Base de dados : LILACS
Pesquisa : G05.308.320 [Categoria DeCS]
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Britto, L. R. G
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Id: lil-543574
Autor: Chacur, M; Matos, R. J. B; Alves, A. S; Rodrigues, A. C; Gutierrez, V; Cury, Y; Britto, L. R. G.
Título: Participation of neuronal nitric oxide synthase in experimental neuropathic pain induced by sciatic nerve transection
Fonte: Braz. j. med. biol. res = Rev. bras. pesqui. méd. biol;43(4):367-376, Apr. 2010. ilus, graf.
Idioma: en.
Resumo: Nerve injury leads to a neuropathic pain state that results from central sensitization. This phenomenom is mediated by NMDA receptors and may involve the production of nitric oxide (NO). In this study, we investigated the expression of the neuronal isoform of NO synthase (nNOS) in the spinal cord of 3-month-old male, Wistar rats after sciatic nerve transection (SNT). Our attention was focused on the dorsal part of L3-L5 segments receiving sensory inputs from the sciatic nerve. SNT resulted in the development of neuropathic pain symptoms confirmed by evaluating mechanical hyperalgesia (Randall and Selitto test) and allodynia (von Frey hair test). Control animals did not present any alteration (sham-animals). The selective inhibitor of nNOS, 7-nitroindazole (0.2 and 2 µg in 50 µL), blocked hyperalgesia and allodynia induced by SNT. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that nNOS was increased (48 percent by day 30) in the lumbar spinal cord after SNT. This increase was observed near the central canal (Rexed's lamina X) and also in lamina I-IV of the dorsal horn. Real-time PCR results indicated an increase of nNOS mRNA detected from 1 to 30 days after SNT, with the highest increase observed 1 day after injury (1469 percent). Immunoblotting confirmed the increase of nNOS in the spinal cord between 1 and 15 days post-lesion (20 percent), reaching the greatest increase (60 percent) 30 days after surgery. The present findings demonstrate an increase of nNOS after peripheral nerve injury that may contribute to the increase of NO production observed after peripheral neuropathy.
Descritores: Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo I/metabolismo
Nervo Isquiático/lesões
Ciática/enzimologia
-Regulação Enzimológica da Expressão Gênica/fisiologia
Hiperalgesia/enzimologia
Hiperalgesia/fisiopatologia
Imuno-Histoquímica
Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo I/fisiologia
RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo
Ratos Wistar
Ciática/fisiopatologia
Limites: Animais
Masculino
Ratos
Tipo de Publ: Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Responsável: BR1.1 - BIREME


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Id: lil-788958
Autor: Niu, Haiying; Yu, Hui; Hu, Tangping; Tian, Gailin; Zhang, Lixia; Guo, Xiang; Hu, Hai; Wang, Zhanli.
Título: The prevalence of aminoglycoside-modifying enzyme and virulence genes among enterococci with high-level aminoglycoside resistance in Inner Mongolia, China
Fonte: Braz. j. microbiol;47(3):691-696, July-Sept. 2016. tab.
Idioma: en.
Projeto: Natural Science Foundation of China; . Natural Science Foundation of Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region of China; . Science Studies Program in Universities of the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, China.
Resumo: ABSTRACT This study highlights the prevalence of aminoglycoside-modifying enzyme genes and virulence determinants among clinical enterococci with high-level aminoglycoside resistance in Inner Mongolia, China. Screening for high-level aminoglycoside resistance against 117 enterococcal clinical isolates was performed using the agar-screening method. Out of the 117 enterococcal isolates, 46 were selected for further detection and determination of the distribution of aminoglycoside-modifying enzyme-encoding genes and virulence determinants using polymerase chain reaction -based methods. Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis were identified as the species of greatest clinical importance. The aac(6')-Ie-aph(2")-Ia and ant(6')-Ia genes were found to be the most common aminoglycoside-modifying enzyme genes among high-level gentamicin resistance and high-level streptomycin resistance isolates, respectively. Moreover, gelE was the most common virulence gene among high-level aminoglycoside resistance isolates. Compared to Enterococcus faecium, Enterococcus faecalis harbored multiple virulence determinants. The results further indicated no correlation between aminoglycoside-modifying enzyme gene profiles and the distribution of virulence genes among the enterococcal isolates with high-level gentamicin resistance or high-level streptomycin resistance evaluated in our study.
Descritores: Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos
Regulação Enzimológica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos
Enterococcus/efeitos dos fármacos
Enterococcus/fisiologia
Farmacorresistência Bacteriana
Aminoglicosídeos/metabolismo
Aminoglicosídeos/farmacologia
-Virulência/genética
Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana
China/epidemiologia
Prevalência
Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Positivas/microbiologia
Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Positivas/epidemiologia
Enterococcus/metabolismo
Genes Bacterianos
Antibacterianos/metabolismo
Limites: Masculino
Feminino
Responsável: BR1.1 - BIREME


