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Pesquisa : G07.410 [Categoria DeCS]
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Id: biblio-1283551
Autor: Martínez Maturana, Nicolás; Brito Mellado, Roberto; Sapunar Zenteno, Jorge; Aguilar Farías, Nicolás; Navarro Riquelme, Juan; Chandía Poblete, Damián; Asenjo Mardones, Sylvia; Cerda Maureira, Álvaro.
Título: Relación de la actividad física medida objetivamente con dislipidemias y factores de riesgo cardiovascular en escolares de la Región de La Araucanía / Relationship of objectively measured physical activity with dyslipidemias and cardiovascular risk factors in schoolchildren from Región de La Araucanía cases
Fonte: Rev. chil. endocrinol. diabetes;14(2):65-73, 2021. tab, ilus.
Idioma: es.
Projeto: Universidad de La Frontera; . Sociedad Chilena de Endocrinología y Diabetes. Fondo de Investigación UNETE del Convenio de Desempeño Regional, FRO 1301. Fondo de Investigación de la Sociedad Chilena de Endocrinología y Diabetes.
Resumo: INTRODUCCIÓN: Las dislipidemias favorecen la formación precoz de placas ateroscleróticas, aumentando el riesgo de enfermedades cardiovasculares (ECVs). La Actividad Física (AF) es un factor protector de ECVs, por lo que el objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar la asociación entre AF medida objetivamente y dislipidemias en población pediátrica. METODOLOGÍA: La AF fue evaluada en 159 niños (9-13 años) de la Región de La Araucanía a través de acelerometría (ActiGraph GT3X+). Por este medio se estimó el porcentaje de AF moderada a vigorosa (AFMV) y el de conducta sedentaria (CS). Sujetos con ≥60 min de AFMV se consideraron físicamente activos según recomendación de la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS). Individuos con %CS>75° percentil fueron considerados sedentarios. El perfil lipídico fue determinado usando métodos convencionales. Fueron calculados índices de aterogenicidad TG/cHDL e índice de aterogenicidad del plasma (IAP). RESULTADOS: 37,1% presentó dislipidemia, 8% hipercolesterolemia, 19,5% hipertrigliceridemia, 6,3% cLDL elevado y 25,2% cHDL disminuido. Solo un 9,4% fueron considerados físicamente activos de acuerdo a la recomendación de la OMS. En los sujetos físicamente activos no hubo caso de dislipidemias (p= 0,032) y tampoco bajos niveles de cHDL (p= 0,013). El %AFMV estaba reducido en sujetos con cHDL bajo y se correlacionó positivamente con HDL-c (r= 0,157, p=0,048). Además, el %AFMV se correlacionó con menores valores de TG/cHDL (r= -0,193, p=0,015) e IAP (r= -0,214, p=0,006). Si bien el comportamiento sedentario no estuvo asociado con riesgo de dislipidemias, el %CS se correlacionó positivamente con niveles de glucosa (r= 0,159, p=0,044) y HOMA-IR (r= 0,178, p=0,037) y negativamente con Quicki (r= -0,160, p=0,044). CONCLUSIONES: Los hallazgos sugieren que la AF se correlaciona a menor frecuencia de dislipidemias y la práctica de AFMV aumentaría los valores de HDL-c y reduciría los índices aterogénicos, por lo que promoverla puede significar disminuir el riesgo de ECVs en nuestra población. Además, la CS se relaciona con un aumento en valores de glucosa e índices de resistencia insulínica en escolares de la Región de La Araucanía.

