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Pesquisa : SP4.036.407.363 [Categoria DeCS]
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Id: biblio-966907
Autor: Carneiro, Jeandson da Silva; Nogueira, Roberta Martins; Martins, Marcio Arêdes; Valladão, Dênia Mendes de Souza; Pires, Evaldo Martins.
Título: The oven-drying method for determination of water content in Brazil nut / O método de estufa para determinação do teor de água da castanha-do-Brasil
Fonte: Biosci. j. (Online);34(3):595-602, mai/jun. 2018. graf, tab.
Idioma: en.
Resumo: The official methods adopted by different worldwide agencies for determination of water content of Brazil nut is the dissication in drying oven at 105 ºC during 3 or 24 hours and dissication until constant height of samples. However, applying these methods for Brazil nut, may result in inconsistent values, possibly due to lipid oxidation. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of the oven-drying methods, recommended by the official agencies, and to determine the oven-drying correct parameters, such as temperature and exposure time. For this purpose, samples were placed in drying ovens set at 85, 90, 95 and 105 °C and weighed hourly, between 3 and 12 hours and after 24 hours of exposure, and the results were compared to Karl Fisher titration, considered as a reference method in this study. The temperature of 105 °C, for any exposure time, resulted in overestimated water content compared to reference method. However, there was no difference between the water content values obtained by oven-drying assay at 90 °C for 6 hours and by the reference method, allowing to conclude that the determination of water content in Brazil nut samples, in drying oven under these conditions, can be performed with the same accuracy and precision of the Karl Fischer method.

Os métodos oficiais adotados por diferentes órgãos ao redor do mundo para a determinação do teor de água da castanha-do-brasil são a dessecação em estufa a 105 °C por 3 ou 24 horas e a dessecação até peso constante. Contudo, a aplicação destes métodos para a castanha-do-brasil pode resultar em valores inconsistentes, possivelmente pela oxidação dos lipídeos. Assim, o objetivo deste estudo foi o de avaliar a acurácia dos métodos de estufa, recomendados pelas agências oficiais, bem como determinar os parâmetros adequados do método, como temperatura e tempo de exposição. Para isto, amostras foram colocadas em estufas ajustadas em 85, 90, 95 e 105 °C e pesadas a cada hora, entre 3 e 12 horas e ao final de 24 horas de exposição, e os resultados foram comparados com aqueles obtidos por titulação de Karl Fisher, considerado como método de referência neste estudo. A temperatura de 105 °C, para quaisquer tempos de exposição, resultou na superestimação do teor de água comparado ao método de referência. Não houve diferença entre os valores para o teor de água obtidos em estufa a 90 °C por 6 horas e o método de referência, permitindo concluir que a determinação do teor de água em amostras de castanha-do-brasil, em estufas nestas condições, pode ser executada com a mesma acurácia e precisão do método de Karl Fisher.
Descritores: Bertholletia
Estufas para Plantas
-Dessecação
Oxidação
Responsável: BR396.1 - Biblioteca Central


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Texto completo SciELO Brasil
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Id: biblio-889387
Autor: Gharachorloo, Maryam; Honarvar, Masoud; Mardani, Shima.
Título: Chemical compositions and antioxidant activity of Heracleum persicum essential oil
Fonte: Braz. J. Pharm. Sci. (Online);53(3):e00260, 2017. tab, graf.
Idioma: en.
Resumo: ABSTRACT In this study essential oil of the aerial parts of Heracleum persicum a spice widely used in Iran was isolated by conventional hydrodistillation (HD) and microwave-assisted hydrodistillation (MAHD) techniques. The extraction yield was determined and the chemical compositions of essential oils were identified by the application of gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The antioxidant activity was determined by two different methods: 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging and oven test methods. Although the main compounds of essential oils by the both extraction methods were similar, the essential oil extracted by HD with lower extraction efficiency showed more diverse compounds. The evaluation of antioxidant activity of the essential oil measured by delay in sunflower oil oxidation indicated that the antioxidant activity was dependent on the concentration which increased when higher concentrations of the essential oils were applied. The results of DPPH radical assay also indicated that the percentage of inhibition increased with increasing of essential oil concentration and IC50 value for essential oil extracted by MAHD method was obtained 1.25 mg/mL. Therefore the Heracleum persicum essential oil might be recommended for use as a flavoring agent and a source of natural antioxidants in functional foods, formulation of the supplements and in medicinal due to numerous pharmacological activities.
Descritores: Óleos Voláteis/análise
Heracleum/efeitos adversos
Heracleum/química
Antioxidantes/análise
-Componentes Aéreos da Planta/classificação
Estufas para Plantas/métodos
Oxidação
Óleo de Girassol/efeitos adversos
Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/instrumentação
Responsável: BR40.1 - DBD - Divisão de Biblioteca e Documentacão do Conjunto das Químicas


