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  1 / 197 LILACS  
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Id: biblio-1039135
Autor: Pereira, Fernanda Aparecida Castro; Vello, Natal Antonio; Rocha, Gabriela Antônia de Freitas; Nekatschalow, Marcos Custódio.
Título: Combining Ability for Resistance to White Mold in a Diallel Cross of Soybean
Fonte: Braz. arch. biol. technol;62:e19170610, 2019. tab.
Idioma: en.
Resumo: Abstract The white mold, caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.) de Bary, is one of the most important diseases of soybean. The objective of the present work was to evaluate the soybean reaction to the fungus S. sclerotiorum, which causes white mold, in a partial diallel with 50 crosses. The Group I of parents was composed of ten experimental lines with high grain yield and the group II consisted in five genotypes with possible resistance to white mold. Ten plants of each cross in the F4 generation and the parents were evaluated for reaction to fungus infection using the method of inoculation in detached leaves in order to assess the severity of the disease and to later estimate the combining abilities. Estimates of the specific combining ability (SCA) was a significant reaction to S. sclerotiorum, indicating that there is variability for fungus resistance due to non-additive genes action.
Descritores: Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia
Ascomicetos
Soja/microbiologia
-Inoculantes Agrícolas
Tipo de Publ: Estudo de Avaliação
Responsável: BR1.1 - BIREME


  2 / 197 LILACS  
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Id: biblio-1055397
Autor: Cai, Jin; Gao, Yichen; Wang, Mengliang; Zhang, Jing; Zhang, Yongbin; Wang, Qi; Liu, Jiquan.
Título: Antibacterial Activity of Polygonum Orientale Extracts Against Clavibacter Michiganensis subsp. michiganensis, the Agent of Bacterial Canker of Tomato Disease
Fonte: Braz. arch. biol. technol;62:e19180021, 2019. tab, graf.
Idioma: en.
Projeto: NATIONAL NATURAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION OF CHINA; . NATURAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION OF SHANXI PROVINCE; . SCIENTIFIC AND TECHNOLOGICAL INNOVATION PROGRAMS OF HIGHER EDUCATION INSTITUTIONS IN SHANXI (STIP).
Resumo: Abstract Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. michiganensis (Cmm), which is a Gram positive bacterium, causes the bacterial canker of tomato disease. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the antibacterial activity of Polygonum orientale extracts against Cmm. In this study, firstly, effects of three extracting parameters (extractive time, extractive temperature, and solid to liquid ratio) of orthogonal experiment design L27 (313) were conducted. Secondly, survival rate was determined and inhibition zone of Cmm rescued post-stress was monitored. Finally, extracellular OD260nm value, extracellular protein content, conformational structure of membrane protein, extracellular alkaline phosphatase (AKP) activity, and ATPase activity were measured to investigate the antibacterial mechanism. Results of orthogonal experiment revealed that extractive time and extractive temperature had highly significant (P<0.01) effects on the antibacterial activity of P. orientale extracts. The optimum conditions were as follows: 10h of extractive time, 60°C of extractive temperature, and 1:20 (g:mL) of solid to liquid ratio. This study also demonstrated that the living cells of each sample from survival rate test had almost no resistance or adaptability, and rescued Cmm cells were much easier to be inhibited by P. orientale extracts. The results of antibacterial mechanism indicated that cell membrane and cell wall of Cmm were seriously damaged by P. orientale extracts, and P. orientale extracts reduced the intracellular ATPase activity dramatically. All these findings suggested that P. orientale extracts had a strong antibacterial activity to inhibit Cmm, and could be used for the ecological management of the bacterial canker of tomato disease.
Descritores: Doenças das Plantas
Controle Biológico de Vetores
Compostos Fitoquímicos
Antibacterianos
Tipo de Publ: Estudo de Avaliação
Responsável: BR1.1 - BIREME