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Id: biblio-889067
Autor: Ma, Huiwen; Wang, Ping; Jin, Dan; Jia, Ting; Mao, Hong; Zhang, Jiandi; Zhao, Shi.
Título: The hepatic ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase 1 gene mRNA abundance is reduced by insulin and induced by dexamethasone
Fonte: Braz. j. med. biol. res = Rev. bras. pesqui. méd. biol;51(4):e6980, 2018. graf.
Idioma: en.
Projeto: National Natural Science Foundation.
Resumo: Hormones regulate hepatic gene expressions to maintain metabolic homeostasis. Ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase 1 has been thought to interfere with insulin signaling. To determine its potential role in the regulation of metabolism, we analyzed its gene (Enpp1) expression in the liver of rats experiencing fasting and refeeding cycles, and in primary rat hepatocytes and human hepatoma HepG2 cells treated with insulin and dexamethasone using northern blot and real-time PCR techniques. Hepatic Enpp1 expression was induced by fasting and reduced by refeeding in the rat liver. In primary rat hepatocytes and HepG2 hepatoma cells, insulin reduced Enpp1 mRNA abundance, whereas dexamethasone induced it. Dexamethasone disrupted the insulin-reduced Enpp1 expression in primary hepatocytes. This is in contrast to the responses of the expression of the cytosolic form of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase gene to the same hormones, where insulin reduced it significantly in the process. In addition, the dexamethasone-induced Enpp1 gene expression was attenuated in the presence of 8-Br-cAMP. In conclusion, we demonstrated for the first time that hepatic Enpp1 is regulated in the cycle of fasting and refeeding, a process that might be attributed to insulin-reduced Enpp1 expression. This insulin-reduced Enpp1 expression might play a role in the development of complications in diabetic patients.
Descritores: Pirofosfatases/genética
RNA Mensageiro/efeitos dos fármacos
Dexametasona/farmacologia
Diester Fosfórico Hidrolases/genética
Glucocorticoides/farmacologia
Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia
Insulina/farmacologia
Fígado/enzimologia
-Pirofosfatases/biossíntese
Pirofosfatases/efeitos dos fármacos
Resistência à Insulina
RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo
Regulação Enzimológica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos
Indução Enzimática/efeitos dos fármacos
Jejum/metabolismo
Ratos Sprague-Dawley
Diester Fosfórico Hidrolases/biossíntese
Diester Fosfórico Hidrolases/efeitos dos fármacos
Células Hep G2
Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real
Limites: Humanos
Animais
Masculino
Ratos
Responsável: BR1.1 - BIREME


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Id: biblio-889226
Autor: Thomas, Lebin; Ram, Hari; Singh, Ved Pal.
Título: Inducible cellulase production from an organic solvent tolerant Bacillus sp. SV1 and evolutionary divergence of endoglucanase in different species of the genus Bacillus
Fonte: Braz. j. microbiol;49(2):429-442, Apr.-June 2018. tab, graf.
Idioma: en.
Resumo: Abstract Bacteria are important sources of cellulases with various industrial and biotechnological applications. In view of this, a non-hemolytic bacterial strain, tolerant to various environmental pollutants (heavy metals and organic solvents), showing high cellulolytic index (7.89) was isolated from cattle shed soil and identified as Bacillus sp. SV1 (99.27% pairwise similarity with Bacillus korlensis). Extracellular cellulases showed the presence of endoglucanase, total cellulase and β-glucosidase activities. Cellulase production was induced in presence of cellulose (3.3 times CMCase, 2.9 times FPase and 2.1 times β-glucosidase), and enhanced (115.1% CMCase) by low-cost corn steep solids. An in silico investigation of endoglucanase (EC 3.2.1.4) protein sequences of three Bacillus spp. as query, revealed their similarities with members of nine bacterial phyla and to Eukaryota (represented by Arthropoda and Nematoda), and also highlighted of a convergent and divergent evolution from other enzymes of different substrate [(1,3)-linked beta-d-glucans, xylan and chitosan] specificities. Characteristic conserved signature indels were observed among members of Actinobacteria (7 aa insert) and Firmicutes (9 aa insert) that served as a potential tool in support of their relatedness in phylogenetic trees.
Descritores: Bacillus/enzimologia
Celulase/genética
Celulase/metabolismo
Evolução Molecular
-Bacillus/crescimento & desenvolvimento
Bacillus/isolamento & purificação
Celulose/metabolismo
Biologia Computacional
Fezes/microbiologia
Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica
Regulação Enzimológica da Expressão Gênica
Mutação INDEL
Análise de Sequência de DNA
Homologia de Sequência
Especificidade por Substrato
Zea mays/metabolismo
Limites: Animais
Bovinos
Responsável: BR1.1 - BIREME