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Alves, Adriana Ursulino
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Id: biblio-946958
Autor: Alves, Adriana Ursulino; Cardoso, Edson de Almeida; Alexandre, Tammata Ferreira; Cavalcante, Ítalo Herbert Lucena; Cavalcante, Márkilla Zunete Beckmann.
Título: Emergência de plântulas de fava em função de posições e profundidades de semeadura / Emergence of lima bean seedlings as a function of position and depth of sowing
Fonte: Biosci. j. (Online);30(1):33-42, jan./feb. 2014. ilus, tab.
Idioma: pt.
Resumo: A fava, Phaseolus lunatus L., é cultivada em quase todo o território nacional, devido à sua importância econômica. No Nordeste do Brasil, tornou-se uma alternativa de renda e alimento para a população, pois seus grãos são consumidos maduros ou verdes. A pesquisa foi realizada em casa-de-vegetação, no Setor de Horticultura do Campus Professora Cinobelina Elvas, da Universidade Federal do Piauí, situado no município de Bom Jesus, Piauí, com o objetivo de verificar o efeito da posição e da profundidade de semeadura na emergência e no vigor de sementes de P. lunatus L. O delineamento utilizado foi DIC, em esquema fatorial 3X5, com quatro repetições de 25 sementes, onde os tratamentos foram 3 posições das sementes (HC, HB E HL) e 5 profundidades (1, 2, 3, 4, e 5 cm). Avaliaram-se a porcentagem de emergência, primeira contagem de emergência, índice de velocidade de emergência, comprimento e massa seca das plântulas. As sementes de P. lunatus devem ser semeadas com o hilo voltado para cima (HC) na profundidade de 3,3 cm.

Phaseolus lunatus L., is cultivated in almost all the national territory, due to its economic importance. In Northeastern Brazil, it has become an alternative source of income and food for native people because its grains are eaten mature or not. The research work was conducted in a net-house at the Horticulture Sector of Campus "Profa. Cinobelina Elvas", Federal University of Piaui, in Bom Jesus county, Piaui State, Brazil aiming to verify the effect of seed position and depth of sowing on seedling emergence and vigor of P. lunatus L. seeds. The experimental design was completely randomized with four replications of 25 seeds each, and treatments were three seed positions of sowing (HB, HL and HC ) and five depths (1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 cm). The percentage of emergence, emergence first count, emergence speed index, length and dry mass of seedlings were recorded. The P. lunatus seeds should be sown with the hilum facing up (HC) at a depth of 3.3 cm.
Descritores: Cultivos Agrícolas
Phaseolus
Vicia faba
Plântula
Estufas para Plantas
Responsável: BR396.1 - Biblioteca Central