  3 / 197 LILACS  
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Id: biblio-1253024
Autor: Canwei, Shu; Xiaoyun, Hu; Ahmed, Nauman; Shiqi, Wang; Erxun, Zhou; Meide, Liao.
Título: Fructosan form Paenibacillus kribbensis PS04 enhance disease resistance against Rhizoctonia solani and tobacco mosaic virus
Fonte: Electron. j. biotechnol;47:43-50, sept. 2020. tab, graf.
Idioma: en.
Projeto: National Key R&D Program fromthe Ministry of Science of China; . Science and Technology Plan Project of Guangzhou, China.
Resumo: BACKGROUND: Rice sheath blight (caused by Rhizoctonia solani) and tobacco mosaic virus are very important plant diseases, causing a huge loss in global crop production. Paenibacillus kribbensis PS04 is a broad-spectrum biocontrol agent, used for controlling these diseases. Previously, extracellular polysaccharides (EPS) from P. kribbensis PS04 had been purified and their structure was inferred to be fructosan. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of exogenous EPS treatment on plant­pathogen interactions. RESULTS: Plant defense genes such as phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, catalase, chitinase, allene oxide synthase, and PR1a proteins were significantly induced by exogenous EPS treatment. Moreover, subsequent challenge of EPSpretreated plants with the pathogens (R. solani or tobacco mosaic virus) resulted in higher expression of defenseassociated genes. Increased activities of defense-associated enzymes, total phenols, and flavonoids were also observed in EPS pretreated plants. The contents of malondialdehyde in plants, which act as indicator of lipid peroxidation, were reduced by EPS treatment. CONCLUSIONS: This study comprehensively showed that EPS produced from P. kribbensis PS04 enhances disease resistance in plants by the activation of defense-associated genes as well as through the enhancement of activities of defense-related enzymes.
Descritores: Doenças das Plantas/imunologia
Rhizoctonia/patogenicidade
Vírus do Mosaico do Tabaco/patogenicidade
Paenibacillus/imunologia
-Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia
Polissacarídeos Bacterianos
Controle Biológico de Vetores
Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno
Paenibacillus/genética
Resistência à Doença/genética
Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real
Frutose/análogos & derivados
Responsável: CL1.1 - Biblioteca Central


  4 / 197 LILACS  
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Id: biblio-1049063
Autor: Wisniewska, Halina; Majka, Maciej; Kwiatek, Michal; Gawlowska, Magdalena; Surma, Maria; Adamski, Tadeusz; Kaczmarek, Zygmunt; Drzazga, Tadeusz; Lugowska, Boguslawa; Korbas, Marek; Belter, Jolanta.
Título: Production of wheat-doubled haploids resistant to eyespot supported by marker-assisted selection
Fonte: Electron. j. biotechnol;37:11-17, Jan. 2019. tab, ilus.
Idioma: en.
Projeto: National Centre for Research and Development.
Resumo: BACKGROUND: Wheat is one of the most important crops cultivated all over the world. New high-yielding cultivars that are more resistant to fungal diseases have been permanently developed. The present study aimed at the possibility of accelerating the process of breeding new cultivars, resistant to eyespot, by using doubled haploids (DH) system supported by marker-assisted selection. RESULTS: Two highly resistant breeding lines (KBP 0916 and KBH 4942/05) carrying Pch1 gene were crossed with the elite wheat genotypes. Hybrid plants of early generations were analyzed using endopeptidase EpD1 and two SSR markers linked to the Pch1 locus. Selected homozygous and heterozygous genotypes for the Pch1-linked EpD1b allele were used to produce haploid plants. Molecular analyses were performed on haploids to identify plants possessing Pch1 gene. Chromosome doubling was performed only on haploid plants with Pch1 gene. Finally, 65 DH lines carrying eyespot resistance gene Pch1 and 30 lines without this gene were chosen for the eyespot resistance phenotyping in a field experiment. CONCLUSIONS: Results of the experiment confirmed higher resistance to eyespot of the genotypes with Pch1 in comparison to those without this gene. This indicates the efficiency of selection at the haploid level.
Descritores: Seleção Genética
Triticum/genética
Triticum/metabolismo
Haploidia
-Doenças das Plantas
Cruzamento/métodos
Expressão Gênica
Repetições de Microssatélites
Genótipo
Responsável: CL1.1 - Biblioteca Central