Dyslipidemias cause early formation of atherosclerotic plaque, increasing the risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Physical Activity (PA) is a protective factor against CVDs. The aim of this study is to evaluate the association between objectively measured PA with dyslipidemias in a pediatric population. METHOD: The PA was evaluated in 159 children (9-13 years old) from Región de La Araucanía using accelerometry (ActiGraph GT3X +). The percentage of moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA) and sedentary behavior (SB) were estimated. Subjects with ≥60 min of MVPA were considered physically active according to the recommendation of the World Health Organization (WHO). Individuals with %SB >75th percentile were sedentary. The lipid profile was determined using conventional methods. TG/HDL-C ratio and atherogenic index of plasma (AIP) were calculated. RESULTS: 37.1% presented dyslipidemia, 8% hypercholesterolemia, 19.5% hypertriglyceridemia, 6.3% elevated LDL-C and 25.2% decreased HDL-C. Only 9.4% were physically active according to the WHO recommendation. In physically active subjects where no cases of dyslipidemias (p =0.032) and no low HDL-C (p = 0.013). The %MVPA was reduced in subjects with low HDL-C and positively correlated with HDL-c (r = 0.157, p = 0.048). In addition, %MVPA was correlated with lower TG / HDL-C values (r = -0.193, p = 0.015) and AIP (r = -0.214, p = 0.006). SB was not associated with risk of dyslipidemia, % SB was positively correlated with glucose levels (r = 0.159, p = 0.044) and HOMA-IR (r = 0.178, p = 0.037) and negatively with Quicki (r = -0.160, p = 0.044). CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggested that PA is it correlates to a lower frequency of dyslipidemia and the practice of MVPA would increase HDL-c values and reduce atherogenic index, promoting it may been reducing the risk of CVDs in our population. In addition, the SB is related to an increase in glucose values and insulin resistance index in schoolchildren in Región de La Araucanía.
Descritores: Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle
Exercício Físico
Dislipidemias/sangue
-Estudantes
Triglicerídeos/sangue
Peso Corporal
Resistência à Insulina
Chile
Antropometria
Estado Nutricional
Estudos Transversais
Ensino Fundamental e Médio
Aterosclerose/sangue
Comportamento Sedentário
Acelerometria
Fatores de Risco de Doenças Cardíacas
Homeostase
HDL-Colesterol/sangue
LDL-Colesterol/sangue
Limites: Humanos
Masculino
Feminino
Criança
Adolescente
Responsável: CL1.1 - Biblioteca Central


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Id: biblio-1153533
Autor: Mazeto, I F S; Okoshi, K; Silveira, C F S M P; SantAna, P G; Silva, V L da; Mota, G A F; Souza, S L B de; Vileigas, D F; Padovani, C R; Cicogna, A C.
Título: Calcium homeostasis behavior and cardiac function on left ventricular remodeling by pressure overload
Fonte: Braz. j. med. biol. res = Rev. bras. pesqui. méd. biol;54(4):e10138, 2021. tab, graf.
Idioma: en.
Projeto: Fundação de Amparo è Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo.
Resumo: Sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA2a) and sarcolemmal Na+/Ca2+ exchanger (NCX1) structures are involved in heart cell Ca2+ homeostasis. Previous studies have shown discrepancies in their function and expression in heart failure. The goal of this study was to evaluate heart function and hypertrophied muscle Ca2+-handling protein behavior under pressure overload. Twenty male Wistar rats were divided into two groups: Aortic stenosis (AoS), induced by a clip placed at the beginning of the aorta, and Control (Sham). After 18 weeks, heart function and structure were evaluated by echocardiogram. Myocardial function was analyzed by isolated papillary muscle (IPM) at basal condition and Ca2+ protein functions were evaluated after post-pause contraction and blockage with cyclopiazonic acid in IPM. Ca2+-handling protein expression was studied by western blot (WB). Echocardiogram showed that AoS caused concentric hypertrophy with enhanced ejection fraction and diastolic dysfunction inferred by dilated left atrium and increased relative wall thickness. IPM study showed developed tension was the same in both groups. AoS showed increased stiffness revealed by enhanced resting tension, and changes in Ca2+ homeostasis shown by calcium elevation and SERCA2a blockage maneuvers. WB revealed decreased NCX1, SERCA2a, and phosphorylated phospholambam (PLB) on serine-16 in AoS. AoS had left ventricular hypertrophy and diastolic dysfunction compared to Sham; this could be related to our findings regarding calcium homeostasis behavior: deficit in NCX1, SERCA2a, and phosphorylated PLB on serine-16.
Descritores: Cálcio/metabolismo
Remodelação Ventricular
-Ratos Wistar
ATPases Transportadoras de Cálcio do Retículo Sarcoplasmático/metabolismo
Homeostase
Limites: Animais
Masculino
Ratos
Responsável: BR1.1 - BIREME