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Texto completo SciELO Brasil
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Id: lil-763230
Autor: STORCK, R. C.; DESCHAMPS, C..
Título: Teor e composição do óleo essencial de patchouli (Pogostemon cablin (Blanco) Benth. ) após diferentes tempos de secagem em estufa e temperatura ambiente / Yield and composition of essential oil of patchouli (Pogostemon cablin (Blanco) Benth. ) after different drying periods in oven and at room temperatur
Fonte: Rev. bras. plantas med;17(4):570-576, out.-dez. 2015. tab, graf.
Idioma: pt.
Resumo: RESUMOPatchouli é uma espécie aromática pertencente à família Lamiaceae que possui óleo essencial com alto valor comercial devido à aplicação nas indústrias de higiene, cosméticos e perfumarias. Considerando as características voláteis e estruturas de armazenamento em diferentes órgãos das plantas aromáticas, a determinação de métodos de secagem é de extrema importância e pode afetar tanto o rendimento como a composição do óleo essencial. Este trabalho teve como objetivo principal avaliar o teor e a composição do óleo essencial de patchouli após secagem por diferentes períodos em estufa e a temperatura ambiente. O experimento foi realizado durante o mês de fevereiro de 2011 em delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado em esquema fatorial 2X6, correspondente a dois métodos de secagem (estufa 65ºC e temperatura ambiente) e seis tempos para o início da extração do óleo essencial após a (0, 2, 4,6,8 e 10 dias após a colheita),com três repetições. O óleo essencial foi extraído por meio hidrodestilação em aparelho graduado de Clevenger e os constituintes do óleo essencial foram analisados por cromatografia em fase gasosa acoplada à espectrometria de massas. Houve interação significativa entre os métodos e tempos de secagem tanto para o teor como para a composição do óleo essencial. A secagem das plantas por dois dias em estufa a 65ºC aumentou o teor de óleo essencial, após este período houve redução significativa. Para as folhas secas em temperatura ambiente, o teor de óleo essencial foi superior aos quatro e aos seis dias após a colheita. Comparando-se os métodos, a secagem em estufa mostrou-se mais eficiente, sendo o teor significativamente superior após dois dias de secagem. Após este período, no entanto, houve drástica redução do teor de óleo essencial, sendo inferior ao teor observado em todos os períodos nas folhas secas em temperatura ambiente. Os diferentes métodos e tempos de secagem alteraram também a composição do óleo essencial. Embora a secagem em estufa a 65º por dois dias não tenha resultado em redução dos teores dos constituintes majoritários patchoulol e pogostol, maiores teores foram observados após seis ou oito dias de secagem. Quando a secagem foi realizada a temperatura ambiente, não houve alteração dos teores de ambos os constituintes.

ABSTRACTPatchouli is an aromatic species belonging to the Lamiaceae family that has essential oil with high commercial value to the hygiene, cosmetic and perfume industries. Considering its volatile characteristics and storage structures in different organs of aromatic plants, the determination of drying methods is extremely important and can affect both the yield and the composition of the essential oil. This work aimed to evaluate the content and composition of the patchouli essential oil after drying it in different periodin an oven and at room temperature. The trial was carried out in February 2011 at an experimental design completely randomized in 2X6 factorial scheme, corresponding to two drying methods (oven at 65˚C and room temperature) and six periods of essential oil extraction after harvest (0, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 days after harvest), with three replications. The essential oil was extracted by hydrodistillation in a Clevenger apparatus and the essential oil components were analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. There was significant interaction among the methods and drying times for both the content as well as for the composition of essential oil. The drying of the plants for two days in an oven at 65˚C increased the essential oil content; after this period, there was a significant reduction. For the leaves that dried at room temperature, their contentof essential oil was superior at the fourth and sixth days after the harvest. When comparing the methods, the drying in the oven was more efficient, with the oil content being significantly higher after two days of drying. After this period, however, there was a drastic reduction in the essential oil content, lower than the one observed in all periods when the leaves dried at room temperature. The different methods and drying periods also altered the essential oil`s composition. Although drying in oven at 65˚ for two days did not result in reduction of the contents of patchoulol and pogostol, higher contents were observed after six or eight days of drying. When drying was carried out at room temperature, no change in relative content of both components was observed.
Descritores: Estufas para Plantas/classificação
Óleos Voláteis/metabolismo
Pogostemon
Temperatura
-Metabolismo Secundário
Responsável: BR1.1 - BIREME


