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Id: biblio-1041772
Autor: Martínez-Villarreal, Rodolfo; Garza-Romero, Tamar S; Moreno-Medina, Víctor R; Hernández-Delgado, Sanjuana; Mayek-Pérez, Netzahualcoyotl.
Título: Bases bioquímicas de la tolerancia al estrés osmótico en hongos fitopatógenos: el caso de Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi) Goid / Biochemical basis of tolerance to osmotic stress in phytopathogenic fungus: The case of Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi) Goid
Fonte: Rev. argent. microbiol;48(4):347-357, dic. 2016. ilus, graf, tab.
Idioma: es.
Resumo: El hongo Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi) Goid., agente causal de la enfermedad denominada «pudrición carbonosa¼, provoca pérdidas significativas en la producción de cultivos como maíz, sorgo, soya y frijol en México. Este hongo, parásito facultativo, muestra amplia capacidad de adaptación a ambientes estresantes, donde existen altas temperaturas y deficiencia hídrica, condiciones frecuentes en gran parte de la agricultura de dicho país. En este trabajo se describen algunos aspectos básicos de la etiología y la epidemiología de M. phaseolina. Asimismo, se revisa la importancia que guardan las respuestas de este hongo a ambientes estresantes, particularmente la deficiencia hídrica, de acuerdo con caracteres morfológicos y del crecimiento, así como fisiológicos, bioquímicos y de patogenicidad. Finalmente, se presentan algunas perspectivas de estudio del género, que enfatizan la necesidad de mejorar su conocimiento, con base en la aplicación de herramientas tradicionales y de biotecnología, y de dilucidar mecanismos de tolerancia al estrés ambiental, extrapolables a otros microorganismos útiles al hombre.

Fungus Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi) Goid. is the causative agent of charcoal rot disease which causes significant yield losses in major crops such as maize, sorghum, soybean and common beans in Mexico. This fungus is a facultative parasite which shows broad ability to adapt itself to stressed environments where water deficits and/or high temperature stresses commonly occur. These environmental conditions are common for most cultivable lands throughout Mexico. Here we describe some basic facts related to the etiology and epidemiology of the fungus as well as to the importance of responses to stressed environments, particularly to water deficits, based on morphology and growth traits, as well as on physiology, biochemistry and pathogenicity of fungus M. phaseolina. To conclude, we show some perspectives related to future research into the genus, which emphasize the increasing need to improve the knowledge based on the application of both traditional and biotechnological tools in order to elucidate the mechanisms of resistance to environmental stress which can be extrapolated to other useful organisms to man.
Descritores: Adaptação
Meio Ambiente
Produção Agrícola/economia
Fungos/crescimento & desenvolvimento
Fungos/fisiologia
Fungos/patogenicidade
-Estresse Fisiológico/fisiologia
Tipo de Publ: Estudo de Avaliação
Estudo Observacional
Responsável: AR635.1 - FCVyS - Servicio de Información y Documentación


