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Id: biblio-1284327
Autor: GeoHazards International.
Título: Identifying earthquake-unsafe schools and setting priorities to make them safe: a case study In Gujarat, India.
Fonte: California; GeoHazards International; Feb. 3, 2005. 40 p. tab.
Idioma: en.
Resumo: After the January 26, 2001 Gujarat Earthquake, GeoHazards International (GHI) was concerned about the risk of school buildings in the largest Gujarat cities and asked the Volunteers for India Development and Empowerment (VIDE) and NGOs Kobe to help fund a study that would identify earthquake-unsafe school buildings in Ahmedabad, Baroda and Surat. VIDE and NGOs Kobe agreed to help. GHI worked with its Indian partner organization, SEEDS, to evaluate 153 schools: 42 in Ahmedabad, 58 in Baroda, and 53 in Surat. The schools included different structural types, served students from a variety of educational and economic levels, and were widely dispersed within each city. GHI found that the earthquake risk of the schools in all three cities is significant, and recommends that the authorities responsible for these schools take steps to reduce the risk. GHI further recommends that these authorities initiate comprehensive school earthquake risk mitigation programs. GHI and SEEDS will meet with officials in these three cities to discuss these findings and follow-up actions. After this meeting, this report will be revised.
Descritores: Instituições Acadêmicas
Efeitos de Desastres nas Edificações
Terremotos
Colapso Estrutural
-Índia
Responsável: BR1.1 - BIREME


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Id: biblio-1284328
Autor: United Nations.
Título: RADIUS: risk isessment tools for dagnosis of urban areas against seismic disasters.
Fonte: New York; United Nations; 1999. 46 p.
Idioma: en.
Resumo: Urban seismic risk is rapidly increasing, particularly in developing countries, where a number of mega-cities are growing.Almost half of the world population lives in cities, where all kinds of human activities are concentrated. Thus, cities are more and more vulnerable to disasters, particularly to earthquakes, which can strike any city suddenly without warning. Once an earthquake takes place in a large city,the damage can be tremendous both in human and economic terms. Even an intermediate earthquake can cause destructive damage to a city as in the cases of the 1995 earthquake in Kobe. Japan and the 1999 earthquake in Kocaeli,Turkey. There is a tendency to think that disaster prevention would cost much more than relief activities. However, the reality is the reverse. Our society has been spending a lot of resources for response activities after disasters; these resources could have been drastically reduced if some had been spent for disaster prevention.There is also a tendency to look at disasters mainly from a humanitarian angle, bringing us into the position of giving priority to the response to disasters. However, relief activities can never save human lives that have already been lost. Response activities can never help immediately resume functions of an urban infrastructure that have already been destroyed. The bottom line is that buildings should not kill people by collapsing and infrastructure should not halt social and economic activities of the city for a long time. It is essential particularly for seismic risk reduction to concentrate our efforts on prevention and preparedness.The secretariat of the lnternational Decade for Natural Disaster Reduction (IDNDR 1990-2000), United Nations, Geneva, therefore, launched the RADIUS (Risk AssessmentTools for Diagnosis of Urban Areas against Seismic Disasters) initiative in 1996, with financial assistance from the Government of Japan. It aimed to promote worldwide activities for reduction of seismic disasters in urban areas, particularly in developing countries.
Descritores: Área Urbana
Efeitos de Desastres nas Edificações
Engenharia Sísmica
Terremotos
Colapso Estrutural/prevenção & controle
Tipo de Publ: GOVERNMENT PUBLICATIONS
Responsável: BR1.1 - BIREME


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Id: biblio-1284317
Autor: GeoHazards International.
Título: Background papers and supplementary technical information.
Fonte: California; GeoHazards International; June 2015. 183 p. tab.
Idioma: en.
Resumo: Population growth and the built environment are the primary root causes of morbidity and mortality associated with earthquakes. Earthquakes generally do not cause death and injury, but rather it is the buildings in which people are located and the contents therein that are directly responsible for human mortality and morbidity. Protective action messaging is intended to provide members of the public with information that can be recalled and acted on during earthquake shaking to reduce the chance of death and injury. In order to design appropriate guidance for developing protective action messages for earthquakes, it is important to understand their human impact­that is, how people are injured and killed during earthquake shaking. The purpose of this background paper is to describe the epidemiology of deaths and injuries during earthquakes. The paper will address the major causes of death and injury from earthquakes, including what the research indicates about injuries to building occupants who walk or run, the likelihood of death or injury from earthquakes, the likelihood of death or injury from earthquake-related building collapse, the likelihood of death or injury from substandard building evacuation routes during earthquakes, and other sudden onset threats, such as tsunami or fire. The health effects of earthquakes can be categorized in a variety of ways. Combs, Quenemoen, Parrish, and Davis (1999) developed a typology, which has been adopted by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), for categorizing the health effects attributable to earthquakes and other disasters based on two parameters: (1) the time the death or injury occurs relative to the event, and (2) whether the event is directly or indirectly related to the disaster. Deaths and injuries that are directly related are those that are caused by the physical forces of the event, whereas indirectly related deaths and injuries are, "those caused by unsafe or unhealthy conditions that occur because of the anticipation, or actual occurrence, of the disaster" (Combs et al., 1999, p. 1125). This paper will focus primarily on human deaths and injuries occurring during earthquakes that are directly related to the event.
Descritores: Efeitos de Desastres nas Edificações
Terremotos/mortalidade
Colapso Estrutural/prevenção & controle
Promoção da Saúde
Desastres Naturais
Limites: Humanos
Tipo de Publ: GOVERNMENT PUBLICATIONS
Responsável: BR1.1 - BIREME