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Id: lil-722502
Autor: Martínez-Bonfil, Blanca P; Pineda-Montero, Mariela; López-Laredo, Alma R; Salcedo-Morales, Guadalupe; Evangelista-Lozano, Silvia; Trejo-Tapia, Gabriela.
Título: A propagation procedure for Cuphea aequipetala Cav. (Lythraceae) and antioxidant properties of wild and greenhouse-grown plants / Procedimiento para la propagación de Cuphea aequipetala Cav. (Lythraceae) y propiedades antioxidantes de plantas silvestres y crecidas en invernadero
Fonte: Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát;12(1):1-14, ene. 2013. ilus, tab.
Idioma: en.
Projeto: Secretaría de Investigación y Posgrado del IPN-México; . Fondo Mixto de Fomento a la Investigación Científica y Tecnológica CONACYT Gobierno del Estado de Morelos.
Resumo: Cuphea aequipetala Cav. (Lythraceae) is native to Mexico and is used in folk medicine to treat tumors. An efficient protocol for in vitro shoot proliferation and plant acclimatization of C. aequipetala was developed. Total phenolic compounds and flavonoids contents were determined in methanolic extracts of roots, stems, and leaves from wild and greenhouse-grown plants. Their antioxidant properties were compared using in vitro assays (scavenging of 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-Azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) radicals, and reducing power in the phosphomolybdenum assay). This is the first report of a successful propagation procedure for C. aequipetala. These methods offer a viable approach for long-term in vitro conservation and proliferation of this species. C. aequipetala shoots maintained their proliferation capacity during long-term subculture (3 years). The propagated shoots can successfully acclimatize and grow to maturity, and they retain the ability to accumulate antioxidants.

Cuphea aequipetala Cav. (Lythraceae) es una planta nativa de México que se utiliza en la medicina tradicional para tratar tumores. En este trabajo se desarrolló un procedimiento para la proliferación de brotes y la aclimatización de plantas de C. aequipetala. Se determinó la concentración de compuestos fenólicos totales y de flavonoides en extractos metanólicos de raíces, tallos y hojas de plantas silvestres y crecidas en invernadero. Sus propiedades antioxidantes fueron comparadas utilizando ensayos in vitro (captura de radicales DPPH y ABTS y poder reductor por el ensayo de fosfomolibdeno). Este es el primer reporte exitoso sobre un procedimiento para la propagación de C. aequipetala. Este método ofrece una alternativa viable para la conservación a largo plazo y la proliferación de esta especie. Los brotes de C. aequipetala han mantenido su capacidad de multiplicación a largo plazo (tres años). Los brotes se convirtieron en plantas adultas aclimatadas, manteniendo su habilidad para acumular compuestos antioxidantes.
Descritores: Antioxidantes/química
Cuphea/crescimento & desenvolvimento
Cuphea/química
-Aclimatação
Cuphea/fisiologia
Depuradores de Radicais Livres
Fenóis/análise
Flavonoides/análise
Estufas para Plantas
México
Responsável: CL1.1 - Biblioteca Central


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Texto completo SciELO Chile
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Id: lil-567079
Autor: Montealegre, Jaime; Valderrama, Luis; Sánchez, Soledad; Herrera, Rodrigo; Besoain, Ximena; Pérez, Luz María.
Título: Biological control of Rhizoctonia solani in tomatoes with Trichoderma harzianum mutants
Fonte: Electron. j. biotechnol;13(2):1-2, Mar. 2010. ilus, tab.
Idioma: en.
Projeto: FONDECYT.
Resumo: Biocontrol of Rhizoctonia solani in tomatoes cultivated under greenhouse and field conditions was analyzed using the Trichoderma harzianum mutants Th650-NG7, Th11A80.1, Th12A40.1, Th12C40.1 and Th12A10.1 and ThF2-1, respectively. Their innocuousness on tomato cultivars 92.95 and Gondola (greenhouse assays), and on cultivar Fortaleza (field assays) was established. Alginate pellets (1.7 g pellets/L soil) containing c.a1 x 10(5) colony forming units (cfu)/g pellet were applied to a soil previously inoculated with R. solani at transplant (greenhouse) or to a naturally infected soil (field). Controls considered parental wild strains, a chemical fungicide and no additions. Th11A 80.1, Th12A10.1 and Th650-NG7 prevented the 100% mortality of tomato plants cv. 92.95 caused by R. solani, and the 40% mortality in tomato plants cv. Gondola (greenhouse assays). Mortality reduction was reflected in canker level lessening and in plant parameters increases (development, fresh and dry weights). A different degree of susceptibility of tomato plants was observed, being Gondola cv. more resistant than 92.95 cv. to infection in a soil previously inoculated with R. solani. Tomato plants of cv. Fortaleza did not show mortality in naturally infected soils (field assays), where the mutant ThF2-1 reduced significantly the canker level caused by R. solani.
Descritores: Antibiose
Controle Biológico de Vetores/métodos
Lycopersicon esculentum/microbiologia
Rhizoctonia/fisiologia
Trichoderma/fisiologia
-Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia
Estufas para Plantas
Lycopersicon esculentum/crescimento & desenvolvimento
Mutagênese
Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento
Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia
Microbiologia do Solo
Trichoderma/genética
Responsável: CL1.1 - Biblioteca Central