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Texto completo SciELO Chile
Texto completo
Id: biblio-950767
Autor: Ikinci, Ali; Bolat, Ibrahim; Ercisli, Sezai; Kodad, Ossama.
Título: Influence of rootstocks on growth, yield, fruit quality and leaf mineral element contents of pear cv. 'Santa Maria' in semi-arid conditions
Fonte: Biol. Res;47:1-8, 2014. graf, tab.
Idioma: en.
Resumo: BACKGROUND: Rootstocks play an essential role to determining orchard performance of fruit trees. Pyrus communisand Cydonia oblonga are widely used rootstocks for European pear cultivars. The lack of rootstocks adapted to different soil conditions and different grafted cultivars is widely acknowledged in pear culture. Cydonia rootstocks (clonal) and Pyrus rootstocks (seedling or clonal) have their advantages and disadvantages. In each case, site-specific environmental characteristics, specific cultivar response and production objectives must be considered before choosing the best rootstock. In this study, the influence of three Quince (BA 29, Quince A = MA, Quince C = MC) and a local European pear seedling rootstocks on the scion yield, some fruit quality characteristics and leaf macro (N, P, K, Ca and Mg) and micro element (Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn and B) content of 'Santa Maria' pear (Pyrus communis L.) were investigated. RESULTS: Trees on seedling rootstock had the highest annual yield, highest cumulative yield (kg tree(-1)), largest trunk cross-sectional area (TCSA), lowest yield efficiency and lowest cumulative yield (ton ha(-1)) in the 10th year after planting. The rootstocks had no significant effect on average fruit weight and fruit volume. Significantly higher fruit firmness was obtained on BA 29 and Quince A. The effect of rootstocks on the mineral element accumulation (N, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn and B) was significant. Leaf analysis showed that rootstocks used had different mineral uptake efficiencies throughout the early season. CONCLUSION: The results showed that the rootstocks strongly affected fruit yield, fruit quality and leaf mineral element uptake of 'Santa Maria' pear cultivar. Pear seedling and BA 29 rootstock found to be more prominent in terms of several characteristics for 'Santa Maria' pear cultivar that is grown in highly calcareous soil in semi-arid climate conditions. We determined the highest N, P (although insignificant), K, Ca, Mg, Fe and Cu mineral element concentrations on the pear seedling and BA 29 rootstocks. According to the results, we recommend the seedling rootstock for normal density plantings (400 trees ha(-1)) and BA 29 rootstock for high-density plantings (800 trees ha(-1)) for 'Santa Maria' pear cultivar in semi-arid conditions.
Descritores: Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo
Folhas de Planta/química
Pyrus/classificação
Pyrus/crescimento & desenvolvimento
Pyrus/química
Clima Desértico
Produção Agrícola/métodos
Frutas/metabolismo
-Fósforo/análise
Potássio/análise
Chuva
Solo
Temperatura
Turquia
Zinco/análise
Boro/análise
Cálcio/análise
Cobre/análise
Rosaceae/fisiologia
Plântula/crescimento & desenvolvimento
Plântula/fisiologia
Ferro/análise
Magnésio/análise
Manganês/análise
Nitrogênio/análise
Responsável: CL1.1 - Biblioteca Central


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Texto completo SciELO Brasil
Texto completo
Id: biblio-1142501
Autor: Wolschick, Neuro Hilton; Bertol, Ildegardis; Bagio, Bárbara; Wroblescki, Filipe Antonio; Bernardi, Loriane.
Título: Chemical Recovery of Degraded Soil and Consequence in the Cost of Corn Production
Fonte: Braz. arch. biol. technol;63(spe):e20190433, 2020. tab.
Idioma: en.
Resumo: Abstract Improper management degrades the soil, decreases corn productivity and is reflected in the cost of production. The objective of this research was to evaluate the soil recovery in non-conservationist treatments after the change of management and cultivation to the conservation condition direct sowing, and compare these systems to consolidated direct seeding; This evaluation was based on the soil responsiveness to crop production and water erosion control, and based on the financial cost of soil recovery and corn production when soil management was converted from non-conservationist (tillage rotation - RT, minimum tillage - MT, conventional tillage - CT and bare soil - BS) to no-tillage (NT) condition, in a Humic Cambisol. The transition from managements to no-tillage occurred in 2015 year, after 27 years of conducting the preexisting managements. The chemical recovery was carried out with the application of limestone, phosphorus, and potassium. At the end of the research the yield of the corn crop, the cost of recovering the soil fertility and the cost of crop production were evaluated. Previous soil management influenced the cost of soil chemical recovery. The cost of production showed a financial loss for the previous treatments CT and BS, on the average of the three corn crops.
Descritores: Fósforo/administração & dosagem
Potássio/administração & dosagem
Tratamento do Solo/métodos
Zea mays/crescimento & desenvolvimento
Fertilizantes
-Carbonato de Cálcio/administração & dosagem
Tratamento do Solo/economia
Erosão Hídrica/prevenção & controle
Custos e Análise de Custo
Rotação de Cultivos
Conservação de Terras/economia
Conservação de Terras/métodos
Fertilizantes/economia
Produção Agrícola/economia
Responsável: BR1.1 - BIREME