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Id: lil-764587
Autor: Primon-Barros, Muriel; Rigo, Graziela Vargas; Frasson, Amanda Piccoli; Santos, Odelta dos; Smiderle, Lisiane; Almeida, Silvana; Macedo, Alexandre José; Tasca, Tiana.
Título: Modulatory effect of iron chelators on adenosine deaminase activity and gene expression in Trichomonas vaginalis
Fonte: Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz;110(7):877-883, Nov. 2015. tab, graf.
Idioma: en.
Projeto: NANOBIOTEC/CAPES; . CNPq.
Resumo: Trichomonas vaginalis is a flagellate protozoan that parasitises the urogenital human tract and causes trichomoniasis. During the infection, the acquisition of nutrients, such as iron and purine and pyrimidine nucleosides, is essential for the survival of the parasite. The enzymes for purinergic signalling, including adenosine deaminase (ADA), which degrades adenosine to inosine, have been characterised in T. vaginalis. In the evaluation of the ADA profile in different T. vaginalisisolates treated with different iron sources or with limited iron availability, a decrease in activity and an increase in ADA gene expression after iron limitation by 2,2-bipyridyl and ferrozine chelators were observed. This supported the hypothesis that iron can modulate the activity of the enzymes involved in purinergic signalling. Under bovine serum limitation conditions, no significant differences were observed. The results obtained in this study allow for the assessment of important aspects of ADA and contribute to a better understanding of the purinergic system in T. vaginalis and the role of iron in establishing infection and parasite survival.
Descritores: Adenosina Desaminase/metabolismo
Quelantes de Ferro/farmacologia
Trichomonas vaginalis/efeitos dos fármacos
Trichomonas vaginalis/enzimologia
-Adenosina Desaminase/efeitos dos fármacos
Regulação Enzimológica da Expressão Gênica
Proteínas de Protozoários/genética
Proteínas de Protozoários/metabolismo
Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa
Trichomonas vaginalis/crescimento & desenvolvimento
Limites: Animais
Bovinos
Feminino
Humanos
Tipo de Publ: Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Responsável: BR1.1 - BIREME


