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Id: biblio-828199
Autor: Barrantes, Kenia; Achí, Rosario.
Título: The importance of integrons for development and propagation of resistance in Shigella: the case of Latin America
Fonte: Braz. j. microbiol;47(4):800-806, Oct.-Dec. 2016.
Idioma: en.
Resumo: Abstract In Latin America, the disease burden of shigellosis is found to coexist with the rapid and rampant spread of resistance to commonly used antibiotics. The molecular basis of antibiotic resistance lies within genetic elements such as plasmids, transposons, integrons, genomic islands, etc., which are found in the bacterial genome. Integrons are known to acquire, exchange, and express genes within gene cassettes and it is hypothesized that they play a significant role in the transmission of multidrug resistance genes in several Gram-negative bacteria including Shigella. A few studies have described antibiotic resistance genes and integrons among multidrug resistant Shigella isolates found in Latin America. For example, in Brazil, Bolivia, Chile, Costa Rica and Peru, class 1 and class 2 integrons have been detected among multidrug resistant strains of Shigella; this phenomenon is more frequently observed in S. flexneri isolates that are resistant to trimethoprim, sulfamethoxazole, streptomycin, ampicillin, chloramphenicol, and tetracycline. The gene cassette sul2, which is frequently detected in Shigella strains resistant to the sulfonamides, suggests that the sulfonamide-resistant phenotype can be explained by the presence of the sul2 genes independent of the integron class detected. It is to be noted that sul3 was negative in all isolates analyzed in these studies.The high frequency of sulfonamide (as encoded by sul2) and trimethoprim resistance is likely to be a result of the recurrent use of trimethoprim sulfamethoxazole as a popular regimen for the treatment of shigellosis. The observed resistance profiles of Shigella strains confirm that ampicillin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole are ineffective as therapeutic options. In-depth information regarding antibiotic resistance mechanism in this pathogen is needed in order to develop suitable intervention strategies. There is a pressing need for regional and local antimicrobial resistance profiling of Shigella to be included as a part of the public health strategy.
Descritores: Shigella/efeitos dos fármacos
Shigella/genética
Farmacorresistência Bacteriana
Integrons
Disenteria Bacilar/microbiologia
Disenteria Bacilar/epidemiologia
Antibacterianos/farmacologia
-Vigilância da População
Disenteria Bacilar/tratamento farmacológico
Loci Gênicos
Genes Bacterianos
América Latina/epidemiologia
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico
Responsável: BR1.1 - BIREME


  2 / 145 LILACS  
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Id: lil-788977
Autor: Laport, Marinella Silva; Pontes, Paula Veronesi Marinho; Santos, Daniela Silva dos; Santos-Gandelman, Juliana de Fátima; Muricy, Guilherme; Bauwens, Mathieu; Giambiagi-deMarval, Marcia; George, Isabelle.
Título: Antibiotic resistance genes detected in the marine sponge Petromica citrina from Brazilian coast
Fonte: Braz. j. microbiol;47(3):617-620, July-Sept. 2016. tab.
Idioma: en.
Resumo: ABSTRACT Although antibiotic-resistant pathogens pose a significant threat to human health, the environmental reservoirs of the resistance determinants are still poorly understood. This study reports the detection of resistance genes (ermB, mecA, mupA, qnrA, qnrB and tetL) to antibiotics among certain culturable and unculturable bacteria associated with the marine sponge Petromica citrina. The antimicrobial activities elicited by P. citrina and its associated bacteria are also described. The results indicate that the marine environment could play an important role in the development of antibiotic resistance and the dissemination of resistance genes among bacteria.
Descritores: Poríferos/microbiologia
Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos
Bactérias/genética
Farmacorresistência Bacteriana
Organismos Aquáticos/microbiologia
Antibacterianos/farmacologia
-Brasil
Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana
Genes Bacterianos
Limites: Animais
Responsável: BR1.1 - BIREME


  3 / 145 LILACS  
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Id: lil-788958
Autor: Niu, Haiying; Yu, Hui; Hu, Tangping; Tian, Gailin; Zhang, Lixia; Guo, Xiang; Hu, Hai; Wang, Zhanli.