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Moura, Egberto Gaspar de
Amorim, Elias
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Id: lil-796951
Autor: Brito-Filho, Sebastião Barreto de; Moura, Egberto Gaspar de; Santos, Orlando José dos; Sauaia-Filho, Euler Nicolau; Amorim, Elias; Santana, Ewaldo Eder Carvalho; Barros-Filho, Allan Kardec Dualibe; Santos, Rennan Abud Pinheiro.
Título: Effect of chronic ingestion of wine on the glycemic, lipid and body weight homeostasis in mice / Efeito da ingestão crônica de vinho sobre a homeostase glicêmica, lipídica e ponderal em camundongos
Fonte: ABCD arq. bras. cir. dig;29(3):146-150, July-Sept. 2016. tab, graf.
Idioma: en.
Resumo: ABSTRACT Background: The health benefits associated with moderate wine consumption, as with ethanol and phenolic compounds, include different mechanisms still little understandable. Aim: Evaluate glycemic and weight variations, and the deposit of triglycerides, cholesterol and liver glycogen with red wine consumption. Methods: 60 ApoE knockout mice were divided into three groups of 20: Wine Group (WG), Ethanol Group (EG) and Water Group (WAG). They received daily: WG 50 ml of wine and 50 ml water; EG 6 ml ethanol and WAG 94 ml of water. All groups were followed for four months. The food intake was monitored daily, in the period from eight to ten hours and held every five days. The measurement of water intake was also made every five days. The weighing of the animals took place every ten days. Results: The WG had higher weight increase as compared to the other groups. The concentration of hepatic triglyceride was higher in WG (57%) and the EG group was lower (31.6%, p<0.01) than the control. The concentration of cholesterol was lower in the WG (23.6%), as well as EG (24.5%, p<0.05). The concentration of glycogen was higher in WG (16%) and fasting blood glucose was higher in EG compared to the other groups but not both demonstrated a statistically significant difference. Conclusion: The WG increased triglyceride and WAG decreased cholesterol. The triglyceride may be increased due to the high caloric value of wine or some unknown property that led to significant increase in subcutaneous andretroperitoneal fat in mice.

RESUMO Racional: Os benefícios para a saúde associados ao consumo moderado de vinho, como etanol e compostos fenólicos, incluem mecanismos diferentes ainda pouco compreensíveis. Objetivo: Avaliar as variações da glicemia, peso e depósito de triglicrideos, colesterol e glicogênio hepático com o uso de vinho tinto. Métodos: Sessenta camundongos ApoE knockout foram divididos em três grupos de 20: Grupo do Vinho (WG), grupo do Etanol (EG) Grupo Água (WAG). Cada grupo recebeu diariamente: WG 50 ml de vinho e 50 ml de água; EG 6 ml de etanol e WAG 94 ml de água. Resultados: O WG teve aumento de peso mais elevado em comparação com os outros grupos. A concentração de triglicerídeos foi maior no WG (57%) e no grupo EG inferior (31,6%) do que no controle (p <0,01). A concentração de colesterol foi inferior no WG (23,6%) e no EG (24,5%, p<0,05). A concentração de glicogênio foi maior no WG (16%); a glicemia capilar foi maior no EG em comparação com os outros grupos, mas não demonstrou diferença estatisticamente significativa. Conclusão: Triglicerídeos ficaram aumentados no WG e o colesterol diminuiu no WAG. Os triglicerídeos podem ter aumentado devido ao alto valor calórico do vinho ou alguma propriedade desconhecida que levou ao aumento significativo da gordura subcutânea e retroperitoneal nos camundongos.
Descritores: Glicemia/análise
Peso Corporal
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/fisiopatologia
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/sangue
Colesterol/sangue
Homeostase
-Triglicerídeos/sangue
Vinho
Doença Crônica
Camundongos Knockout
Limites: Animais
Masculino
Ratos
Responsável: BR1.1 - BIREME