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Texto completo SciELO Brasil
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Id: biblio-1039578
Autor: Valenti, Vitor Engrácia; Garner, David M.
Título: Cardiovascular risks in subjects exposed to the Brumadinho dam collapse, Minas Gerais, Brazil
Fonte: Clinics;74:e1301, 2019.
Idioma: en.
Descritores: Doenças Cardiovasculares/induzido quimicamente
Metais Pesados/toxicidade
Desastres
Colapso Estrutural
-Brasil
Fatores de Risco
Limites: Humanos
Responsável: BR1.1 - BIREME


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Id: biblio-1116382
Autor: Lima, Beatriz Matos de; Verri, Igor Araújo; Soares, Jéssica Yohanna Silva; Oliveira, Stefan Vilges de.
Título: Júri simulado como estratégia ativa de ensino de vigilância em saúde / Simulated jury as an active strategy for teaching health surveillance
Fonte: Arq. ciências saúde UNIPAR;24(2):125-129, maio-ago. 2020.
Idioma: pt.
Resumo: As Diretrizes Curriculares Nacionais para a graduação em Medicina no Brasil destacam que os profissionais de saúde devem estar aptos para realizar ações de promoção, prevenção, reabilitação e proteção em saúde, nas quais a Vigilância em Saúde desempenha papel fundamental. Nesse contexto, este relato de experiência aborda uma estratégia ativa de ensino que visa, por meio de um júri simulado, aplicar conceitos de Vigilância em Saúde (Epidemiológica, Sanitária e Ambiental); fomentar a discussão técnica sobre sua atuação; e discutir vigilância, risco e mitigação do risco em situações de desastres. A atividade foi realizada dentro da disciplina de Saúde Coletiva com participação de 60 discentes do quinto período do curso de medicina e 2 docentes, duração de 4 horas e teve como situação problema o rompimento da barragem do município de Mariana em 2015 e os danos à saúde da população dessa área. Para melhor organização do júri simulado e para assegurar a participação ativa do maior número de discentes nas discussões, os alunos foram divididos nas seguintes funções: júri popular, escrivães, acusação, defesa, testemunhas e peritos. Além disso, as arguições deveriam ser respaldas por literatura científica e aplicar os conceitos epidemiológicos, sanitários e ambientais na situação proposta. Assim, este júri simulado busca aprimorar o processo de ensino-aprendizagem em Vigilância em Saúde por meio de uma atividade prática sobre sua atuação, que ressalte a participação do médico nessa esfera da saúde pública.

The National Curricular Guidelines for medical graduation in Brazil emphasizes that physicians should be able to develop health promotion, prevention, rehabilitation, and protective actions in which Health Surveillance plays a pivotal role. Thereby, this experience report addresses an active teaching strategy that aims, through a simulated jury, at applying the concepts of Health Surveillance (Epidemiological, Sanitary, and Environmental); promoting the technical discussion about its roles; and discussing health surveillance, risk, and risk mitigation in disaster situations. The activity is part of the Public Health discipline, and it was developed with 60 medical students from the fifth period and 2 teachers. The jury lasted 4 hours and the topic was the rupture of a tailing dam in the city of Mariana in 2015, addressing the damages to the health of the population. For better organization of the simulated jury and to ensure the participation of the largest number of students, they were divided into the following roles: popular jury, clerks, prosecution, defense, witnesses, and criminal investigators. In addition, the arguments should be supported by scientific literature and should also apply epidemiological, health and environmental concepts. Thus, this simulated jury sought to improve the teaching-learning process in Health Surveillance with a practical activity about its duties and highlight the importance and the role of physicians in this public health area.
Descritores: Barragens
Aprendizagem Baseada em Problemas/métodos
Educação Médica/métodos
Colapso Estrutural
Vigilância em Saúde Pública/métodos
Treinamento por Simulação/métodos
-Risco à Saúde Humana
Limites: Humanos
Masculino
Feminino
Tipo de Publ: Relatos de Casos
Guia de Estudo
Responsável: BR513.1 - Biblioteca Central