Título: The prevalence of aminoglycoside-modifying enzyme and virulence genes among enterococci with high-level aminoglycoside resistance in Inner Mongolia, China
Fonte: Braz. j. microbiol;47(3):691-696, July-Sept. 2016. tab.
Idioma: en.
Projeto: Natural Science Foundation of China; . Natural Science Foundation of Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region of China; . Science Studies Program in Universities of the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, China.
Resumo: ABSTRACT This study highlights the prevalence of aminoglycoside-modifying enzyme genes and virulence determinants among clinical enterococci with high-level aminoglycoside resistance in Inner Mongolia, China. Screening for high-level aminoglycoside resistance against 117 enterococcal clinical isolates was performed using the agar-screening method. Out of the 117 enterococcal isolates, 46 were selected for further detection and determination of the distribution of aminoglycoside-modifying enzyme-encoding genes and virulence determinants using polymerase chain reaction -based methods. Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis were identified as the species of greatest clinical importance. The aac(6')-Ie-aph(2")-Ia and ant(6')-Ia genes were found to be the most common aminoglycoside-modifying enzyme genes among high-level gentamicin resistance and high-level streptomycin resistance isolates, respectively. Moreover, gelE was the most common virulence gene among high-level aminoglycoside resistance isolates. Compared to Enterococcus faecium, Enterococcus faecalis harbored multiple virulence determinants. The results further indicated no correlation between aminoglycoside-modifying enzyme gene profiles and the distribution of virulence genes among the enterococcal isolates with high-level gentamicin resistance or high-level streptomycin resistance evaluated in our study.
Descritores: Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos
Regulação Enzimológica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos
Enterococcus/efeitos dos fármacos
Enterococcus/fisiologia
Farmacorresistência Bacteriana
Aminoglicosídeos/metabolismo
Aminoglicosídeos/farmacologia
-Virulência/genética
Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana
China/epidemiologia
Prevalência
Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Positivas/microbiologia
Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Positivas/epidemiologia
Enterococcus/metabolismo
Genes Bacterianos
Antibacterianos/metabolismo
Limites: Masculino
Feminino
Responsável: BR1.1 - BIREME


  4 / 145 LILACS  
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Id: lil-788956
Autor: Ayyaz, Khadija; Zaheer, Ahmad; Rasul, Ghulam; Mirza, Muhammad Sajjad.
Título: Isolation and identification by 16S rRNA sequence analysis of plant growth-promoting azospirilla from the rhizosphere of wheat
Fonte: Braz. j. microbiol;47(3):542-550, July-Sept. 2016. tab, graf.
Idioma: en.
Resumo: ABSTRACT The main objective of the present study was to isolate phytohormone-producing, phosphate-solubilizing strains of Azospirillum from wheat to be used as inoculants for plant growth promotion. Five Azospirillum strains were isolated from the rhizosphere of field-grown wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), and it was confirmed by BOX-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) that the isolates were different and not re-isolates of the same strain. Sequence analysis of the PCR-amplified 16S rRNA gene indicated that four isolates showed maximum similarity to Azospirillum brasilense and one isolate showed maximum similarity to Azospirillum zeae. This is the first report indicating the presence of an A. zeae like isolate in the wheat rhizosphere in Pakistan. The bacterial isolates were characterized for their plant growth-promoting traits, phosphate solubilization, and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) production. None of the isolates showed phosphate solubilization activity in the commonly used Pikovskaya medium. However, all strains (except AzoK4) exhibited ability to solubilize tricalcium phosphate (TCP) in modified Pikovskaya medium in which sucrose was replaced by Na-malate, as well as in TCP-supplemented Luria-Bertani (LB) medium. Organic acids, such as acetic, citric, lactic, malic, and succinic acids, were detected in culture supernatants of the tested Azospirillum strains. All strains exhibited ability to produce IAA in the growth medium, except Azospirillum sp. AzoK1. Among the strains tested, the maximum IAA production (30.49 ± 1.04 mg L-1) and phosphate solubilization (105.50 ± 4.93 mg L-1) were shown by a pure culture of Azospirillum sp. AzoK2. In pot experiments, single-strain inocula of Azospirillum sp. AzoK1 and AzoK2 improved wheat plant growth.