  5 / 197 LILACS  
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Id: biblio-1025503
Autor: Berdúo-Sandoval, Julio E; Ruiz-Chután, José A; Sánchez-Pérez, Amílcar.
Título: Evaluación de la resistencia de genotipos de tomate frente a aislados de Phytophthora infestans provenientes de Guatemala / Evaluation of the resistance of tomato genotypes against isolates of Phytophthora infestans from Guatemala
Fonte: Cienc. tecnol. salud;6(1):22-33, 2019. ilus.
Idioma: es.
Resumo: El oomicete Phytophthora infestans (Mont) DeBary es el patógeno responsable de causar la enfermedad denominada comúnmente como tizón tardío. Dicho patógeno afecta cultivos de importancia económica para el país, entre ellos el tomate, cultivo en el cual puede generar pérdidas totales en la producción. Dada la agresividad del patógeno, los programas de mejoramiento desarrollan nuevos genotipos de tomate resistentes a esta enfermedad mediante la incorporación de genes de resistencia, como los genes Ph. Sin embargo, las nuevas cepas de P. infestans, producto de la recombinación genética, pueden sobrepasar la resistencia de los genotipos mejorados. En este estudio se evaluó la resistencia genética de 13 genotipos de tomate mejorados, ante cinco aislados de P. infestans obtenidos de un estudio previo. Mediante inoculaciones in vitro y con la variable de respuesta de área bajo la curva del progreso de la enfermedad (AUDPC), se determinó que existió diferencia estadísticamente significativa (p < 0.05) entre el comportamiento de la resistencia, la agresividad de los aislados del patógeno y la interacción entre ambos factores. Además, se sugiere el uso de algunas líneas para ser incorporadas en programas de mejoramiento genético y así desarrollar nuevos genotipos aptos para el país y, por último, la profundización para establecer las bases genéticas de la resistencia de los dos cultivares evaluados en este estudio.

The oomycete Phytophthora infestans (Mont) DeBary causes late blight disease. This pathogen affects economically important crops for the country, including tomato, a crop in which it can causes total losses in production. Given the aggressiveness of the pathogen, tomato breeding programs develop new genotypes with resistance to P. infestans, being a source of resistance Ph genes. However, the new strains of P. infestans, product of the genetic variability of their populations, can overcome the resistance of the genotypes. In this study, the genetic resistance of 13 tomato materials was evaluated against 5 isolates of P. infestans obtained from a previous study. Through in vitro inoculations and with the area under the disease progress curve (AUDPC), it was determined that there was a statistically significant difference (p < 0.05) between the behavior of the genetic resistance, the aggressiveness of the isolates of the pathogen and the interaction between both factors. It is also suggested the use of some lines to be incorporated into tomato breeding programs and develop new genotypes suitable for the country and, finally, to establish the genetic basis of the resistance of the two cultivars evaluated in this study.
Descritores: Lycopersicon esculentum/genética
Phytophthora infestans/parasitologia
-Doenças das Plantas
Genótipo
Responsável: GT49.1


  6 / 197 LILACS  
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Id: biblio-987187
Autor: Ruiz-Chután, José A; Berdúo-Sandoval, Julio E; Sánchez-Pérez, Amilcar.
Título: Diversidad genética de aislados de Phytophthora infestans colectados en zonas productoras de papa y tomate de Guatemala / Genetic diversity of Phytophthora infestans isolates collected from tomato and potato producing areas in Guatemala
Fonte: Cienc. tecnol. salud;5(2):151-161, 2018. ilus.
Idioma: es.
Resumo: Phytophthora infestans (Mont) DeBary es el agente causal de la enfermedad conocida como tizón tardío, la cual ha sido catalogada como la enfermedad de plantas más devastadora reportada en la historia de la humanidad. Este patógeno afecta plantas de importancia económica de la familia solanaceae, como el tomate y la papa. P. infestans es un oomicete heterotálico y necesita de dos tipos de apareamiento, A1 y A2, para presentar reproducción sexual, la cual es la vía por la que este patógeno incrementa su grado de diversidad, a través de una recombinación de su material genético, que representa el mayor desafío para el manejo de la enfermedad. Este estudio determinó el nivel de variabilidad genética, a través del marcador molecular amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP), de 22 aislados de P. infestans colectados en diferentes zonas productoras de papa y tomate. Con el perfil de bandas generado por el marcador molecular, se realizó un análisis cluster y se elaboró un dendograma de tipo unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA), con el índice de Dice, mediante una matriz de distancias genéticas. Los aislados fueron situados en tres grupos principales, los cuales responden al lugar de procedencia y al tipo de planta hospedera. Se encontró un valor de similitud de 0.49 entre los aislados analizados, por lo que se concluyó que la variabilidad genética de P. infestans en Guatemala es alta.