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Id: lil-537145
Autor: Pilati, Rosemari; De Souza, Luiz A.
Título: Morfo-anatomia da plântula de tabernaemontana catharinensis A. DC. (Apocynaceae) / Morphology and anatomy of the seedling of tabernaemontana catharinensis A. DC. (Apocynaceae)
Fonte: Acta cient. venez;57(2):66-71, 2006. ilus.
Idioma: pt.
Resumo: Tabernaemontana catharinensis, conocida vulgarmente como lechero, es una especie perteneciente a la familia Apocynaceae. El actual estudio se refierea la morfología y la anatomía de la plántula de esta especie. Las semillas colectadas desde varios arboles creciendo en la planicie de la inundación del alto río Paraná, fueron germinadas en una cámara de germinación con una temperatura constante de 300C y mantenidas bajo luz fluorescente continua. El desarrollo de las plántulas ocurrió en un invernadero. La anatomía fue estudiada en plántulas fijadas en FAA 50. Este material fue seccionado transversalmente y las secciones obtenidas fueron teñidas en safranina y azul de astra. La plántula es fanerocotiledonar y epígea y presenta raíz axial, cuello, cotiledones ovados, epicótilo reducido, y eófilos lanceolados semejantes a los metáfilos. Su raíz es tetrarca. El hipocótilo y epicótilo tienen estructura caulinar y presentan crecimiento secundario cuya peridermis es de origen del felógeno en el ámbito epidérmico. Los cotiledones y eófilos son hojas dorsiventrales, con un estrato de parénquima en empalizada y algunas capas de parénquima esponjoso. Los cotiledones tienen un haz vascular colateral en la vena media, mientras en los eófilos el haz es bicolateral.

Tabernaemontana catharinensis is a species belonging to the family Apocynaceae. In this paper, the seedling morphology and anatomy of this species are described and discussed. The seedling development was analyzed until the first eophyll pair's formation. The seeds were collected from several trees, in fragments of the semideciduous seasonal alluvial and submontaneforest located on the Upper Paraná River floodplain. The seeds were germinated at constant temperatures of 300C, using germination chambers and maintained under continuous fluorescent light. Seedlings development occurred in the greenhouse. The seedlings fixed in FAA 50 were sectioned by microtome and stained with safranin and astra blue. Seedling is phanerocotylar and epigeal with axial root, collet, ovate cotyledons, reduced epicotyl, and lanceolate eophylls similar to the metaphylls. Root is tetrarch. Hypocotyl and epicotyl have stem structure, and they present secondary growth with phellogen of epidermic origin. Cotyledons and eophylls are dorsiventral leaves, with uniseriate palisade parenchyma and some layers of spongy parenchyma. Cotyledons have a collateral vascular bundle in the midrib, while in the eophylls is bicollateral one.
Descritores: Apocynaceae/anatomia & histologia
Apocynaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento
Germinação
Estufas para Plantas/métodos
Tabernaemontana/anatomia & histologia
Tabernaemontana/crescimento & desenvolvimento
-Botânica
Tipo de Publ: Estudo Comparativo
Responsável: VE1.1 - Biblioteca Humberto Garcia Arocha


