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Id: biblio-1055400
Autor: Baleta, Francis Nuestro; Bolaños, Jonathan Mallillin.
Título: Growth and Immune Response of Pangasius hypophthalmus Fed Diets Containing Seaweed Extracts as Immunostimulant
Fonte: Braz. arch. biol. technol;62:e19180083, 2019. tab, graf.
Idioma: en.
Resumo: Abstract Growth and immune response of Pangasius hypophthalmus were evaluated after feeding the fish with diets containing hot-water extracts (HWE) of Sargassum oligocystum as immunostimulant at 100, 300, and 500 mg kg-1 diet. Basal diet for P. hypophthalmus served as the control. The experimental diets were administered for 12 weeks. At the end of the feeding experiment, growth and haematological profile of fish were evaluated. Result showed that final weight, weight gain, daily growth rate and feed conversion ratio were significantly increased in the fish that received 300 and 500 mg kg-1 HWE of S. oligocystum. Evaluation of the haematological profile showed that white blood cells red blood cells, hemoglobin, hematocrit and platelet of P. hypophthalmus that received the HWE of S. oligocystum were significantly higher than the control group. Overall, our results indicate that the use of S. oligocystum HWE improves growth and haematological profile in P. hypophthalmus.
Descritores: Adjuvantes Imunológicos
Sargassum
Peixes/crescimento & desenvolvimento
Imunidade
Responsável: BR1.1 - BIREME


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Id: biblio-1283257
Autor: Aguilar Díaz, María; Giménez-Blasi, Nuria; Latorre, José Antonio; Martínez-Bebia, Manuel; Bach-Faig, Anna; Mariscal-Arcas, Miguel.
Título: Papel de la alimentación en la respuesta a infecciones respiratorias altas en atletas de élite / Role of nutrition in the response to upper respiratory infections in elite athletes
Fonte: Arch. latinoam. nutr;71(1):61-78, mar. 2021. ilus, tab, graf.
Idioma: es.
Resumo: Las infecciones de las vías respiratorios altas (IVRA), son debilitantes para el potencial deportivo de los atletas de élite. El ejercicio físico activa múltiples vías moleculares y bioquímicas relacionadas con el sistema inmune, sensibles a influencias nutricionales. Sobre este contexto, la inmunonutrición está adquiriendo una nueva dirección orientada a conseguir el equilibrio inmunológico, contraponiéndose con algunas de las teorías que han sentado las bases de la inmunología del ejercicio durante las últimas décadas. Objetivo. Investigar los aspectos nutricionales que puedan mejorar la respuesta inmunológica en deportistas de elite. Estudiar los posibles beneficios del equilibrio inmunológico para mejorar el rendimiento, analizar los factores nutricionales que contribuyan al equilibrio de la respuesta inmunológica y extrapolar la evidencia actual en recomendaciones prácticas de alimentación/suplementación para mejorar la homeostasis de la respuesta inmunológica en atletas de élite, teniendo en cuenta las limitaciones existentes.Resultados. La evidencia científica apunta que se puede potenciar el equilibrio inmunológico y la respuesta inmune a través de la modificación de factores nutricionales. Dentro de los cuales, la vitamina D, los probióticos, la vitamina C y el cinc son los que cuentan con mayor evidencia. Conclusión. Los avances científicos resultan prometedores y de interés para los atletas de élite, debido a que pueden disminuir la incidencia de IVRA, mejorando el éxito deportivo de los mismos. Se requieren más estudios para su validación y aplicación(AU)