Phytophthora infestans (Mont) DeBary is the causal agent of late blight disease, which has been cataloged as the most devasting plant disease in the history of humankind. This pathogen is capable of affecting economically important plants of the solanaceae family, such as tomato and potato. P. infestans is a heterothallic oomycete for which it needs two types of mating known as A1 and A2 to present a sexual reproduction, which is the main way by this pathogen increases its degree of genetic diversity through a recombination of its genetic material; this condition represents the major defiance to control this disease. This study determined the level of genetic variability, through the molecular marker amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP), of 22 P. infestans isolates collected in different potato and tomato producing areas in Guatemala. With the band profile generated by the molecular marker AFLP, a cluster analysis was performed creating a UPGMA dendrogram with Dice´s index through a genetic distances matrix. The isolates were located in three main groups, which respond to the place of origin and the type of host plant. A similarity value of 0.49 was found among the analyzed isolates. It is concluded that genetic variability of the isolates analyzed is high.
Descritores: Plantas/virologia
Solanum tuberosum
Lycopersicon esculentum/genética
-Doenças das Plantas
Análise por Conglomerados
Análise do Polimorfismo de Comprimento de Fragmentos Amplificados/métodos
Responsável: GT49.1


  7 / 197 LILACS  
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Id: biblio-1132198
Autor: Jadhav, Murlidhar Shrihari; Rathnasamy, Sakthi Ambothi; Natarajan, Balakrishnan; Duraialagaraja, Sudhakar; Varatharajalu, Udayasuriyan.
Título: Study of Expression of Indigenous Bt cry2AX1 Gene in T3 Progeny of Cotton and its Efficacy Against Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner)
Fonte: Braz. arch. biol. technol;63:e20180428, 2020. tab, graf.
Idioma: en.
Resumo: Abstract Development of transgenic Bt crops with stable and high level of Bt protein expression over generations under different environmental conditions is critical for successful deployment at field level. In the present study, progenies of transgenic cotton Coker310 event, CH12 expressing novel cry2AX1 gene were evaluated in T3 generation for stable integration, expression and resistance against cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera. The cry2AX1 gene showed stable inheritance and integration in the T3 progeny plants as revealed by PCR and Southern blot hybridization. The expression of Cry2AX1 protein on 90 days after sowing (DAS) was in the range of 1.055 to 1.5 µg/g of fresh leaf tissue except one plant which showed 0.806 µg/g of fresh leaf tissue and after 30 days (i.e., on 120 DAS) three plants recorded in between 0.69 to 0.82 µg/g and other plants are in range of 0.918 to 1.058 µg/g of fresh leaf tissue. Detached leaf bit bioassay in T3 progeny on 110 DAS recorded mortality of 73.33 to 93.33 per cent against H. armigera and severe growth retardation in surviving larvae. These results indicate that the expression of chimeric cry2AX1 is stable and exhibits insecticidal activity against H. armigera in T3 progeny of CH12 event of transgenic cotton.
Descritores: Bacillus thuringiensis/patogenicidade
Controle Biológico de Vetores/métodos
Gossypium/genética
Endotoxinas/genética
Mariposas
-Doenças das Plantas/prevenção & controle
Plantas Tóxicas
Bioensaio
Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas
Limites: Animais
Responsável: BR1.1 - BIREME