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Texto completo SciELO Chile
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Id: lil-448796
Autor: Peñaloza, Patricia; Ramirez-Rosales, Gerardo; Mcdonald, Miller B; Bennett, Mark A.
Título: Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. ) seed quality evaluation using seed physical attributes, saturated salt accelerated aging and the seed vigour imaging system
Fonte: Electron. j. biotechnol;8(3), Dec. 2005. ilus.
Idioma: en.
Resumo: High seed quality is essential for optimum stand establishment in lettuce. As a result, it is necessary to have seed vigour tests that permit rapid, objective and accurate evaluation of seed quality. This study evaluated physical and physiological seed quality components of four seed lots of six lettuce varieties obtained from a commercial company. Seeds were evaluated for seedling emergence under greenhouse conditions, standard germination, seed physical aspects, the Saturated Salt Accelerated Aging (SSAA) test and the Seed Vigour Imaging System (SVIS). Results indicated that large-seeded lettuce varieties had higher percentage germination, higher SSAA values, higher SVIS index and more rapid and uniform greenhouse emergence. Black-seeded lettuce varieties possessed higher seed quality and less fungal invasion when evaluated by the SSAA test. The SVIS index significantly correlated with SSAA values and seedling emergence under greenhouse conditions suggesting it can be used as a measure of seed vigour. It is concluded that the SSAA and SVIS tests are practical and accurate determinants of lettuce seed quality and distinguish between high and poor quality lettuce seed lots.
Descritores: Alface/crescimento & desenvolvimento
Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento
-Germinação
Estufas para Plantas
Alface/fisiologia
Cloreto de Sódio
Sementes/fisiologia
Responsável: CL1.1 - Biblioteca Central


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Texto completo SciELO Chile
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Id: lil-448791
Autor: Montealegre, Jaime R; Herrera, Rodrigo; Velásquez, Juan Carlos; Silva, Polyana; Besoaín, Ximena; Pérez, Luz María.
Título: Biocontrol of root and crown rot in tomatoes under greenhouse conditions using Trichoderma harzianum and Paenibacillus lentimorbus: additional effect of solarization
Fonte: Electron. j. biotechnol;8(3), Dec. 2005. tab, ilus.
Idioma: en.
Projeto: Fondecyt.
Resumo: Trichoderma harzianum 650 (Th650) and Paenebacillus lentimorbus 629 (Pl629) selected earlier for their ability to control Rhizoctonia solani, Fusarium solani and F. oxysporum in vitro, were applied alone or combined with solarization (summer assay) and/or with methyl bromide (MeBr) (summer and winter assays) to a soil with a high inoculum level, for the control of tomato root rot caused by the complex F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici - Pyrenochaeta lycopersici - Rhizoctonia solani. Evaluations were also performed independently for root damage caused by P. lycopersici, and also for R. solani in the summer assay. MeBr decreased tomato root damage caused by the complex from 88.7 percent to 21.2 percent and from 78.4 percent to 35.7 percent in the summer and in the winter assay, respectively. None of the bio-controllers could replace MeBr in the winter assay, but Th650 and Pl629 reduced root damage caused by this complex in the summer assay. Treatments with bio-controllers were improved by their combination with solarization in this season. Independent evaluations showed that the positive control of Th650 towards R. solani and the lack of effect on P. lycopersici correlates well with the endochitinase pattern expressed by Th650 in response to these phytopathogens. Root damage caused by R. solani can be controlled at a similar level as it does MeBr in summer assays, thus representing an alternative to the use of this chemical fungicide for the control of this phytopathogen.
Descritores: Antifúngicos/metabolismo
Controle Biológico de Vetores/métodos
Fusarium/metabolismo
Lycopersicon esculentum/microbiologia
Rhizoctonia/metabolismo
-Bacillus/metabolismo
Estufas para Plantas
Hidrocarbonetos Bromados
Fungos Mitospóricos/metabolismo
Modelos Biológicos
Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia
Estações do Ano
Microbiologia do Solo
Luz Solar
Trichoderma/metabolismo
Responsável: CL1.1 - Biblioteca Central



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