Descritores: Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta/biossíntese
Triticum/microbiologia
Azospirillum/classificação
Azospirillum/fisiologia
Rizosfera
-Paquistão
Filogenia
Análise de Sequência de DNA
Ácidos de Fósforo/metabolismo
Genes Bacterianos
Nitrogênio/metabolismo
Responsável: BR1.1 - BIREME


  5 / 145 LILACS  
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Id: lil-788952
Autor: Aldrovandi, Ana Lúcia; Osugui, Lika; Coutinho, Selene Dall' Acqua.
Título: Is Malassezia nana the main species in horses' ear canal microbiome?
Fonte: Braz. j. microbiol;47(3):770-774, July-Sept. 2016. graf.
Idioma: en.
Resumo: ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to characterize genotypically Malassezia spp. isolated from the external ear canal of healthy horses. Fifty-five horses, 39 (70.9%) males and 16 (29.1%) females, from different breeds and adults were studied. External ear canals were cleaned and a sterile cotton swab was introduced to collect cerumen. A total of 110 samples were cultured into Dixon medium and were incubated at 32 °C for up to 15 days. Macro- and micromorphology and phenotypic identification were performed. DNA was extracted, strains were submitted to polymerase chain reaction technique, and the products obtained were submitted to Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism using the restriction enzymes BstCI and HhaI. Strains were sent off to genetic sequencing of the regions 26S rDNA D1/D2 and ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 rDNA. Malassezia spp. were isolated from 33/55 (60%) animals and 52/110 (47%) ear canals. No growth on Sabouraud dextrose agar was observed, confirming the lipid dependence of all strains. Polymerase chain reaction-Restriction fragment length polymorphism permitted the molecular identification of Malassezia nana - 42/52 (81%) and Malassezia slooffiae - 10/52 (19%). Sequencing confirmed RFLP identification. It was surprising that M. nana represented over 80% of the strains and no Malassezia equina was isolated in this study, differing from what was expected.
Descritores: Meato Acústico Externo/microbiologia
Microbiota
Cavalos/microbiologia
Malassezia/isolamento & purificação
Malassezia/classificação
-Polimorfismo de Fragmento de Restrição
Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase
Genes Bacterianos
Malassezia/genética
Limites: Animais
Masculino
Feminino
Responsável: BR1.1 - BIREME


  6 / 145 LILACS  
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Moreira, Beatriz Meurer
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Id: biblio-839355
Autor: Rodrigues, Naiara Miranda Bento; Bronzato, Greiciane França; Santiago, Gabrielli Stefaninni; Botelho, Larissa Alvarenga Batista; Moreira, Beatriz Meurer; Coelho, Irene da Silva; Souza, Miliane Moreira Soares de; Coelho, Shana de Mattos de Oliveira.
Título: The Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) identification versus biochemical tests: a study with enterobacteria from a dairy cattle environment
Fonte: Braz. j. microbiol;48(1):132-138, Jan.-Mar. 2017. tab.
Idioma: en.
Projeto: National Council for Scientific and Technological Development.