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Id: lil-751344
Autor: Zhou, Y.; Wang, G.F.; Yang, L.; Liu, F.; Kang, J.Q.; Wang, R.L.; Gu, W.; Wang, C.Y..
Título: Treatment with 1,25(OH)2D3 induced HDAC2 expression and reduced NF-κB p65 expression in a rat model of OVA-induced asthma
Fonte: Braz. j. med. biol. res = Rev. bras. pesqui. méd. biol;48(7):654-664, 07/2015. graf.
Idioma: en.
Resumo: Recent evidence indicates that a deficiency of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25[OH]2D3) may influence asthma pathogenesis; however, its roles in regulating specific molecular transcription mechanisms remain unclear. We aimed to investigate the effect of 1,25(OH)2D3 on the expression and enzyme activity of histone deacetylase 2 (HDAC2) and its synergistic effects with dexamethasone (Dx) in the inhibition of inflammatory cytokine secretion in a rat asthma model. Healthy Wistar rats were randomly divided into 6 groups: control, asthma, 1,25(OH)2D3 pretreatment, 1,25(OH)2D3 treatment, Dx treatment, and Dx and 1,25(OH)2D3 treatment. Pulmonary inflammation was induced by ovalbumin (OVA) sensitization and challenge (OVA/OVA). Inflammatory cells and cytokines in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid and histological changes in lung tissue were examined. Nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) p65 and HDAC2 expression levels were assessed with Western blot analyses and quantitative reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Enzyme activity measurements and immunohistochemical detection of HDAC2 were also performed. Our data demonstrated that 1,25(OH)2D3 reduced the airway inflammatory response and the level of inflammatory cytokines in BAL. Although NF-κB p65 expression was attenuated in the pretreatment and treatment groups, the expression and enzyme activity of HDAC2 were increased. In addition, 1,25(OH)2D3 and Dx had synergistic effects on the suppression of total cell infusion, cytokine release, and NF-κB p65 expression, and they also increased HDAC2 expression and activity in OVA/OVA rats. Collectively, our results indicated that 1,25(OH)2D3 might be useful as a novel HDAC2 activator in the treatment of asthma.
Descritores: Asma/tratamento farmacológico
Calcitriol/farmacologia
/efeitos dos fármacos
HISTONE DEACETYLASE TEMEFOS/efeitos dos fármacos
NF-kappa B/efeitos dos fármacos
Vitaminas/farmacologia
-Asma/induzido quimicamente
Western Blotting
Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/química
Contagem de Células
Calcitriol/uso terapêutico
Citocinas/análise
Citocinas/efeitos dos fármacos
Modelos Animais de Doenças
Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática
Regulação Enzimológica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos
/metabolismo
HISTONE DEACETYLASE TEMEFOS/metabolismo
Imuno-Histoquímica
Pulmão/química
Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos
NF-kappa B/análise
Ovalbumina
Ratos Wistar
Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real
Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
Resultado do Tratamento
Vitaminas/uso terapêutico
Limites: Animais
Masculino
Tipo de Publ: Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Responsável: BR1.1 - BIREME


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Id: lil-748270
Autor: Bali, İlhan; Aziret, Mehmet; Sözen, Selim; Emir, Seyfi; Erdem, Hasan; Çetinkünar, Süleyman; İrkörücü, Oktay.
Título: Effectiveness of Limberg and Karydakis flap in recurrent pilonidal sinus disease
Fonte: Clinics;70(5):350-355, 05/2015. tab, graf.
Idioma: en.
Resumo: OBJECTIVE: Sacrococcygeal pilonidal sinus is common in young men and may recur over time after surgery. We investigated whether a factor exists that can aid in the determination of the preferred technique between the early Limberg flap and Karydakis flap techniques for treating recurrent pilonidal sinus. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This prospective and randomized study enrolled 71 patients with recurrent pilonidal sinus in whom the Limberg flap or Karydakis flap techniques were applied for reconstruction after excision. Patients were divided into two groups as follows: 37 patients were treated with the Limberg flap technique and 34 patients were treated with the Karydakis flap technique. Fluid collection, wound infection, flap edema, hematoma, partial wound separation, return to daily activities, pain score, complete healing time, painless seating and patient satisfaction were compared between the groups. ClinicalTrial.gov: NCT02287935. RESULTS: The development rates of total fluid collection, wound infection, flap edema, hematoma, and partial wound separation were 9.8%, 16%, 7%, 15% and 4.2%, respectively; total flap necrosis was not observed in any patient (p<0.001). During the average follow-up of 28 months, no patients (0%) developed recurrent disease. The two groups differed with respect to early surgical complications (p<0.001). CONCLUSION: In this study, use of the Limberg flap was associated with lower complication rates, shorter length of hospital stay, early return to work, low pain score, high patient satisfaction and better complete healing duration. Therefore, we recommend the Limberg flap for treatment of recurrent pilonidal sinus. .
Descritores: Arildialquilfosfatase/genética
Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade
Regulação Enzimológica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos
Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos
Bifenilos Policlorados/toxicidade
-Antioxidantes/metabolismo
Arildialquilfosfatase/sangue
HDL-Colesterol/sangue
LDL-Colesterol/sangue
Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga
Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos
Fígado/enzimologia
Malondialdeído/metabolismo
Ratos Sprague-Dawley
Substâncias Reativas com Ácido Tiobarbitúrico/metabolismo
Limites: Animais
Masculino
Ratos
Tipo de Publ: Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
Responsável: BR1.1 - BIREME