Upper respiratory tract infections (URTI) are debilitating for the athletic potential of elite athletes. Physical exercise in elite athletes activates multiple molecular and biochemical pathways related to the immune system, which, at the same time, are sensitive to nutritional influences. Based on this context, immunonutrition is taking a new direction aimed at achieving the immunological balance. Objective. To investigate the nutritional aspects that can improve the immune response in elite athletes. To study the potential benefits of immune balance to improve performance, to analyse nutritional factors that contribute to the balance of the immune response and to extrapolate current evidence into practical dietary/supplementation recommendations to improve the homeostasis of the immune response in elite athletes, considering existing limitations. Results. Scientific evidence suggests that immune balance and immune response can be enhanced through the modification of nutritional factors. Among which, vitamin D, probiotics, vitamin C and zinc are the micronutrients with most evidence. Conclusion. Scientific advances in this field are promising and of great interest to elite athletes since it could decrease the incidence of URTI and, as a consequence, it could improve their sporting success. However, more studies are still required for its validation and application(AU)
Descritores: Infecções Respiratórias/imunologia
Estado Nutricional
Ingestão de Alimentos
Atletas
-Exercício Físico
Fatores de Risco
Tolerância Imunológica
Imunidade
Limites: Humanos
Tipo de Publ: Revisão
Responsável: VE1.1 - Biblioteca Humberto Garcia Arocha


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Id: biblio-1279657
Autor: Schogor, Ana Luiza B; Glombowsky, Patricia; Both, Fabiana; Danieli, Beatriz; Rigon, Fernanda; Reis, João H; Da Silva, Aleksandro S.
Título: Calidad del calostro bovino y su relación con la genética, el manejo, la fisiología y su congelación / Quality of bovine colostrum and its relation to genetics, management, physiology and its freezing
Fonte: Rev. MVZ Córdoba;25(1):76-83, ene.-abr. 2020. tab.
Idioma: es.
Resumo: RESUMEN Objetivo. Evaluar si la calidad del calostro se modifica por las características genéticas, fisiológicas y de manejo en el período preparto, así como evaluar si la calidad y composición del calostro se alteran en el proceso de congelación. Material y métodos. En el experimento I, se recogieron muestras de calostro y sangre de 35 vacas (18 Holstein y 17 Jersey). En el experimento II, se recolectaron seis muestras de calostro de vacas Holstein y se congelaron durante 60 días. Resultados. La concentración media de inmunoglobulina G (IgG) fue de 77.65 mg/ml en Jersey y de 82.77 mg/ml en Holstein. La genética, el orden de parto y la interacción entre estos factores no fueron significativos en la concentración de IgG en el calostro. Además, se observó un efecto genético de la vaca en el peso en la cría al nacer y en los tres días de edad (p<0.0001). Con respecto a la transmisión de inmunidad pasiva de terneros, no se observaron efectos de la raza de la vaca y el orden de parto en la concentración de proteínas plasmáticas de la ternera, así como después de tres días de congelación. Las razas de becerros Holstein (83%) y Jersey (82%) mostraron niveles de proteína sérica total por encima de 5.5 g/dL. Las vacas Holstein alojadas en potreros individuales con suplementos dietéticos, proporcionaron una mejor calidad de calostro (93.57 mg IgG/mL). Con el tiempo, el porcentaje de grasa cambió al congelarse, que se redujo con el tiempo (p<0.05) en el Experimento II. Conclusiones. El manejo previo al parto influye en la calidad del calostro, y la congelación no interfiere en la calidad centesimal e inmunológica del calostro, con excepción de la grasa, que disminuye a lo largo del tiempo.

ABSTRACT Objective. The aims of this study were to assess whether colostrum quality is modified by genetic, physiological and management characteristics in the pre-partum period, as well as evaluate whether quality and composition of colostrum is altered in the freezing process. Material and methods. In the experiment I, colostrum and blood samples of 35 cows (18 Holstein and 17 Jerseys) were collected. In the experiment II, six colostrum samples of Holstein cows were collected and frozen during 60 days. Results. The mean immunoglobulin (Ig) concentration was 77.65 mg/ml to Jersey and 82.77 mg/ml to Holstein. The genetic, parturition order, and the interaction between these factors were no significant on IgG concentration in the colostrum. Also, it was observed an effect genetic of cow in the weight on calf at birth and on three days of age (p<0.0001). Regarding transmission of calf passive immunity, no effects of cow breed and calving order were observed on plasma protein concentration of calf, as well as after three days of freezing. Calves of Holstein (83%) and Jersey (82%) breed showed total serum protein levels above 5.5 g/dL. Holstein cows housed in individual paddocks with diet supplementation provided better quality of colostrum (93.57 mg Ig/mL). Over time, the percentage of fat reduced at freezing, that reduced over time (p<0.05) in Experiment II. Conclusions. The pre-partum management exerts influence on colostrum quality, and the freezing not interfere on centesimal and immunological quality of colostrum, with exception the fat, that decrease along the time.
Descritores: Colostro
-Imunoglobulina G
Bovinos
Imunidade
Limites: Animais
Bovinos
Tipo de Publ: Artigo Clássico
Responsável: CO140 - Facultad de Medicina Veterinária y Zootecnia