  8 / 197 LILACS  
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Id: biblio-1171793
Autor: Barrera Viviana A; Kageyama Koji; Rojo Rodrigo A; Gasoni Laura; Kobayashi Kiroku.
Título: A species-specific method for detecting pathogenic Streptomyces species from soil and potato tubers in Argentina / A species-specific method for detecting pathogenic Streptomyces species from soil and potato tubers in Argentina.
Fonte: Rev. argent. microbiol;45(4):277-81, dic. 2013.
Idioma: es.
Resumo: Potato common scab is caused by several soil-inhabiting pathogenic Streptomyces species. In the present study, a species-specific PCR method was used to detect Streptomyces species in potato tuber lesions and soils. Total genomic DNA from soil samples from six locations and tuber samples from four potato cultivars (Spunta, Shepody, Innovator and Russet Burbank) were assessed. Streptomyces scabies, Streptomyces acidiscabies, and Streptomyces turgidiscabies were detected in soybean, tobacco and potato soils and in all potato varieties except Russet Burbank. The phylogenetic analysis of the sequences obtained confirmed the identification. The method proposed proved to be time-saving and cost effective for the rapid detection of Streptomyces species. This is the first report of the detection of S. acidiscabies and S. turgidiscabies in soils and potato tubers from Argentina.
Descritores: Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia
Microbiologia do Solo
Solanum tuberosum/microbiologia
Streptomyces/isolamento & purificação
-Argentina
Especificidade da Espécie
Técnicas Bacteriológicas/métodos
Tipo de Publ: Artigo de Revista
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Responsável: AR5.1 - Centro de Gestión del Conocimiento y las Comunicaciónes


  9 / 197 LILACS  
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Id: biblio-1130144
Autor: Borges Junior, Norton; Capucho, Alexandre Sandri; Lanna Filho, Roberto.
Título: A standard area diagram set for assessing severity of eucalyptus bacterial blight caused by Erwinia psidii / Uma escala diagramática para a avaliação da severidade da seca-de-ponteiros do eucalipto causada por Erwinia psidii
Fonte: Arq. Inst. Biol;87:e0832019, 2020. ilus, graf.
Idioma: en.
Resumo: This study aimed to develop and validate a standard area diagram (SAD) set to estimate the severity of bacterial blight of eucalyptus caused by Erwinia psidii. For this purpose, an eight-level SAD was developed and validated by ten inexperienced raters. Accuracy and precision of the estimates by each rater, with and without the SAD, were determined based on Lin's concordance correlation coefficient. The proposed SAD improved the accuracy and precision of the estimates. The SAD set studied here is a useful tool in assessments of bacterial blight of eucalyptus for epidemiological research and breeding programs.(AU)

Este trabalho objetivou o desenvolvimento de uma escala para estimar a severidade da seca-de-ponteiros do eucalipto causada por Erwinia psidii. Para isso, uma escala de oito níveis foi desenvolvida e validada por dez avaliadores inexperientes. A acurácia e precisão das estimativas de cada avaliador, com e sem a escala, foram determinadas baseadas no coeficiente de correlação concordante de Lin. A escala proposta melhorou a acurácia e a precisão das estimativas. A escala estudada se mostrou uma ferramenta útil na avaliação da seca-de-ponteiros do eucalipto para estudos epidemiológicos e em programas de melhoramento.(AU)
Descritores: Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia
Infecções Bacterianas/classificação
Erwinia
Eucalyptus/microbiologia
-Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
Responsável: BR1942.1 - NID - Biblioteca - Núcleo de Informação e Documentação