Resumo: Abstract Mastitis adversely affects milk production and in general cows do not regain their full production levels post recovery, leading to considerable economic losses. Moreover the percentage decrease in milk production depends on the specific pathogen that caused the infection and enterobacteria are responsible for this greater reduction. Phenotypic tests are among the currently available methods used worldwide to identify enterobacteria; however they tend to misdiagnose the species despite the multiple tests carried out. On the other hand The Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) technique has been attracting attention for its precise identification of several microorganisms at species level. In the current study, 183 enterobacteria were detected in milk (n = 47) and fecal samples (n = 94) from cows, and samples from water (n = 23) and milk lines (n = 19). All these samples were collected from a farm in Rio de Janeiro with the specific purpose of presenting the MALDI-TOF MS technique as an efficient methodology to identify Enterobacteriaceae from bovine environments. The MALDI-TOF MS technique results matched the biochemical test results in 92.9% (170/183) of the enterobacteria species and the gyrB sequencing confirmed 100% of the proteomic technique results. The amino acid decarboxylation test made the most misidentifications and Enterobacter spp. was the most misidentified genus (76.9%, 10/13). These results aim to clarify the current biochemical errors in enterobacteria identification, considering isolates from a bovine environment, and show the importance for more careful readings of phenotypic tests which are often used in veterinary microbiology laboratories.
Descritores: Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz
Enterobacteriaceae/classificação
Enterobacteriaceae/metabolismo
-Fenótipo
Bovinos
Análise de Sequência de DNA
DNA Girase/genética
Proteômica/métodos
Leite/microbiologia
Enterobacteriaceae/isolamento & purificação
Genes Bacterianos
Mastite Bovina/diagnóstico
Mastite Bovina/microbiologia
Limites: Animais
Feminino
Responsável: BR1.1 - BIREME


  7 / 145 LILACS  
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Rodrigues, Dália dos Prazeres
Leal, Nilma Cintra
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Id: lil-426797
Autor: Theophilo, Grace Nazareth Diogo; Rodrigues, Dália dos Prazeres; Leal, Nilma Cintra; Hofer, Ernesto.
Título: Distribution of virulence markers in clinical and environmental Vibrio cholerae non-O1/non-O139 strains isolated in Brazil from 1991 to 2000
Fonte: Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. Säo Paulo;48(2):65-70, Mar,-Apr. 2006. tab.
Idioma: en.
Projeto: National Council for Research Support.
Resumo: Cento e setenta e nove amostras de V. cholerae não O1/não O139, isoladas de casos clínicos (139) e de meio ambiente (40), no período de 1991 a 2000 no Brasil, foram caracterizadas antigenicamente pelo National Institute of Health (Japão) e investigadas quanto ao seu potencial genético de virulência, representado pelos genes ctxA, zot, ace e tcpA. As análises fenotípicas revelaram extraordinária diversidade antigênica, com a ocorrência de 54 diferentes sorogrupos, com prevalência para O26 (7,8%). A técnica de PCR, empregada na detecção dos genes localizados no elemento genético CTX (ctxA, zot, ace) e na Ilha de Patogenicidade de Vibrio-VPI (tcpA), possibilitou a identificação de 27 cepas contendo qualquer um desses genes. O gene ctxA (codificador da sub-unidade A de CT), só foi evidenciado no sorogrupo O26, sendo também o único capaz de se apresentar com o cassete de virulência de forma intacta. Com base nos resultados obtidos deste estudo preliminar, admite-se a hipótese da potencialidade destas cepas, evoluir para raças epidêmicas.
Descritores: Proteínas de Bactérias/genética
DNA Bacteriano/genética
Genes Bacterianos/genética
/genética
VIBRIO CHOLERAE OACHONDROPLASIA/genética
Vibrio cholerae não O1/genética
-Brasil
Marcadores Genéticos
Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase
Técnica de Amplificação ao Acaso de DNA Polimórfico
/patogenicidade
VIBRIO CHOLERAE OACHONDROPLASIA/patogenicidade
Vibrio cholerae não O1/patogenicidade
Virulência/genética
Limites: Seres Humanos
Tipo de Publ: Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Responsável: BR1.1 - BIREME


  8 / 145 LILACS  
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Id: biblio-1021557
Autor: Li, Hedan; Hao, Chengwei; Xu, Daqing.