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Id: lil-748256
Autor: Gomaa, Ola M.; Momtaz, Osama A..
Título: Copper induction and differential expression of laccase in Aspergillus flavus
Fonte: Braz. j. microbiol;46(1):285-292, 05/2015. tab, graf.
Idioma: en.
Resumo: Aspergillus flavus was isolated from soil and exhibited laccase activity under both constitutive and copper induced conditions. Spiking the medium with 1 mM copper sulfate resulted in an increase in the activity which reached 51.84 U/mL, a distinctive protein band was detected at 60 kDa. The extracellular enzyme was purified 81 fold using gel filtration chromatography and resulted in two different laccase fractions L1 and L2, the latter had a higher enzymatic activity which reached 79.57 U/mL and specific activity of 64.17 U/μg protein. The analysis of the spectrum of the L2 fraction showed a shoulder at 330 nm which is characteristic for T2/T3 copper centers; both copper and zinc were detected suggesting that this is an unconventional white laccase. Primers of laccase gene were designed and synthesized to recover specific gene from A. flavus. Sequence analysis indicated putative laccase (Genbank ID: JF683612) at the amino acid level suggesting a close identity to laccases from other genera containing the copper binding site. Decolorization of textile waste water under different conditions showed possible application in bioremediation within a short period of time. The effect of copper on A. flavus was concentration dependent.
Descritores: Aspergillus flavus/efeitos dos fármacos
Aspergillus flavus/enzimologia
Cobre/metabolismo
Regulação Enzimológica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos
Lacase/biossíntese
Ativação Transcricional/efeitos dos fármacos
-Aspergillus flavus/genética
Aspergillus flavus/isolamento & purificação
Cromatografia em Gel
Meios de Cultura/química
DNA Fúngico/genética
Eletroforese em Gel de Poliacrilamida
Resíduos Industriais
Lacase/química
Lacase/isolamento & purificação
Dados de Sequência Molecular
Peso Molecular
Análise de Sequência de DNA
Homologia de Sequência de Aminoácidos
Microbiologia do Solo
Análise Espectral
Purificação da Água
Responsável: BR1.1 - BIREME


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Id: lil-746687
Autor: Rubenich, Gustavo Butzge; Heck, Stephanie Tomasi; Hellmann, Fernando; Schlemper Junior, Bruno Rodolfo.
Título: El uso de placebo en ensayos clínicos de fase III en Brasil / The use of placebos in phase III clinical trials in Brazil
Fonte: Salud colect;11(1):99-114, ene.-mar. 2015. ilus, tab.
Idioma: es.
Projeto: Universidade do Oeste de Santa Catarina.
Resumo: El Consejo Federal de Medicina de Brasil (CFM) -órgano normativo y fiscalizador del ejercicio ético de la medicina- prohibió, en 2008, la participación de médicos brasileños en investigaciones que utilizaran placebo para enfermedades con tratamiento eficaz y efectivo, en contraposición a la Declaración de Helsinki, que permite su uso en condiciones metodológicamente justificadas. Con el objetivo de verificar si la normativa ética del CFM modificó el uso de placebo en ensayos clínicos de fase III en Brasil, se analizaron varias características de sus registros en el ClinicalTrials.gov, en los períodos de 2003 a 2007 y de 2009 a 2013. Se concluye que: a) la normativa promulgada por el CFM en 2008 fue ineficaz y prevaleció la posición adoptada por la Declaración de Helsinki; b) el patrocinio de ensayos con placebo por parte de la industria farmacéutica multinacional fue significativo; c) predominaron las investigaciones de fármacos para enfermedades crónicas, y fueron poco significativas para las enfermedades postergadas, de importancia para Brasil.