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Id: lil-715336
Autor: Calzada Reyes, Ana; Gutiérrez Manso, Ana Teresa; Acosta González, Mariloly.
Título: Evaluación objetiva del procesamiento de las emociones. Estudio de un caso forense / Objective Assessment of Emotion Processing. Forensic Case Report
Fonte: Rev. colomb. psiquiatr;43(1):47-51, ene.-mar. 2014. ilus, tab.
Idioma: es.
Resumo: Introducción: El principal objetivo de las emociones consiste en garantizar la homeostasis, la supervivencia y el bienestar del organismo. Objetivo: Demostrar la utilidad de la aplicación de evaluaciones neurofisiológicas y neuropsicológicas a pacientes en quienes se pretenda demostrar el papel significativo de las emociones en la ejecución de determinadas conductas. Métodos: Se realizó entrevista psiquiátrica con fines forenses. Se registró la actividad eléctrica cerebral (EEG) en estado de vigilia y en condiciones basales, se calcularon los generadores de densidad de corriente en la banda theta y se realizó evaluación de reconocimiento de las emociones. Resultados: En la entrevista psiquiátrica se destaca que el miedo fue un elemento importante en el actuar impulsivo y poco previsor del acusado y se demostró una disminución sustancial de sus facultades para comprender el alcance de sus actos y dirigir su conducta en el periodo de tiempo de ocurrencia del delito que se le imputa. El EEG mostró alteraciones en regiones frontales y los generadores de densidad de corriente se localizaron en regiones frontotemporales y áreas asociativas occipitales. Conclusiones: Se recomienda asociar estos estudios con la evaluación psiquiátrica con fines forenses para acrecentar la objetividad de los diagnósticos formulados por peritos actuantes.

Introduction: The main objective of the emotions is to ensure the homeostasis, the survival and the well-being of the organism. Objective: To demonstrate the usefulness of performing neurophysiological and neuro-psychological assessments in patients, in order to demonstrate the significant role of the emotions in the execution of certain behaviours. Methods: A forensic psychiatric interview was conducted. EEG in vigil state was registered, the generators of current density to theta band were calculated, and the emotions recognition test was performed. Results: The results of the psychiatric interview demonstrated that fear was an important element in acting impulsively, and lack of foresight of the accused. A substantial decrease was demonstrated in the ability to understand the scope of the acts and the direction of the behaviour during the time the crime occurred. The EEG showed alterations in frontal regions, and the generators of current density were located in frontal-temporal regions and occipital associative areas. Conclusions: It is recommended to associate these studies with the forensic psychiatric assessment, in order to increase the objectivity of the diagnoses formulated by medical experts.
Descritores: Psiquiatria Legal
Emoções
Testes Neuropsicológicos
-Pacientes
Aptidão
Comportamento
Eletroencefalografia
Medo
Relatório de Pesquisa
Pioglitazona
Modafinila
Homeostase
Limites: Humanos
Masculino
Feminino
Tipo de Publ: Relatos de Casos
Responsável: CO78 - Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría


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Id: biblio-1149033
Autor: Mogollón Molina, Natalia; Rotondo, Sabrina; Dos Santos, Célia; Sánchez-Luceros, Analía.
Título: Biomarcadores y blancos moleculares del complemento en el diagnóstico de las microangiopatías trombóticas / Complement biomarkers and molecular targets in the diagnosis of thrombotic microangiopathies / Biomarcadores e alvos moleculares do complemento no diagnóstico das microangiopatias trombóticas
Fonte: Acta bioquím. clín. latinoam;54(4):437-453, jul. 2020. tab, graf.
Idioma: es.
Resumo: Resumen El sistema del complemento juega un papel central en la inmunidad innata, es una línea de defensa contra patógenos y participa en la homeostasis. La activación anormal del complemento contribuye al desarrollo de patologías de variable severidad, tanto inmunológicas y hematológicas como renales. Entre ellas, las microangiopatías trombóticas (MAT) representan un grupo de enfermedades raras con manifestaciones clínicas comunes caracterizadas por anemia hemolítica no inmune, trombocitopenia y daño de órgano(s) blanco. Si bien la clasificación de las MAT sigue siendo desafiante y no ha sido internacionalmente estandarizada, la descripción de entidades asociadas a anomalías del complemento fue comprobada con la eficiencia de la terapia anticomplemento en los pacientes. Las herramientas de diagnóstico desarrolladas en las últimas décadas son esenciales actualmente para diferenciar las MAT más características del grupo; esto es, la púrpura trombótica trombocitopénica (PTT) y el síndrome urémico hemolítico (SUH). En el presente trabajo se presenta una revisión del funcionamiento del sistema del complemento en condiciones fisiológicas, para poder explicar luego cuáles son las alteraciones del sistema implicadas en el desarrollo de las MAT y describir las herramientas disponibles para detectarlas en el laboratorio.