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Texto completo SciELO Brasil
Texto completo
Id: biblio-1142506
Autor: Zanella, Rodrigo; Zdziarski, Andrei Daniel; Meira, Daniela; Bozi, Antonio Henrique; Lippstein, Eduardo Rafael; Colonelli, Lucas Leite; Fernandes, Rogê Afonso Tolentino; Fernandes, Vinícius Kunz; Benin, Giovani; Cassol, Luís César.
Título: System Fertilization: a Viable Practice for Black Oat-soybean Crop
Fonte: Braz. arch. biol. technol;63(spe):e20190063, 2020. tab, graf.
Idioma: en.
Resumo: Abstract System fertilization is characterized by partial or total fertilizer application at the predecessor crop; and it can be a viable practice to soybean crop. This study aimed to determine the fertilizer management and fertilizer levels for black oat-soybean cropping system, in high fertility soils and no-tillage system. The field trial was conducted in a bifactorial scheme, consisting of six environments, by combination of locations (Bom Sucesso do Sul - Paraná, Itapejara d'Oeste - Paraná) and fertilization management (all fertilization in black oat; splitting with 50% in black oat and 50% in soybean, all fertilization in soybean), and four fertilizer levels (0, 100, 200 and 300%) defined according to soil analysis and production expected. The evaluated traits were dry mass production, N, P and K nutrient accumulation of straw, dry mass remaining of black oat crop; and plant height, number of pods per plant, thousand grain weight, grain yield for soybean crop. Higher black oat dry mass production was observed at higher fertilization level. The fertilizer anticipation in black oat crop had better performance. Phosphorus and potassium accumulation increased linearly with fertilizer level increase. For N, the highest accumulated value occurred at the 200%, decreasing at the 300% of fertilizer level. The soybean crop had no influence in grain yield considering fertilization management, anticipation or splitting, and fertilizer levels. Thus, the system fertilization can be a viable practice, and favor black oat dry mass production and soybean development.
Descritores: Soja/crescimento & desenvolvimento
Análise do Solo
Avena/crescimento & desenvolvimento
Fertilizantes
-Fósforo/análise
Potássio/análise
Produção Agrícola/métodos
Nitrogênio/análise
Limites: Humanos
Responsável: BR1.1 - BIREME


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Texto completo SciELO Brasil
Texto completo
Id: biblio-1142508
Autor: Barth, Gabriel; Gotz, Lenir Fátima; Favaretto, Nerilde; Pauletti, Volnei.
Título: Does Dairy Liquid Manure Complementary to Mineral Fertilization Increase Grain Yield Due to Changes in Soil Fertility?
Fonte: Braz. arch. biol. technol;63(spe):e20190537, 2020. tab, graf.
Idioma: en.
Resumo: Abstract The main destination of manure is the application to croplands near livestock farms as nutrient source to enhance crop production. The aim of this study was to define the dairy liquid manure (DLM) dose, complementary to the mineral fertilizer, for higher crops yield, in rotation black oat-maize-wheat-soybean, and to identify the soil chemical variables improved by the manure that most affect the yield, in long-term. The experiment was conducted from 2006 to 2015, in no-tillage system, at Paraná State, Brazil. The soil was a Latossolo Bruno Distrófico típico, clayey texture. The treatments consisted by doses of DLM (0, 60, 120 and 180 m3 ha-1 year-1), complementary to the mineral fertilizer (applied in the same amount for all DLM doses). Crops yield and soil chemical variables were evaluated at six depths (0-10; 10-20; 20-30; 30-40; 40-50 and 50-60 cm). The DLM application increased the yield of all crops, but not in all harvests. The DLM even applied at soil surface improved the soil chemical variables in deep layers, resulting in high positive correlation between yield and exchange bases, P, Zn and Mn contents, and high negative correlation with Ca/Mg ratio and potential acidity at depth 0-10 cm. The DLM dose, complementary to the mineral fertilization, that provided higher soybean and wheat yield was about 130 m3 ha-1 year-1, while for maize this dose was equal to or greater than 180 m3 ha-1 year-1. This effect was not attributed to a single chemical variable but the improvement of all chemical variables evaluated.
Descritores: Solo/química
Fertilizantes
Produção Agrícola/métodos
Esterco
-Fósforo/análise
Soja
Triticum
Carbono/análise
Avena
Produtos Agrícolas
Zea mays
Fazendas
Minerais/análise
Nitrogênio/análise
Limites: Humanos
Animais
Responsável: BR1.1 - BIREME