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Id: biblio-1284379
Autor: Luzuriaga, Juan Pedro; Mársico, Franco; García, Enio; González, Verónica; Kreplak, Nicolás; Pifano, Marina; González, Soledad.
Título: Impacto de vacunación de COVID-19 en las infecciones por SARS-COV-2 en personal de salud de la provincia de Buenos Aires / Impact of vaccines against COVID-19 on new SARS-COV2 infections in health care workers of the Province of Buenos Aires
Fonte: Rev. argent. salud publica;13(Suplemento COVID-19):1-9, 2021.
Idioma: es.
Resumo: INTRODUCCIÓN: La vacunación en la provincia de Buenos Aires inició con personal de salud (PS). El objetivo de este trabajo es evaluar el impacto de la vacunación sobre la evolución de los casos de infección por SARS-CoV-2 en el PS, comparado con la de la población general (PG). MÉTODOS: Estudio observacional descriptivo de series temporales de casos confirmados de COVID-19, entre abril de 2020 y marzo de 2021. Se utilizó el sistema de información VacunatePBA y el SNVS. Se tomó el grado de inmunización a 14 días de la aplicación de la vacuna. RESULTADOS: A partir de septiembre de 2020, el número de casos disminuyó en el PS, en comparación con la PG. Para fines de febrero de 2021 estaba inmunizado con primera dosis (PD) el 42% del PS y con segunda dosis (SD) el 24%, mientras que en PG solo estaba inmunizado el 0,06% con PD y nadie SD. En marzo de 2021 mientras la cantidad de casos en PG (con 2% inmunizada) aumentó un 10% con respecto a febrero, en PS disminuyó un 35% (95% de esa población inmunizada). Esto indica una disminución significativa entre los nuevos casos de febrero y de marzo en PS (p <0,00001). DISCUSIÓN: A partir del inicio de la vacunación contra COVID-19 a finales de diciembre 2020, se muestra una disminución de casos nuevos de COVID-19 en PS. Este trabajo describe una disminución relativa de los casos en PS luego de la vacunación en la provincia de Buenos Aires y aporta los primeros datos del país sobre el impacto de las vacunas contra COVID-19
Descritores: Argentina
Vacinas
Pessoal de Saúde
COVID-19
Imunidade
Responsável: AR650.1 - Biblioteca


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Id: biblio-1283937
Autor: Goiás. Secretaria de Estado da Saúde; .Subsecretaria de Saúde; .Gerência de Informações Estratégicas em Saúde; .Conecta-SUS.
Título: Covid-19: imunidade natural e vacinal / Covid-19: natural immunity and vaccination.
Fonte: Goiânia; SES-GO; 20 ago 2021. 1-6 p. ilus.
Idioma: pt.
Resumo: De acordo com o Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) apesar dos avanços obtidos, nos últimos meses, no desenvolvimento de imunizantes para a COVID-19, algumas perguntas continuam sem respostas, como por exemplo, por quanto tempo as vacinas são capazes de proteger a população da infecção pelo SARS-CoV-2 (CDC, 2021), imunidade híbrida e a necessidade de booster, adicionado ao protocolo inicialmente proposto. Apesar de a maioria dos estudos utilizar os níveis séricos de anticorpos neutralizantes contra o SARS-CoV-2, ainda considera-se desconhecido o nível de anticorpos neutralizantes que garante proteção contra a COVID-19 (CALLAWAY, 2021; BENOTMANE et al., 2021). Por outro lado, embora existam outros mecanismos responsáveis pela resposta imune mediada por células T e B de memória imunológica, Khoury e colaboradores (2021) consideram que a concentração dos anticorpos neutralizantes após contato com o vírus (indivíduos convalescentes soropositivos) e/ou após administração de um imunizante seja capaz de predizer a resposta imune à doença.