Abstract The complement system plays a crucial role in the innate immune response, being the first-line defense against pathogens and regulating homeostasis. Uncontrolled complement activation can cause immunologic, hematologic as well as renal syndromes of variable severity. Among them, thrombotic microangiopathies (TMA) represent a group of rare diseases characterised by similar clinical manifestations such as microangiopathic hemolytic anemia (MAHA), peripheral thrombocytopenia and organ injury. Although TMA classification is still challenging and no international consensus has been reached, complement-associated disorders have been described thanks to the efficiency of anti-complement therapy in patients. Diagnostic tools developed in the last decades are essential to differentiate the two most well characterized TMA: thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) and hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). This review will describe how the complement system works in physiological conditions in order to explain how complement abnormalities are involved in TMA, and finally how to detect those anomalies using laboratory tests.

Resumo O sistema do complemento desempenha um papel central na imunidade inata, sendo uma linha de defesa contra patógenos e participando da homeostase. A ativação anormal do complemento contribui para o desenvolvimento de patologias de gravidade variável, como imunológicas, hematológicas e renais. Entre elas, as microangiopatias trombóticas (MAT) representam um grupo de doenças raras com manifestações clínicas comuns caracterizadas por anemia hemolítica não imune, trombocitopenia e lesão de órgão(s) alvo. Embora a classificação das MAT continue sendo desafiadora e não tenha sido padronizada internacionalmente, a descrição de entidades associadas a anomalias do complemento foi comprovada com a eficiência da terapia anticomplemento nos pacientes. As ferramentas de diagnóstico desenvolvidas nas últimas décadas são atualmente essenciais para diferenciar as MAT mais características do grupo, que são a púrpura trombocitopênica trombótica (PTT) e a síndrome hemolítica urêmica atípica (SHU). Neste trabalho, é apresentada uma revisão do funcionamento do sistema de complemento em condições fisiológicas, a fim de explicar posteriormente quais são as alterações do sistema compreendidas no desenvolvimento das MAT, e descrever as ferramentas disponíveis para detectá-las em laboratório.
Descritores: Biomarcadores/análise
Ativação do Complemento/fisiologia
Microangiopatias Trombóticas/diagnóstico
-Trombocitopenia/diagnóstico
Síndrome Hemolítico-Urêmica Atípica/diagnóstico
Homeostase
Anemia Hemolítica/diagnóstico
Limites: Humanos
Tipo de Publ: Revisão
Responsável: AR144.1 - CIBCHACO - Centro de Información Biomedica del Chaco


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Id: biblio-1055874
Autor: Scorza, Fúlvio Alexandre; Menezes-Rodrigues, Francisco Sandro; Olszewer, Efraín; Errante, Paolo Ruggero; Tavares, José Gustavo Patrão; Scorza, Carla Alessandra; Ferraz, Henrique Ballalai; Finsterer, Josef; Caricati-Neto, Afonso.
Título: The mitochondrial calcium uniporter: a new therapeutic target for Parkinson's disease-related cardiac dysfunctions?
Fonte: Clinics;75:e1299, 2020. graf.
Idioma: en.
Projeto: FAPESP; . FAPESP; . CNPq.
Descritores: Doença de Parkinson/metabolismo
Canais de Cálcio/metabolismo
Cálcio/metabolismo
Cardiopatias/tratamento farmacológico
-Doença de Parkinson/complicações
Doença de Parkinson/patologia
Canais de Cálcio/uso terapêutico
Cardiopatias/etiologia
Homeostase/fisiologia
Limites: Humanos
Tipo de Publ: Editorial
Responsável: BR1.1 - BIREME


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Id: lil-271207
Autor: Reyes Cardero, Jorge; Danauy Enamorado, Marlene de la C.
Título: Homeostasis y cirugía: algunas consideraciones actuales / Homeostasis and surgery: some considerations
Fonte: Rev. cuba. cir;39(2):143-151, 2000.
Idioma: es.
Resumo: Se realiza una revisión temática sobre homeostasis y cirugía, donde se analizan las características de la respuesta biológica integrada del organismo frente a diversas agresiones, ya sea de índole física, química o biológica, así como de cada una de sus respuestas parciales, y se destaca en este sentido la importancia de conocer que esta respuesta, que inicialmente se considera defensiva para restablecer la homeostasis, puede convertirse en autoagresiva y conducir indefectiblemente a la muerte del paciente(AU)