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Texto completo SciELO Brasil
Texto completo
Id: biblio-1142510
Autor: Nogaroli, Jéssica Alves; Fonseca, Adriel Ferreira da; Barth, Gabriel.
Título: Acidity Control Utilizing Different Soil Management Methods in Italian Ryegrass and Silage Maize Production Systems
Fonte: Braz. arch. biol. technol;63(spe):e20190507, 2020. graf.
Idioma: en.
Resumo: Abstract This study examined the effects of liming on soil acidity and base saturation (V) in Italian ryegrass (ryegrass) and silage maize production systems over the medium-term. A split-plot design with four replications was employed on Humic Hapludox. The plots consisted of four soil management methods: conventional tillage (CT), minimum tillage (MT), no-tillage (NT) and chiselled NT (CNT). Within the split plots, ryegrass was used as cover crop (CC), silage (S), and integrated crop-livestock (ICL) system. Following ryegrass phytomass the maize was sowed. Once the maize had been cut with a silage machine, soil samples were collected from the layers 0-5, 5-10, 10-15, 15-20 and 20-30 cm at 24 and 60 months after liming. The attributes pH, H+Al, exchangeable aluminium (Al3+), and V were evaluated. The highest pH and V values were observed in the 0-5 cm layer in NT. The CNT did not result in improvement of acidity conditions or V. The ryegrass as S and ICL decreased soil acidity from 10 cm layer. NT combined with ICL provided soil acidity improvements 60 months after liming. Therefore, the exploration of winter with Italian ryegrass may elicit greater benefits in deep soil layers than cover crops.
Descritores: Silagem
Solo/química
Lolium
Acidez do Solo/prevenção & controle
Zea mays
-Análise do Solo
Produção Agrícola
Criação de Animais Domésticos
Limites: Humanos
Animais
Responsável: BR1.1 - BIREME


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Texto completo SciELO Costa Rica
Texto completo
Id: biblio-1041892
Autor: Canal Daza, Diana Skarly; Andrade, Hernán J.
Título: Sinergias mitigación - adaptación al cambio climático en sistemas de producción de café (Coffea arabica), de Tolima, Colombia / Mitigation - adaptation synergies of climate change of coffee (Coffea arabica) production systems in Tolima, Colombia
Fonte: Rev. biol. trop;67(1):36-46, Jan.-Mar. 2019. tab, graf.
Idioma: es.
Resumo: Resumen El cambio climático del planeta es generado principalmente por el incremento de las emisiones de gases de efecto invernadero. El Panel Intergubernamental de Cambio Climático (IPCC) ha establecido la mitigación y adaptación como estrategias para enfrentar el cambio climático; sin embargo, ambas estrategias se han evaluado poco en conjunto. Con el objetivo de estudiar las posibles sinergias entre mitigación y adaptación, se evaluaron tres sistemas de producción de café en el municipio de Líbano: sistemas agroforestales (SAF) con Cordia allidora, SAF con plátano y monocultivos con cuatro repeticiones por tratamiento. Como indicador de mitigación se estimó la huella de carbono en la producción y procesamiento del grano; mientras que la adaptación se midió como la diversidad de hormigas presentes. Los SAF con C. allidora favorecen tanto la mitigación como la adaptación al cambio climático, tienen una huella de carbono positiva además, tienen una mayor riqueza de géneros de hormigas (12.81 vs -3.0 vs -6.4 Mg CO2e/ha/año en huella de carbono y 1.3 vs 0.6 vs 0.6 de Índice de Margalef de hormigas en SAF con C. alliodora, SAF con plátano y monocultivo, respectivamente). Los sistemas de producción agrícola, manejados de forma amigable con el medio ambiente y en asocio con árboles nativos, son una buena estrategia para implementar programas de mitigación y adaptación al cambio climático. Incluir árboles nativos favorece económicamente a los productores, e incrementa los lugares de refugio y las condiciones mínimas de sobrevivencia, semejantes a los ecosistemas naturales para que los diferentes grupos de animales logren adaptarse a los cambios.(AU)