According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), despite the advances made in recent months in the development of immunizers for COVID-19, some questions remain unanswered, such as, for example, how long are vaccines able to protect the population from SARS-CoV-2 infection (CDC, 2021), hybrid immunity and the need for a booster, added to the initially proposed protocol. Although most studies use serum levels of neutralizing antibodies against SARS-CoV-2, the level of neutralizing antibodies that guarantee protection against COVID-19 is still unknown (CALLAWAY, 2021; BENOTMANE et al., 2021 ). On the other hand, although there are other mechanisms responsible for the immune response mediated by immune memory T and B cells, Khoury et al (2021) consider that the concentration of neutralizing antibodies after contact with the virus (convalescent seropositive individuals) and/or after administration of an immunizing agent is able to predict the immune response to the disease.
Descritores: Vacinas/administração & dosagem
COVID-19/prevenção & controle
Imunidade
Limites: Humanos
Masculino
Feminino
Adolescente
Adulto
Pessoa de Meia-Idade
Idoso
Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais
Adulto Jovem
Tipo de Publ: Revisão
Relatório Técnico
Responsável: BR1759.1 - Biblioteca Professora Ena Galvão


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Id: biblio-1283525
Autor: Gómez Tabares, Gustavo.
Título: Vitamina D y calcio para todos, ¿desde la vida intrauterina hasta la muerte? / Vitamin D and calcium for all, from intrauterine life to death?
Fonte: Rev. colomb. menopaus;27(1):6-7, 2021.
Idioma: es.
Resumo: Hoy en día se enseña a los médicos jóvenes a formular calcio en las diversas etapas de la vida desde la mujer embarazada para prevenir la aparición de preeclampsia, en los jóvenes, en la mujer que busca un embarazo y en la transición a la menopausia y menopausia. Se habla de los efectos pleiotrópicos que tiene la vitamina D y su deficiencia se ha asociado con algunas enfermedades como la diabetes tipo 2, las enfermedades autoinmunes, la enfermedad hepática no alcohólica, la enfermedad cardiovascular y el cáncer. Se han descrito los efectos de esta vitamina sobre la respuesta inmune implicándola tanto en inmunidad celular como humoral y mediando procesos inflamatorios. Es por ello que recientemente se publicó que la población con niveles deficientes tenía peor desenlace con la infección por Covid-19. Hay que ser cautos y críticos con la administración masiva de fármacos.

Today young physicians are taught to prescribe calcium in different stages of life from pregnant women to prevent preeclampsia, in young people, in women seeking pregnant and in those in menopausal transition or menopause. It is spoken of the pleiotropic effects of vitamin D and its deficiency has been associated with some diseases such as type 2 diabetes, autoimmune diseases, non-alcoholic hepatic disease, cardiovascular disease and cancer. The effects of this vitamin over immune answer have been described, implicating it in celular and humoral immunity and mediating inflammatory processes. That is why recently was published that the population with deficient levels had worst outcomes with Covid-19 infection. We mast be careful and critic with massive administration of pharmaceuticals.
Descritores: Vitamina D
-Cálcio
Imunidade
Limites: Humanos
Feminino
Adolescente
Adulto
Pessoa de Meia-Idade
Idoso
Tipo de Publ: Editorial
Responsável: CO5.1 - Centro de Información y Conocimiento