We carried out a literature review on homeostasis and surgery in which we analyzed the characteristics of the integrated body's biological response to various aggresions either physical-chemical or biological and also each of the body's partial responses. In this regard, we underlined the importance of knowing that such response, initially considered to be a defensive response for re-establish homeostasis, can turn into a self-aggresive response leading to the death of a patient.(AU)
Descritores: Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/métodos
Homeostase/fisiologia
-Literatura de Revisão como Assunto
Limites: Humanos
Responsável: CU1.1 - Biblioteca Médica Nacional


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Id: lil-792796
Autor: Singh, Shweta; Fatima, Zeeshan; Hameed, Saif.
Título: Citronellal-induced disruption of membrane homeostasis in candida albicans and attenuation of its virulence attributes
Fonte: Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop;49(4):465-472, July-Aug. 2016. graf.
Idioma: en.
Projeto: Science and Engineering Research Board.
Resumo: Abstract: INTRODUCTION There is an increasing burden of multidrug resistance. As a result, deciphering the mechanisms of action of natural compounds with antifungal activity has gained considerable prominence. We aimed to elucidate the probable mechanism of action of citronellal, a monoterpenoid found in the essential oil extracted from Cymbopogon plants, against Candida albicans. METHODS Drug susceptibility was measured by broth microdilution and spot assays. Ergosterol levels were estimated using the alcoholic potassium hydroxide method and H+ extrusion was assessed by monitoring the glucose-induced acidification of the external medium. Virulence traits were studied by hyphal morphogenesis and biofilm formation, along with fungal cell adherence to polystyrene surface and human oral epithelial cells. RESULTS Citronellal showed anticandidal activity against C. albicans and non-albicans species of Candida at a minimum inhibitory concentration of 1 mg/ml. Citronellal interfered with membrane homeostasis, which is the major target of known antifungal drugs, by increasing the hypersensitivity of the fungi to membrane-perturbing agents, reducing ergosterol levels, and diminishing glucose-induced H+ extrusion. In addition, oxidative and genotoxic stresses were induced via an increased production of reactive oxygen species. Furthermore, citronellal inhibited the virulent attributes of yeast-to-hypha transition and biofilm formation. It also reduced cell adherence to polystyrene surface and the human oral epithelial cells. CONCLUSIONS This is the first study to propose the cell membrane, morphogenetic switching, biofilm formation, and cell adherence of Candida albicans as potential targets for the anticandidal activity of citronellal. However, clinical investigations on the therapeutic applications of citronellal are required.
Descritores: Virulência/efeitos dos fármacos
Candida albicans/efeitos dos fármacos
Monoterpenos/farmacologia
Aldeídos/farmacologia
Homeostase/efeitos dos fármacos
Antifúngicos/farmacologia
-Candida albicans/patogenicidade
Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana
Adesão Celular/efeitos dos fármacos
Biofilmes/crescimento & desenvolvimento
Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos
Monoterpenos Acíclicos
Limites: Humanos
Responsável: BR1.1 - BIREME


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Id: biblio-957233
Autor: Angarita-Díaz, María Del Pilar.
Título: Probiotics and their relationship with caries control: a topic review / Probióticos y su relación con el control de caries: revisión de tema
Fonte: Rev. Fac. Odontol. Univ. Antioq;28(1):179-202, July-Dec. 2016. tab, graf.
Idioma: en.
Resumo: ABSTRACT The development of studies related to the human oral microbiome, as well as the applied sciences and techniques to investigate it, have helped reconsidering our understanding of tooth decay as an endogenous infection caused by a conglomerate of microorganisms. In addition to identifying the great diversity of microorganisms involved in carious processes, similar studies in healthy oral cavity have also been conducted, as well as analysis of the interactions between microorganisms and the host. The results are paving the way to implementing biotechnology strategies to interrupt the onset and progression of the disease, and in this sense probiotics are a promising tool. Probiotics are beneficial microorganisms that once in contact with the oral cavity modify the microbial interaction favoring homeostasis. A literature review was conducted using various databases (PubMed, ScienceDirect, and Google Scholar), focusing on probiotics as a strategy for caries control, based on their function in the oral cavity; this includes some of the studies conducted so far as well as the description of features of the bacterial strains most commonly studied and the ones recently isolated. The article concludes by explaining the ideal features that bacterial strains should have to be efficient as probiotics in the oral cavity.

