in the region, this article is an important contribution to the understanding of the effects of deforestation on Amazonian stream fish, and their conservation.(AU)

A expansão da fronteira agrícola amazônica representa a mais ampla mudança na cobertura e uso da terra no mundo contemporâneo, e ameaça a integridade de ecossistemas de riachos que abrigam a maior diversidade de peixes de água doce do planeta. Nosso objetivo foi testar as hipóteses de que o desmatamento afeta a abundância, a riqueza e a estrutura taxonômica de assembleias de peixes em riachos de cabeceira na bacia do alto rio Xingu, no sudeste da Amazônia. Por meio de amostragens padronizadas realizadas em riachos de primeira ordem, demonstramos que o desmatamento influencia fortemente a estrutura das assembleias de peixes. Riachos em áreas desmatadas tiveram o dobro da abundância de peixes que riachos em áreas florestadas. Essas diferenças na estrutura das assembleias foram em grande parte causadas pelo aumento na abundância de algumas poucas espécies, já que nenhuma influência do desmatamento na riqueza de espécies foi observada. A cobertura de dossel sobre os riachos foi o mais forte preditor da estrutura das assembleias, possivelmente por uma combinação de efeitos diretos e indiretos relacionados à provisão de detritos florestais, recursos alimentares, morfologia dos canais, e regulação micro-climática. Dada a natureza dinâmica da mudança na cobertura e uso da terra na região, este artigo é uma contribuição importante para a compreensão dos efeitos a longo prazo do desmatamento nos peixes de riachos amazônicos e, portanto, para sua conservação.(AU)
Descritores: Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/tendências
Biodiversidade
Rios
Dispersão Vegetal
Peixes/classificação
Limites: Animais
Responsável: BR68.1 - Biblioteca Virginie Buff D'Ápice


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Id: biblio-841793
Autor: Slepchenko, Sergey Mikhailovich; Ivanov, Sergey Nikolaevich; Vybornov, Anton Vasilevich; Alekseevich, Tsybankov Alexander; Sergeyevich, Slavinsky Vyacheslav; Lysenko, Danil Nikolaevich; Matveev, Vyacheslav Evgenievich.
Título: Taenia sp. in human burial from Kan River, East Siberia
Fonte: Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz;112(5):387-390, May 2017. graf.
Idioma: en.
Projeto: Russian Foundation for Basic Research.
Resumo: We present an arhaeoparasitological analysis of a unique burial from the Neftprovod II burial ground in East Siberia, which dated from the Bronze Age. Analysis of a sediment sample from the sacral region of the pelvis revealed the presence of Taenia sp. eggs. Because uncooked animal tissue is the primary source of Taenia, this indicated that the individual was likely consuming raw or undercooked meat of roe deer, red deer, or elk infected with Taenia. This finding represents the oldest case of a human infected with Taenia sp. from Eastern Siberia and Russia.
Descritores: Paleopatologia
Taenia/isolamento & purificação
História Antiga
-Sibéria
Sepultamento
Rios
Limites: Seres Humanos
Animais
Responsável: BR1.1 - BIREME


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Id: lil-536344
Autor: Silva, Samuel Elias; Assunção, Wilhan R. C; Duca, Charles; Penha, Jerry.
Título: Cost of territorial maintenance by Parodon nasus (Osteichthyes: Parodontidae) in a Neotropical stream
Fonte: Neotrop. ichthyol;7(4):677-682, 2009. mapas.
Idioma: en.
Resumo: The combined demand over a certain resource may exceed its immediate supply, which can then lead to competition between individuals. This competition may result in territorial behavior. In this study we determine the density and spatial distribution, describe the interactions arising from territorial behavior and evaluate the costs of keeping the territories defended by adults of Parodon nasus. The study was conducted in Camarinha Stream located in the Serra das Araras Ecological Station, Porto Estrela, State of Mato Grosso, Brazil. The density was constant throughout the length of the stream, with a mean (± standard deviation) of 1.01 ind./m² (± 0.14). Our results show that the spatial distribution of individuals in the area ranged between uniform and random. The territories were defended more often against intraspecific than interspecific intruders. The time that the owners of the territories devoted to defending them was not influenced by the size of the territories. However, owners of larger territories spent more time foraging than owners of smaller territories. As a result, owners of larger territories had less time to rest than owners of smaller territories. The results of this study show behavioral patterns relevant to understanding the relationship between size and territorial maintenance cost of P. nasus and other species of fish with territorial behavior.(AU)

A demanda combinada por um recurso pode exceder a sua oferta imediata, levando os indivíduos a competirem. Essa competição pode resultar no comportamento de territorialidade. Neste trabalho nós determinamos a densidade e a distribuição espacial, descrevemos as interações decorrentes do comportamento territorial e avaliamos os custos de manutenção dos territórios defendidos por indivíduos adultos de Parodon nasus. O estudo foi realizado no córrego Camarinha localizado na Estação Ecológica Serra das Araras no município de Porto Estrela, Mato Grosso, Brasil. A densidade foi constante ao longo de todos os trechos, com média (± desvio padrão) de 1,01 ind./m² (± 0,14). Nossos resultados mostram que a distribuição espacial dos indivíduos na área variou entre uniforme e aleatória. Os territórios foram defendidos mais frequentemente contra invasores intra do que interespecíficos. O tempo que os detentores de território dedicaram a sua defesa não foi influenciado pelo tamanho dos territórios. Todavia, donos de territórios maiores passaram mais tempo em atividade de forrageamento que donos de territórios menores. Como consequência, donos de territórios maiores tiveram menos tempo para descansar que donos de territórios menores. Os resultados deste trabalho mostram padrões comportamentais importantes para o entendimento da relação entre tamanho e custo de manutenção dos territórios de P. nasus e de outras espécies de peixes com comportamento territorial(AU)
Descritores: Comportamento Animal
Distribuição Espacial da População
Rios
Ecologia/métodos
Limites: Animais
Responsável: BR68.1 - Biblioteca Virginie Buff D'Ápice



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