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Id: biblio-1154771
Autor: Sandoval, Carmen; Araujo, Gabriela; Sosa, Wilfredo; Avalos, Sara; Silveira, Fernando; Corbett, Carlos; Zúniga, Concepción; Laurenti, Marcia.
Título: In situ cellular immune response in non-ulcerated skin lesions due to Leishmania (L) infantum chagasi infection
Fonte: J. venom. anim. toxins incl. trop. dis;27:e20200149, 2021. graf, ilus.
Idioma: en.
Projeto: FAPESP; . UNAH; . CNPq.
Resumo: Skin lesions of patients affected by non-ulcerated cutaneous leishmaniasis (NUCL) caused by L. (L.) infantum chagasi are characterized by lymphohistiocytic inflammatory infiltrate associated with epithelioid granuloma and scarce parasitism. However, the in situ cellular immune response of these patients is unclear. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to characterize the cellular immune response in the skin lesions of patients affected by NUCL. Methods Twenty biopsies were processed by immunohistochemistry using primary antibodies to T lymphocytes (CD4, CD8), NK cells, B lymphocytes, macrophages, nitric oxide synthase and interferon-gamma. Results Immunohistochemistry revealed higher expression of all cellular types and molecules (IFN-γ, iNOS) in the dermis of diseased skin compared to the skin of healthy individuals (p < 0.05). Morphometric analysis performed in the skin lesions sections showed the predominance of CD8+ T lymphocytes in the mononuclear infiltrate, followed by macrophages, mostly iNOS+, a response that could be mediated by IFN-γ. Conclusion Our study improves knowledge of the cellular immune response in non-ulcerated or atypical cutaneous leishmaniasis caused by L. (L.) infantum chagasi in Central America and pointed to the pivotal participation of CD8+ T lymphocytes in the host defense mechanisms against the parasite in patients with NUCL.(AU)
Descritores: Imuno-Histoquímica
Derme/lesões
Imunidade
Leishmania
-Infecções
Responsável: BR68.1 - Biblioteca Virginie Buff D'Ápice


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Id: biblio-1250253
Autor: Demarta-Gatsi, Claudia; Mécheri, Salah.
Título: Vector saliva controlled inflammatory response of the host may represent the Achilles heel during pathogen transmission
Fonte: J. venom. anim. toxins incl. trop. dis;27:e20200155, 2021. graf, ilus.
Idioma: en.
Resumo: Infection with vector-borne pathogens starts with the inoculation of these pathogens during blood feeding. In endemic regions, the population is regularly bitten by naive vectors, implicating a permanent stimulation of the immune system by the vector saliva itself (pre-immune context). Comparatively, the number of bites received by exposed individuals from non-infected vectors is much higher than the bites from infected ones. Therefore, vector saliva and the immunological response in the skin may play an important role, so far underestimated, in the establishment of anti-pathogen immunity in endemic areas. Hence, the parasite biology and the disease pathogenesis in "saliva-primed" and "saliva-unprimed" individuals must be different. This integrated view on how the pathogen evolves within the host together with vector salivary components, which are known to be endowed with a variety of pharmacological and immunological properties, must remain the focus of any investigational study dealing with vector-borne diseases. Considering this three-way partnership, the host skin (immune system), the pathogen, and the vector saliva, the approach that consists in the validation of vector saliva as a source of molecular entities with anti-disease vaccine potential has been recently a subject of active and fruitful investigation. As an example, the vaccination with maxadilan, a potent vasodilator peptide extracted from the saliva of the sand fly Lutzomyia longipalpis, was able to protect against infection with various leishmanial parasites. More interestingly, a universal mosquito saliva vaccine that may potentially protect against a range of mosquito-borne infections including malaria, dengue, Zika, chikungunya and yellow fever. In this review, we highlight the key role played by the immunobiology of vector saliva in shaping the outcome of vector-borne diseases and discuss the value of studying diseases in the light of intimate cross talk among the pathogen, the vector saliva, and the host immune mechanisms.(AU)
Descritores: Parasitos
Calcanhar
Vacinação
Inflamação/imunologia
-Imunidade
Responsável: BR68.1 - Biblioteca Virginie Buff D'Ápice