RESUMEN. El desarrollo de estudios relacionados con el microbioma oral humano, así como las ciencias y técnicas aplicadas para investigarlo, han permitido replantear el entendimiento de la caries como una infección endógena causada por un consorcio de microorganismos. Además de identificar la gran diversidad de microorganismos implicados en los procesos cariosos, también se han realizado estudios similares en cavidad oral sana, y análisis de las interacciones entre los microorganismos y el hospedador. Los resultados están abriendo paso a la viabilidad de implementar estrategias biotecnológicas que buscan interrumpir el inicio y la progresión de la enfermedad, y en este sentido los probióticos son una herramienta prometedora. Los probióticos son microorganismos benéficos que al entrar en contacto con la cavidad oral modifican la interacción microbiana a favor de una homeostasis. Utilizando diferentes bases de datos (PubMed, ScienceDirect y Google Académico) se realizó la revisión de literatura sobre los probióticos como una estrategia para el control de la caries, mediante el fundamento de su función en cavidad oral, así como algunos de los estudios realizados hasta el momento y la descripción de las características de las cepas bacterianas más estudiadas y las aisladas recientemente. El artículo concluye con la sustentación de las características ideales que deberían tener las cepas bacterianas para que sean eficientes como probióticos de cavidad oral.
Descritores: Cárie Dentária
-Probióticos
Biota
Homeostase
Responsável: CO66.1 - Biblioteca


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Id: lil-641936
Autor: Fiszlejder, L.
Título: Etiopatogenia de la amenorrea hipotalámica funcional: Interacción de las respuestas hormonales del sistema nervioso central y neuropéptidos periféricos / Ethiopatogeniae of functional hypothalamic amenorrhea: Interactions of central nervous system and peripherical neuropeptides responses
Fonte: Rev. argent. endocrinol. metab;45(2):75-88, abr.-jun. 2008. tab.
Idioma: es.
Resumo: La amenorrea hipotalámica funcional (AHF) es una patología compleja provocada generalmente por el estrés psicológico, o por alteraciones psicógenas como la depresión en otras entidades como la amenorrea nerviosa y bulimia o en la excesiva actividad física (atletas competitivas, bailarinas clásicas) entre las causas más frecuentes. Habitualmente, estos factores se presentan asociados a dietas cuali y cuantitativamente inadecuadas, originando alteraciones en el balance energético (consumo /gasto calórico) y modificaciones en la composición corporal. En general, estas alteraciones se presentan combinadas e inducen reacciones hormonales tendientes a defender la homeostasis metabólica general. Los protagonistas de estos procesos adaptativos son un "circuito" constituido en el sistema nervioso central que se interrelaciona con otro "circuito periférico hormonal". Las manifestaciones del primero incluyen principalmente una atenuación funcional de los ejes hipotalamo-hipófiso-somatotrófico, prolactínico y tiroideo, amplificación de la secreción nocturna de la melatonina e hiperactividad adrenal. A su vez, las interrelaciones, a nivel hipotalámico, del eje CRH-ACTH-sistemas-opiodeo-dopaminérgico y la consiguiente inhibición de la secreción de Gn RH, constituye un mecanismo fisiopatológico crucial para el desarrollo de la disfunción gonadal. Por otro lado, el grado de alteración de la actividad pusátil del Gn RH está condicionado por la etiopatogenia, intensidad nosológica y el tiempo de evolución. La variabilidad y el tipo de irregularidades del ciclo menstrual, que frecuentemente son observados en las atletas competitivas, constituyen un reflejo representativo de ello. Por otro lado, el hipoestrogenismo e hipoandrogenismo de estas mujeres repercuten negativamente en el metabolismo general y osteocálcico, en particular. La osteopenia con su riesgo de fracturas, está omnipresente en este síndrome. No menos importante, el hipoestrogenismo es también uno de los factores de riesgo cardiovascular. No obstante, la administración de anticonceptivos que combinan estrógenos más progesterona, pueden aumentar significativamente los niveles de la proteína C reactiva, un reconocido y seguro marcador de riesgo cardiovascular. Ello induce a tomar precauciones en su utilización en estas amenorricas desnutridas. Asimismo, la administración de anticonceptivos no ha demostrado brindar un beneficio sustancial en el tratamiento de la osteosporosis de estas pacientes. El "circuito periférico", funcionalmente interrelacionado con el central, está principalmente compuesto por la leptina, adiponectina, ghrelin, insulina e IGF-1, péptidos provenientes del compartimiento graso ("adipocitokinas") tracto gastrointestinal superior, páncreas e hígado, respectivamente. Estos péptidos no sólo están involucrados en los mecanismos centrales del apetito y saciedad, sino que también participan en las respuestas de adaptación homeostática, tendientes a revertir los desvíos del metabolismo intermedio y fosfocálcico, que en grado variable afectan a estas pacientes. Conclusiones: la AHF relacionada en general con el estrés psicofísico prolongado y la mala nutrición, es un síndrome complejo, cuyas respuestas hormonales centrales y periféricas de adaptación, resultan primordiales en estas mujeres que padecen un cierto grado de compromiso nutritivometabólico general. Enfocando globalmente este abigarrado síndrome, estimamos que la AHF es, obviamente, un epifenómeno menos vital.