Título: Development of a novel vector for cloning and expressing extremely toxic genes in Escherichia coli
Fonte: Electron. j. biotechnol;30:88-94, nov. 2017. tab, ilus, graf.
Idioma: en.
Projeto: National Natural Science Foundation of China; . Specialized Research Fund for the Doctoral Programme of Higher Education of China.
Resumo: Background: Escherichia coli has been widely used as a host to clone and express heterologous genes. However, there are few vectors available for cloning and expressing extremely toxic genes, which limits further basic and applied research on extremely toxic proteins. Results: In this study, a novel vector pAU10 was constructed in E. coli. pAU10 utilizes the combination of the efficient but highly repressible T7-lacO promoter/operator and the strong rrnBT2 transcriptional terminator upstream of the T7 promoter to strictly control unwanted transcription of the extremely toxic gene; in addition, the trp promoter/operator is oriented opposite to the T7 promoter to control the production of the antisense RNA that may block the translation of leaky mRNA. Without the supplementation of IPTG and L-tryptophan in the culture medium, transcription of the extremely toxic gene by the T7 promoter is highly repressed, and the trp promoter produces the antisense RNA, which strictly prevents unwanted expression of the extremely toxic protein in E. coli. With the supplementation of IPTG and L-tryptophan, the T7 promoter efficiently transcribes the extremely toxic gene, and the trp promoter does not produce the antisense RNA, ensuring efficient expression of the extremely toxic protein in E. coli. Tight regulation and efficiency of expression of an extremely toxic gene cloned in the vector pAU10 were confirmed by cloning and expressing the restriction endonuclease-encoding gene bamHI without its corresponding methylase gene in E. coli JM109(DE3). Conclusion: pAU10 is a good vector used for cloning and expressing extremely toxic genes in E. coli.
Descritores: Proteínas de Escherichia coli/toxicidade
Escherichia coli/genética
Vetores Genéticos
-Triptofano/metabolismo
Desoxirribonuclease BamHI/metabolismo
Western Blotting
Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase
RNA Antissenso
Regiões Promotoras Genéticas
Clonagem Molecular
Eletroforese em Gel de Poliacrilamida
Proteínas Correpressoras
Genes Bacterianos
Isopropiltiogalactosídeo/metabolismo
Responsável: CL1.1 - Biblioteca Central


  9 / 145 LILACS  
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Barth, Afonso Luís
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Id: biblio-894846
Autor: Carneiro, Maiara dos Santos; Nunes, Luciana de Souza; David, Simone Maria Martini de; Barth, Afonso Luis.
Título: Lack of association between rrl and erm(41) mutations and clarithromycin resistance in Mycobacterium abscessus complex
Fonte: Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz;112(11):775-778, Nov. 2017. tab.
Idioma: en.
Projeto: CNPq; . FIPE/HCPA.
Resumo: BACKGROUND Mycobacterium abscessus complex (MABC) includes species with high resistance rates among mycobacterial pathogens. In fact, MABC infections may not respond to clarithromycin treatment, which has historically been very effective against MABC infection. Molecular markers have been proposed to detect both acquired (rrl polymorphisms) and inducible (erm(41) polymorphisms) clarithromycin resistance in MABC isolates. OBJECTIVES This study aimed to evaluate the susceptibility profile and molecular markers of clarithromycin resistance in MABC. METHODS The clarithromycin susceptibility profile was determined by broth microdilution with reads on days 3, 5, 7 and 14. Mutations in the rrl and erm(41) genes were evaluated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using specific primers, followed by sequencing. FINDINGS A total of 14 M. abscessus subsp. abscessus isolates and 28 M. abscessus subsp. massiliense isolates were evaluated, and clarithromycin resistance was observed in all isolates for up to three days of incubation. None of the 42 isolates exhibited a point mutation in the rrl gene, while all the isolates had a T28 polymorphism in the erm(41) gene. Moreover, all 28 M. abscessus subsp. massiliense isolates had a deletion in the erm(41) gene. MAIN CONCLUSIONS While all the MABC isolates exhibited acquired clarithromycin resistance, no isolates exhibited a point mutation in the rrl gene in this study. The M. abscessus subsp. massiliense isolates demonstrated clarithromycin resistance, which is an uncommon phenotype. The molecular data for the rrl and erm(41) genes were not consistent with the phenotypic test results of clarithromycin susceptibility, indicating a lack of correlation between molecular clarithromycin resistance markers for both acquired and inducible resistance.