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Id: biblio-1146226
Autor: Passos, Renato Augusto.
Título: Entre tragédias: percepção e experiências de ribeirinhos atingidos por rompimento de barragens no Brasil - 2016/2020 / Among tragedies: perception and experiences of riverine people affected by the rupture of dams in Brazil - 2016/2020.
Fonte: São Paulo; s.n; 2020. 209 p.
Idioma: pt.
Tese: Apresentada a Universidade de São Paulo. Faculdade de Saúde Pública para obtenção do grau de Doutor.
Resumo: Introdução: Apesar da mineração existir no Brasil há mais de 300 anos, marcando principalmente a história do estado de Minas Gerais, muitas pessoas souberam que este tipo de atividade é comum em território nacional somente a partir do rompimento de barragens nas cidades de Mariana e Brumadinho, respectivamente nos anos de 2015 e 2019. Objetivo: Compreender o processo pelo qual os ribeirinhos atingidos por tragédias da mineração no Brasil entre os anos de 2015 a 2019 recompõem suas vidas, com uma contribuição etnográfica em uma cidade capixaba. Além disso, pretende-se também compreender como, no período do estudo, o Movimento dos Atingidos por Barragens (MAB) fortalece seu protagonismo e militância atuando junto aos moradores, seja por meio da mídia, registros visuais, narrativas ou construção da memória social do movimento. Método: revisão bibliográfica, pesquisa documental, observação, realização de entrevistas com militantes do Movimento dos Atingidos por Barragens (MAB), registros visuais e registros etnográficos. Resultados: A economia mineral do Estado de Minas Gerais conta com os altos lucros gerados nos últimos anos devido às atividades do setor na exportação de matéria prima. Entre as quinze cidades mineiras que receberam maior CFEM no ano de 2017, Mariana e Brumadinho, terras onde as maiores tragédias ambientais ocorreram nos últimos anos, ocupam respectivamente, a 5ª e a 8ª colocação. Enquanto Minas Gerais recebe grandes compensações financeiras pela exploração de seus recursos, muitos outros municípios de seu estado vizinho, o Espírito Santo, que viram as águas do rio Doce serem cobertas por lama devido ao desastre de Mariana, continuam esquecidos e buscando soluções aos diversos problemas causados à população ribeirinha. Considerações finais: Todas as promessas de revisão de barragens, novas tecnologias, promessas do ponto de vista legal, de política pública, continuam no papel, sem solução para os afetados pelas tragédias. As empresas no entanto, continuaram a crescer do ponto de vista econômico e a criar novas parcerias no mercado nacional e internacional. O dinheiro recebido como recurso da CFEM precisa libertar os municípios da extração de minério. Se sabemos todos os malefícios trazidos por esta atividade, precisamos considerar as circunstâncias e buscar o que cada região apresenta por vocação. Cada local tem suas especificidades, seus modos de vida.

Introduction: Although mining existis in Brazil for more than 300 years, mainly marking the history of the state of Minas Gerais, many people have known that this type of activity is common in national territory only from the breaking of dams in the cities of Mariana and Brumadinho, respectively in the years 2015 and 2019. Objective: To understand the process by which riverine people affected by mining tragedies in Brazil from 2015 to 2019 recompose their lives, with an ethnographic contribution in a city in Espírito Santo. In addition, it is also intended to understand how, during the study period, the Movimento dos Atingidos por Barragens (Movement of People Affected by Dams) (MAB) strengthens its role and militancy by working with residents, whether through the media, visual records, narratives or the construction of the social memory of the movement. Method: Bibliographic review, documental research, observation, interviews with militants from the Movimento dos Atingidos por Barragens (Movement of People Affected by Dams) (MAB), visual records and ethnographic records. Results: The mineral economy of the State of Minas Gerais has the highest profits generated in recent years due to the activities in the sector's exportation of raw materials. Among the fifteen mining towns that received the highest CFEM in 2017, Mariana and Brumadinho, lands where the greatest environmental tragedies occurred in recent years, occupy, respectively, the 5th and 8th places. While Minas Gerais receives large financial compensation for the exploitation of its resources, many other counties in its neighboring state, Espírito Santo, which have seen the waters of Rio Doce being covered by mud due to the Mariana disaster, remain forgotten and seeking solutions to various problems caused to the riverside population. Final considerations: All promises to revise dams, new technologies, promises from the legal point of view, public policy, remain on paper, with no solution for those affected by the tragedies. However, companies continued to grow economically and create new partnerships in the national and international markets. The money received as a CFEM resource needs to free the counties from mining extraction. If we know all the harm caused by this activity, we need to consider the circumstances and find out what each region has as vocation. Each place has its specificities, its ways of life.
Descritores: Saúde Global
Meio Ambiente
Colapso Estrutural
Mineração
Responsável: BR67.1 - CIR - Biblioteca - Centro de Informação e Referência



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