Functional Hypothalamic Amenorrhea (FHA) is a complex pathology produced by psicological stress, as observed in amenorrhea nervosa and bulimia or in intensive physical activity (athletas, competitions, classic dancing). Frequently, these factors are associated to quali-quantitative inadequated diets and therefore they induce alterations in the energetic balance (caloric intake, caloric expend and modification in body composition). These factors are usually combinated and they induce hormonal reactions trend to sustain the general metabolic homeostasis. The protagonists of this adaptative process are a "central nervous system circuit" interrelated with "periferical hormonal circuit". The responses to the first, mainly includes functional atenuation of Hypothalamic- Hipophyseal Somatotropic, Prolactin and Thyroid axes, amplification of nocturnal melatonine secretion and hyper adrenal activity. The relationships, to hypothalamic level, of CRH-ACTH, opioid, and dopaminergic systems, and the subsequent inhibition of Gn-RH secretion, constitute a physiopathological mechanism for the development of gonadal disfunction. On the other hand, the degree of alteration in the Gn-RH pulsatility is conditioned by the ethipahogenic, nosologic intensity and time of evolution. Variability and type of irregularity of menstrual cycle observed in competitive athletes, is a demonstrative example. On the other hand, hypoestrogenism and hypoandrogenism in these women affect negatively the general metabolism and, particularly, the osteocalcic system. Osteopenia with its fracture risk is omnipresence in this syndrome. As important as that hypoestrogenism is also one of cardiovascular factor risk. However the administration of contraceptives which combines estrogens plus progesterone, may significantly increase the C-reactive protein level, a known and safety marker of cardiovascular risk. Therefore it induces to take precautions in its administration in these unnourished amenorrheic women. Also, the administration of contraceptives has not showed a substantial benefit in osteoporosis treatment of this patients. A "periferic circuit", functionally interrelated with the "central circuit", is mainly composed by leptin, adiponectine, ghrelin, insulin and IGF1 peptides, coming from fat compartiment (adipokines), gastro-intestinal tract, pancreas and liver, respectively. These peptides, are not only involved in the central mechanisms of appetite and saciety, but they also participate in homeostatic adaptative responses, with the aim of to balance the alteration of middle and phosphocalcic metabolism which affect these patients in a variable form. CONCLUSIONS: FHA, generally related with psychic/physic stress and malnutrition, is a complex syndrome in which the central and peripheral adaptative hormonal responses are mainly important in these women which are affected of a kind of nutritive and general metabolic compromise. Analazing this complex process we considerate that the hypothalamic amenorrhea is obviously a less vital phenomenon.
Descritores: Amenorreia/etiologia
Amenorreia/fisiopatologia
Doenças Hipotalâmicas/fisiopatologia
-Estresse Psicológico/complicações
Neuropeptídeos/fisiologia
Exercício Físico/psicologia
Bulimia/complicações
Depressão/complicações
Homeostase/fisiologia
Limites: Humanos
Feminino
Tipo de Publ: Revisão
Responsável: AR635.1 - FCVyS - Servicio de Información y Documentación



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