Descritores: Claritromicina/farmacologia
Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/efeitos dos fármacos
Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética
Antibacterianos/farmacologia
Mutação/genética
Mycobacterium/efeitos dos fármacos
Mycobacterium/genética
-Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana
Genes Bacterianos
Limites: Seres Humanos
Responsável: BR1.1 - BIREME


  10 / 145 LILACS  
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Id: biblio-841772
Autor: Villela, Anne Drumond; Rodrigues Junior, Valnês da Silva; Pinto, Antônio Frederico Michel; Wink, Priscila Lamb; Sánchez-Quitian, Zilpa Adriana; Petersen, Guilherme Oliveira; Campos, Maria Martha; Basso, Luiz Augusto; Santos, Diógenes Santiago.
Título: Characterisation of iunH gene knockout strain from Mycobacterium tuberculosis
Fonte: Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz;112(3):203-208, Mar. 2017. graf.
Idioma: en.
Projeto: CNPq; . CNPq; . CNPq; . CNPq; . BNDES; . FAPERGS-CAPES; . CNPq.
Resumo: BACKGROUND Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease caused mainly by the bacillus Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The better understanding of important metabolic pathways from M. tuberculosis can contribute to the development of novel therapeutic and prophylactic strategies to combat TB. Nucleoside hydrolase (MtIAGU-NH), encoded by iunH gene (Rv3393), is an enzyme from purine salvage pathway in M. tuberculosis. MtIAGU-NH accepts inosine, adenosine, guanosine, and uridine as substrates, which may point to a pivotal metabolic role. OBJECTIVES Our aim was to construct a M. tuberculosis knockout strain for iunH gene, to evaluate in vitro growth and the effect of iunH deletion in M. tuberculosis in non-activated and activated macrophages models of infection. METHODS A M. tuberculosis knockout strain for iunH gene was obtained by allelic replacement, using pPR27xylE plasmid. The complemented strain was constructed by the transformation of the knockout strain with pNIP40::iunH. MtIAGU-NH expression was analysed by Western blot and LC-MS/MS. In vitro growth was evaluated in Sauton’s medium. Bacterial load of non-activated and interferon-γ activated RAW 264.7 cells infected with knockout strain was compared with wild-type and complemented strains. FINDINGS Western blot and LC-MS/MS validated iunH deletion at protein level. The iunH knockout led to a delay in M. tuberculosis growth kinetics in Sauton’s medium during log phase, but did not affect bases and nucleosides pool in vitro. No significant difference in bacterial load of knockout strain was observed when compared with both wild-type and complemented strains after infection of non-activated and interferon-γ activated RAW 264.7 cells. MAIN CONCLUSION The disruption of iunH gene does not influence M. tuberculosis growth in both non-activated and activated RAW 264.7 cells, which show that iunH gene is not important for macrophage invasion and virulence. Our results indicated that MtIAGU-NH is not a target for drug development.
Descritores: Macrófagos/microbiologia
Mycobacterium tuberculosis/crescimento & desenvolvimento
Mycobacterium tuberculosis/enzimologia
Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genética
N-Glicosil Hidrolases/genética
-Técnicas de Inativação de Genes
Genes Bacterianos
Limites: Seres Humanos
Responsável: BR1.1 - BIREME



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