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Id: biblio-1146440
Autor: Matias, Rosemary; Fernandes, Valtecir; Corrêa, Bianca Obes; Pereira, Silvia Rahe; Oliveira, Ademir Kleber Morbeck de.
Título: Phytochemistry and antifungal potential of Datura inoxia Mill. on soil phytopathogen control / Fitoquímica e potencial antifúngico de Datura inoxia Mill. no controle de fitopatógenos do solo
Fonte: Biosci. j. (Online);36(3):691-701, 01-05-2020. tab, graf.
Idioma: en.
Resumo: The application of chemical pesticides for the control of fungal diseases results in impacts on the environment and human health. The use of vegetal extracts with antifungal properties for the proper management of crops becomes a viable alternative, mainly for organic and family farming. The objective of this study was to carry out the phytochemical evaluation of Datura inoxia, evaluating its antifungal potential against the mycelial growth of Fusarium solani and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. The extracts, aqueous and ethanolic, obtained from the leaves of the plant collected in areas of the municipality of Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul, were submitted to phytochemical prospecting and quantification of flavonoids and total phenols. It was evaluated its antifungal activity at concentrations of 800, 1200, 1600, 2000, and 2400 µg 100 mL-1. Each concentration was separately incorporated into BDA agar, poured into Petri dishes, and inoculated with the mycelial disc of the fungus. The diameter of the colonies were measured daily. Two solutions were prepared as control, one containing the solvent added to PDA medium (ethanol solution), and another with only PDA medium (without D. inoxia extract, control). In both extracts were found the same diversity of secondary metabolites (nine classes). The ethanolic extract, a solvent of lower polarity than water, was more efficient in the extraction of these constituents. Alkaloids and phenolic compounds were the most frequent compounds (100%). In relation to antifungal activity, the ethanolic extract provided 100% inhibition of mycelial growth ofSclerotinia sclerotitorum in all concentrations, relative to the control. On the other hand, the growth ofFusarium solani was only negatively affected at the highest concentrations of 800 and 1200 µmL-1 100 mL-1. The antifungal potential of Datura inoxia was probably related to the abundance of alkaloids and phenolic compounds in its chemical constitution that negatively effects the development of the vegetative mycelium.

A aplicação de defensivos químicos para o controle de doenças fúngicas tem por consequência impactos sobre o ambiente e a saúde humana. Desta forma, a utilização de extratos vegetais com propriedades antifúngicas associado ao manejo adequado de culturas, torna-se uma proposta viável de controle alternativo, principalmente na agricultura orgânica e familiar. Neste sentido, objetivou-se realizar a avaliação fitoquímica das folhas de Datura inoxia, avaliando seu potencial antifúngico frente ao crescimento micelial de Fusarium solani e Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Os extratos, aquoso e etanólico, obtidos das folhas da planta coletadas em áreas do município de Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul, foram submetidos à prospecção fitoquímica e quantificação flavonoides e fenóis totais, avaliando-se sua atividade antifúngica em concentrações de 800, 1200, 1600, 2000 e 2400 µg 100 mL-1. Cada concentração foi incorporada, separadamente, em ágar BDA, vertida em placas de petri, seguida da colocação do disco de micélio do fungo, com diâmetro das colônias sendo medido diariamente. Utilizou-se como controle negativo, ágar sem extrato e ágar com solução etanólica. Nos dois extratos ocorreu a mesma diversidade de metabólitos secundários (nove classes); porém o extrato etanólico, um solvente de menor polaridade que a água, foi mais eficiente na extração destes constituintes, com destaque aos alcaloides e compostos fenólicos com maior frequência (100%). Em relação a atividade antifúngica, o extrato etanólico proporcionou inibição de 100% do crescimento micelial de Sclerotinia sclerotitorum, em todas as concentrações, em relação a testemunha. Por outro lado, o crescimento de Fusarium solani foi afetado negativamente apenas nas maiores concentrações, 800 e 1200 µmL-1 100 mL-1.O potencial antifúngico da planta provavelmente está relacionado a sua constituição química, com abundância de alcaloides e compostos fenólicos, afetando negativamente o desenvolvimento do micélio vegetativo.
Descritores: Solo
Extratos Vegetais
Datura metel
Fungos
-Praguicidas
Doenças das Plantas
Ascomicetos
Controle
Compostos Fenólicos
Compostos Fitoquímicos
Fusarium
Noxas
Responsável: BR396.1 - Biblioteca Central



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