In 2008, Brazil's Federal Council of Medicine [Conselho Federal de Medicina] (CFM) - regulatory and supervisory agency on the ethical practice of medicine - banned the participation of Brazilian doctors in studies using placebos for diseases with efficient and effective treatment. This position differs with the Helsinki Declaration, which allows the use of placebos in methodologically justified conditions. To ascertain whether the CMF's ethical regulation modified the use of placebos in phase III clinical trials in Brazil, characteristics of the records in ClinicalTrials.gov were researched in the periods from 2003 to 2007 and from 2009 to 2013. The conclusions reached were: a) the regulations issued by the CFM in 2008 were ineffective and the position adopted by the Helsinki Declaration prevails; b) there was significant sponsorship by the multinational pharmaceutical industry of trials with placebos; c) the research was predominantly on new drugs for chronic diseases, with little study done of the neglected diseases which are of great importance to Brazil.
Descritores: Apoptose/genética
Regulação Enzimológica da Expressão Gênica/genética
Heme/deficiência
Degeneração Neural/genética
Neurônios/metabolismo
Porfirias/complicações
-Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos
Caspases/efeitos dos fármacos
Caspases/metabolismo
Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos
Sobrevivência Celular/genética
Colágeno Tipo XI/efeitos dos fármacos
Colágeno Tipo XI/metabolismo
Proteína de Ligação ao Elemento de Resposta ao AMP Cíclico/efeitos dos fármacos
Proteína de Ligação ao Elemento de Resposta ao AMP Cíclico/genética
Proteína de Ligação ao Elemento de Resposta ao AMP Cíclico/metabolismo
Regulação para Baixo/efeitos dos fármacos
Regulação para Baixo/fisiologia
Inibidores Enzimáticos
Regulação Enzimológica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos
Heptanoatos
Heme/biossíntese
Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/efeitos dos fármacos
Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/fisiologia
Proteínas de Membrana/efeitos dos fármacos
Proteínas de Membrana/genética
Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo
Degeneração Neural/metabolismo
Degeneração Neural/fisiopatologia
Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/efeitos dos fármacos
Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética
Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/metabolismo
Moléculas de Adesão de Célula Nervosa/efeitos dos fármacos
Moléculas de Adesão de Célula Nervosa/genética
Moléculas de Adesão de Célula Nervosa/metabolismo
Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos
Neurônios/patologia
PCABETALIPOPROTEINEMIA CELLS
Poli(ADP-Ribose) Polimerases
Porfirias/metabolismo
Porfirias/fisiopatologia
RNA Mensageiro/efeitos dos fármacos
RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo
Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/efeitos dos fármacos
Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/genética
Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/metabolismo
Proteínas do Complexo SMN
Regulação para Cima/efeitos dos fármacos
Regulação para Cima/fisiologia
Proteínas de Transporte Vesicular/efeitos dos fármacos
Proteínas de Transporte Vesicular/genética
Proteínas de Transporte Vesicular/metabolismo
Limites: Animais
Ratos
Tipo de Publ: Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
Responsável: BR1.1 - BIREME


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Id: lil-746683
Autor: Rovira Forns, Joan.
Título: Precios de los medicamentos: cómo se establecen y cuáles son sus sistemas de control / Drug prices: how they are established and existing price control systems
Fonte: Salud colect;11(1):35-48, ene.-mar. 2015.
Idioma: es.
Resumo: El precio es una de las principales barreras de acceso a los medicamentos. Por ello es importante conocer cómo se forman los precios y qué factores determinan su cuantía y también qué formas de intervención y regulación son las más adecuadas teniendo en cuenta sus efectos, tanto sobre el acceso, como sobre la innovación, la producción local y otros posibles objetivos de la política de medicamentos. El análisis económico ha desarrollado un conjunto de modelos de mercado que permiten explicar el comportamiento de los precios, aunque los mercados reales divergen sustancialmente de los modelos teóricos. La regulación de precios está justificada por los llamados "fallos de mercado"; la regulación de precios basada en el costo de producción, la modalidad de control de precios más tradicional, ha caído en desuso a favor de los sistemas de precios de referencia internacionales y por la fijación del precio basada en el valor.

Price is one of the main barriers of access to medicines. It is therefore important to understand how prices are formed and what factors determine the amount, as well as what interventions and regulations are the most appropriate considering their effects on access, innovation, local production and other potential objectives of drug policy. Economic analysis has developed a set of market models that can explain the behavior of prices, although actual markets diverge substantially from the theoretical models. Price regulation is justified by the so-called "market failures." Price regulation based on the cost of production, the most traditional form of price control, has fallen into disuse in favor of systems of international reference pricing and value-based pricing.
Descritores: /química
ABATTOIRS',ABDOMEN'-CYCLIC-AMP PHOSPHODIESTERASES/química
/metabolismo
ABATTOIRS',ABDOMEN'-CYCLIC-AMP PHOSPHODIESTERASES/metabolismo
Drosophila melanogaster/enzimologia
Regulação Enzimológica da Expressão Gênica/fisiologia
-Sequência de Aminoácidos
Domínio Catalítico
Sequência Conservada
Evolução Molecular
Dados de Sequência Molecular
Homologia de Sequência de Aminoácidos
Limites: Animais
Tipo de Publ: Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Responsável: BR1.1 - BIREME



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