Abstract Climate change is mainly generated by an increase of greehouse gas emissions. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has established mitigation and adaptation as strategies to deal with climate change. However, few studies have been developed jointly. With the purpose of studying the possible synergies between mitigation and adaptation, three coffee production systems in the municipality of Líbano: agroforestry systems (AFS) with Cordia allidora, AFS with plantain and monocultures, with four replications by treatment, were evaluated. As mitigation indicator, the carbon footprint in the coffee production and processing was estimated, whereas the adaptation was measured as the ant diversity. The AFS with C. alliodora favor both mitigation and adaptation to climate change since they have a positive carbon footprint and the greatest richness of ant genus (12.8 vs -3.0 vs -6.4 Mg CO2e/ha/year in carbon footprint and 1.3 vs 0.6 vs 0.6 of Margalef Index of ants in AFS with C. alliodora, AFS with plantain and monoculture, respectively). The agricultural production systems, environmental-friendly managed and associated with native trees, are a good strategy to implement in programs of mitigation-adaptation of climate change. The inclusion of native tree favors the producer's economy and increases the shelter places and the minimal conditions for surviving, similar to natural ecosystems so the different groups of animals for climate change adaptation.(AU)
Descritores: Mudança Climática
Biomassa
Coffea
Gases de Efeito Estufa
Pegada de Carbono
-Colômbia
Produção Agrícola
Responsável: BR1.1 - BIREME


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Texto completo
Id: biblio-1146500
Autor: Campos, Milton César Costa; Santos, Eduardo Santos Neves dos; Souza, Fernando Gomes de; Cunha, Jose Mauricio; Pinheiro, Elyenayra Nogueira; Lima, Alan Ferreira Leite de; Brito, Wildson Benedito Mendes; Wadt, Paulo Guilherme Salvador.
Título: The stability of aggregates and organic carbon content after the application of gypsum, soil scarification and a succession of agricultural crops / A estabilidade dos agregados e do teor de carbono orgânico após a aplicação de gesso, escarificação do solo e uma sucessão de culturas agrícolas
Fonte: Biosci. j. (Online);36(3):720-730, 01-05-2020. ilus, tab.
Idioma: en.
Resumo: Studies related to the monitoring of soil quality by physical attributes are important for the evaluation and maintenance of the sustainability of agricultural systems, besides indicating the appropriate management of the environment, aiming at its conservation and productivity. The objective of this study was to evaluate the stability of aggregates and organic carbon after the application of gypsum, soil scarification and a succession of crops. The treatments consisted of an absence and addition of gypsum, absence and presence of soil scarification, and three systems of crops in succession. The experimental design was made of randomized blocks, in a 2x2x4 factorial scheme, with eight replications. The aggregates were evaluated as stabled in water and soil organic carbon content. The treatment where gypsum was applied, as well as the soybean/maize/brachiaria/fallow (SMBF) succession system, presented better results in soil aggregation and higher levels of organic carbon.

Estudos relativos ao monitoramento da qualidade do solo pelos atributos físicos são importantes para a avaliação e manutenção da sustentabilidade dos sistemas agrícolas, além de sinalizar o manejo adequado do ambiente, visando à sua conservação e produtividade. Este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar a estabilidade de agregados e teor de carbono orgânico, após a aplicação de gesso, escarificação do solo e sucessão de culturas. Os tratamentos consistiram na ausência e adição de gesso agrícola, ausência e presença de escarificação do solo, e três sistemas de sucessão de culturas. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados, em esquema fatorial 2x2x3 com oito repetições. Sendo avaliada a estabilidade dos agregados estáveis em água e teor de carbono orgânico do solo. O tratamento onde foi aplicado gesso agrícola e o sistema de sucessão SMBP apresentaram melhores resultados na agregação do solo e maiores teores de carbono orgânico.
Descritores: Solo
Qualidade do Solo
Tratamento do Solo
-Soja
Sulfato de Cálcio
Carbono
Acidez do Solo
Características do Solo
Zea mays
Brachiaria
Produção Agrícola
Responsável: BR396.1 - Biblioteca Central