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Id: biblio-1253881
Autor: Salette Rincón, María; Carvallo Ruis, Daniel E; Martínez Nuñez, Elizabeth N; Cristancho Orlandino, Mariana C.
Título: COVID-19: fisiopatología e inmunopatología / Physiopathology and immunopathology of COVID-19: narrative review
Fonte: Med. interna (Caracas);37(1):3-12, 2021. tab.
Idioma: es.
Resumo: La fisiopatología y la inmunopatología del COVID-19 están íntimamente relacionadas entre sí y son dependientes la una de la otra. La complejidad de ambos procesos puede desencadenar daños multiorgánicos, producto de la toxicidad viral directa (la cual es dependiente de la expresión del receptor de enzima convertidora de angiotensina 2 o ACE2), del daño de las células endoteliales y tromboinflamación (induciendo endotelitis en múltiples lechos vasculares), y de la desregulación de la respuesta inmune y del sistema reninaangiotensina-aldosterona (SRAA), lo que se traduce en efectos citopáticos virales con daños en órganos diana. La enfermedad se caracteriza por presentar reacciones hiperinflamatorias que pueden desencadenar una liberación exacerbada de citoquinas proinflamatorias, proceso denominado "tormenta de citoquinas". La desregulación de la respuesta inmune produce linfopenia (de los linfocitos T CD4,+ CD8+, y B) así como un aumento de la relación neutrófilos-linfocitos. También se evidencia un claro incremento de marcadores inflamatorios, como los reactantes de fase aguda(AU)

The physiopathology and immunopathology of COVID-19 are both related and dependent on each other, The complexity of both processes has the potential to unfold multi-organ failure, product of the endothelium inflammation in multiple vascular beds, also viral toxicity (which depends, as well, on the expression of the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 or ACE2), the damage on endothelial cells and thrombo-inflammation (inducing a dysregulation of the immune response and the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS), with cytopathic viral effects and damage on target organs. This disease also presents hyperinflammatory reactions that can lead to the exacerbated release of proinflammatory cytokines, a process known as "cytokine storm". The dysregulation of the immune response also generates lymphopenia, and a higher ratio of the neutrophils-lymphocytes ratio. There is a clear increase of the inflammatory markers, including the acute phase reactants. The understanding of the physiopathology and immunopathology is crucial in order to comprehend the bases of COVID-19, its treatment and prevention(AU)
Descritores: COVID-19/fisiopatologia
COVID-19/imunologia
Imunidade
-Preparações Farmacêuticas
Doenças Transmissíveis
Tipo de Publ: Revisão
Responsável: VE1.1 - Biblioteca Humberto Garcia Arocha


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Id: biblio-1223737
Autor: Lagos, Macarena; Hernández, Pamela.
Título: Respuesta inmune y alergia a vacunas / Immune response and allergies to vaccines
Fonte: Rev. Méd. Clín. Condes;31(3/4):256-269, mayo.-ago. 2020. ilus, tab.
Idioma: es.
Resumo: Las vacunas son altamente efectivas en prevenir enfermedades infecciosas a través del desarrollo en el individuo de una respuesta inmune protectora, sin desarrollar la enfermedad. Los distintos tipos de vacunas producen diferentes tipos de respuestas inmunes y variadas estrategias se han desarrollado para mejorar esta respuesta. El sistema inmune sufre cambios con la edad y esta inmunosenecencia altera la capacidad de responder frente a ellas. Por otro lado, si bien el sistema inmune puede reconocer elementos presentes en las vacunas y montar respuestas de hipersensibilidad ante ellos, las alergias a las vacunas son raras, teniendo que distinguirlas adecuadamente de otro tipo de reacciones. En caso que un paciente presente una reacción compatible con alergia, es importante conocer todos los componentes de la vacuna para realizar un estudio adecuado.

Vaccines are highly effective in preventing infectious diseases through the development in the individual a protective immune response, without developing the disease. Different types of vaccines produce different types of immune responses, and varied strategies have been developed to improve this response. The immune system undergoes changes with age, and this inmunosenescence alters the ability to respond to them. On the other hand, although the immune system can recognize elements present in vaccines and establish hypersensitivity responses to them, vaccine allergies are rare, having to properly distinguish them from other types of reactions. In the event that a patient has an allergy-compatible reaction, it is important to know all the components of the vaccine to conduct a proper study.
Descritores: Vacinas/efeitos adversos
Vacinas/imunologia
Imunização/efeitos adversos
Hipersensibilidade/imunologia
Imunidade/imunologia
-Vacinas Atenuadas/efeitos adversos
Vacinas Atenuadas/imunologia
Vacinas de Produtos Inativados/efeitos adversos
Vacinas de Produtos Inativados/imunologia
Imunossenescência
Anafilaxia/imunologia
Antígenos/imunologia
Limites: Humanos
Responsável: CL1.1 - Biblioteca Central



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