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Texto completo SciELO Brasil
Texto completo
Id: biblio-886851
Autor: CECÍLIO FILHO, ARTHUR B; BIANCO, MATHEUS S; TARDIVO, CAROLINE F; PUGINA, GABRIEL C M.
Título: Agronomic viability of New Zealand spinach and kale intercropping
Fonte: An. acad. bras. ciênc;89(4):2975-2986, Oct.-Dec. 2017. tab, graf.
Idioma: en.
Projeto: Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e tecnológico.
Resumo: ABSTRACT The intercropping is a production system that aims to provide increased yield with less environmental impact, due to greater efficiency in the use of natural resources and inputs involved in the production process. An experiment was carried out to evaluate the agronomic viability of kale and New Zealand spinach intercropping as a function of the spinach transplanting time. (0, 14, 28, 42, 56, 70, 84 and 98 days after transplanting of the kale). The total yield (TY) and yield per harvest (YH) of the kale in intercropping did not differ from those obtained in monoculture. The spinach TY was influenced by the transplanting time, the earlier the transplanting, the higher the TY. The spinach YH was not influenced by the transplanting time, but rather by the cultivation system. In intercropping, the spinach YH was 13.5% lower than in monoculture. The intercropping was agronomically feasible, since the land use efficiency index, which was not influenced by the transplanting time, had an average value of 1.71, indicating that the intercropping produced 71% more kale and spinach than the same area in monoculture. Competitiveness coefficient, aggressiveness and yield loss values showed that kale is the dominating species and spinach is the dominated.
Descritores: Brassica/crescimento & desenvolvimento
Spinacia oleracea/crescimento & desenvolvimento
Produção Agrícola/métodos
-Fatores de Tempo
Nova Zelândia
Responsável: BR1.1 - BIREME


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Texto completo SciELO Brasil
Texto completo
Id: biblio-886869
Autor: PASA, MATEUS S; SILVA, CARINA P DA; CARRA, BRUNO; BRIGHENTI, ALBERTO F; SOUZA, ANDRÉ LUIZ K DE; PETRI, JOSÉ LUIZ.
Título: Thidiazuron (TDZ) increases fruit set and yield of 'Hosui' and 'Packham's Triumph' pear trees
Fonte: An. acad. bras. ciênc;89(4):3103-3110, Oct.-Dec. 2017. tab, graf.
Idioma: en.
Projeto: Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico.
Resumo: ABSTRACT The low fruit set is one of the main factors leading to poor yield of pear orchards in Brazil. The exogenous application of thidiazuron (TDZ) and aminoethoxyvinilglycine (AVG) has shown promising results in some pear cultivars and other temperate fruit trees. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of TDZ and AVG on fruit set, yield, and fruit quality of 'Hosui' and 'Packham's Triumph' pears. The study was performed in a commercial orchard located in São Joaquim, SC. Plant material consisted of 'Hosui' and 'Packham's Triumph' pear trees grafted on Pyrus calleryana. Treatments consisted on different rates of TDZ (0 mg L-1, 20 mg L-1, 40 mg L-1 and 60 mg L-1) sprayed at full bloom for both cultivars. An additional treatment of AVG 60 mg L-1 was sprayed one week after full bloom in 'Hosui'. The fruit set, number of fruit per tree, yield, fruit weight, seed number, and fruit quality attributes were assessed. Fruit set and yield of both cultivars are consistently increased by TDZ, within the rates of 20 to 60 mg L-1. Besides, its application increased fruit size of 'Hosui' and did not negatively affect fruit quality attributes of both cultivars.
Descritores: Compostos de Fenilureia/farmacologia
Tiadiazóis/farmacologia
Pyrus/efeitos dos fármacos
Glicina/análogos & derivados
-Compostos de Fenilureia/administração & dosagem
Tiadiazóis/administração & dosagem
Pyrus/crescimento & desenvolvimento
Produção Agrícola
Glicina/administração & dosagem
Glicina/farmacologia
Responsável: BR1.1 - BIREME



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