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Id: biblio-1281353
Autor: Barrow, Amadou; Onikan, Adeyinka; Nzoputam, Chimezie Igwegbe; Ekholuenetale, Michael.
Título: Prevalence and determinants of cervical cancer awareness among women of reproductive age: evidence from Benin and Zimbabwe population-based data
Fonte: Appl. cancer res;40:1-3, Oct. 19, 2020. tab, graf.
Idioma: en.
Resumo: Background: Cervical cancer is a prominently diagnosed form of cancer in several resource-constrained settings particularly within the sub-Saharan African region. Globally, Africa region has the highest incidence and mortality rates of cervical cancer. The high prevalence has been attributed to several factors including lack of awareness of the disease. The aim of this paper is to explore the prevalence and factors associated with awareness of cervical cancer among women of reproductive age in Republic of Benin and Zimbabwe, sub-Saharan Africa. Methods: We used population-based cross-sectional data from Benin Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS) and Zimbabwe Demographic and Health Survey (ZDHS) respectively. BDHS 2017­18 and ZDHS - 2015 are the 5th and 6th rounds of the surveys respectively. About 15,928 and 9955 women aged 15­49 years were included in this study respectively. The awareness of cervical cancer among women of reproductive age in Benin and Zimbabwe was measured dichotomously; yes (if a woman heard of cervical cancer) vs. no (if a woman has not heard of cervical cancer). All significant variables from the bivariate analysis were included in the multivariable logistic regression model to calculate the adjusted odds ratios (AOR) with corresponding 95% confidence interval. Results: While majority (79.2%) of women from Zimbabwe have heard about cervical cancer, only about one-tenth (10.2%) of their Beninese counterparts have heard about the disease. Advanced maternal age, having formal education, use of internet, having professional/technical/managerial occupation significantly increased the odds of awareness of cervical cancer after adjusting for other confounders. However, in Benin, women who resided in the rural area and those of Islamic belief had 20% (AOR = 0.80; 95%CI: 0.64, 0.99) and 35% (AOR = 0.65; 95%CI: 0.50, 0.86) reduction in the odds of awareness of cervical cancer respectively, when compared with women from urban residence and Christianity. Results from the predictive marginal effects showed that, assuming the distribution of all factors remained the same among women, but every woman is an urban dweller, we would expect 11.0 and 81.0% level of awareness of cervical cancer; If everywoman had higher education, we would expect 20.0 and 90% level of awareness of cervical cancer and if instead the distribution of other maternal factors were as observed and other covariates remained the same among women, but all women were in the richest household wealth quintile, we would expect about 11.0 and 83.0% level of awareness of cervical cancer, among women of reproductive age from Benin and Zimbabwe respectively. Conclusion: The study has revealed that socio-demographical factors including geographical location and selected economic factors explained the inequality in distribution of women's awareness on cervical cancer in both countries. Designing an effective population-based health education and promotion intervention programs on cervical cancer will be a great way forward to improving women's awareness level on cervical cancer.
Descritores: Neoplasias do Colo do Útero
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde
-Benin
Educação em Saúde
Prevalência
Estudos Transversais
África ao Sul do Saara
Limites: Humanos
Feminino
Adolescente
Adulto
Pessoa de Meia-Idade
Adulto Jovem
Responsável: BR30.1 - Biblioteca


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Texto completo SciELO Brasil
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Id: biblio-1134095
Autor: Havik, Philip J.
Título: Regional cooperation and health diplomacy in Africa: from intra-colonial exchanges to multilateral health institutions / Cooperação regional e diplomacia sanitária na África: dos intercâmbios intracoloniais às instituições multilaterais de saúde
Fonte: Hist. ciênc. saúde-Manguinhos;27(supl.1):123-144, Sept. 2020.
Idioma: en.
Resumo: Abstract Tracing the pathways of cooperation in health in sub-Saharan Africa from hesitant exchanges to institutionalized dimensions from the 1920s to the early 1960s, this article addresses regional dynamics in health diplomacy which have so far been under-researched. The evolution thereof from early beginnings with the League of Nations Health Organization to the Commission for Technical Assistance South of the Sahara and the World Health Organization's Regional Office for Africa, shows how bilateral dimensions were superseded by WHO's multilateral model of regional cooperation in health. Alignments, divergences, and outcomes are explored with respect to the strategies and policies pursued by colonial powers and independent African states regarding inter-regional relations, and their implications for public health and epidemiological interventions.

Resumo Trilhando os caminhos da cooperação sanitária na África subsaariana, de intercâmbios incertos a dimensões institucionalizadas dos anos 1920 até início dos anos 1960, este artigo aborda a dinâmica regional na diplomacia sanitária que, até o momento, carece de pesquisas. A evolução, desde os primórdios da Organização da Saúde da Liga das Nações até a Cooperação Técnica na África Subsaariana e o Escritório Regional da África da OMS, demonstra como dimensões bilaterais foram substituídas pelo modelo multilateral da OMS de cooperação sanitária regional. São analisados alinhamentos, divergências e resultados de estratégias e políticas empregados por potências coloniais e Estados africanos independentes em relações inter-regionais, bem como suas implicações em intervenções epidemiológicas e de saúde pública.
Descritores: Administração em Saúde Pública/história
Congressos como Assunto/história
Diplomacia/história
Cooperação Internacional/história
-Organização Mundial da Saúde/história
África ao Sul do Saara
Colonialismo/história
Limites: História do Século XX
Tipo de Publ: Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Artigo Histórico
Responsável: BR1.1 - BIREME


  3 / 21 LILACS  
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Id: biblio-957468
Autor: Scotto, Gaetano; Fazio, Vincenzina.
Título: Hepatitis B and asymptomatic malaria coinfection in Sub-Saharan African immigrants: epidemiological and clinical features of HBV infection
Fonte: Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop;51(5):578-583, Sept.-Oct. 2018. tab.
Idioma: en.
Resumo: Abstract INTRODUCTION: Here, we conducted an epidemiological study of hepatitis B virus (HBV) mono-infected and asymptomatic malaria/HBV coinfected immigrants and further discussed the possibility of malaria disease modifying the clinical presentation of HBV infection. METHODS: A total of 195 African immigrants were examined for HBV infection or coinfection with HBV and asymptomatic malaria. HBV infection was diagnosed using serological tests and confirmed by PCR; furthermore, we performed a pan-Plasmodium-specific-nucleic-acid-sequence-based-amplification (NASBA) assay to detect asymptomatic malaria infection. The stage/grade of the liver disease was determined using echotomography and elastometry. RESULTS: PCR-NASBA results confirmed that 62 of 195 subjects (31.8%) were positive for Plasmodium infection, whereas 41 of 195 subjects (21%) tested positive for HBV chronic hepatitis (HBV-DNA positive). Among the HBV-positive subjects, 26 (63.4%) of them were mono-infected patients (Group A), whereas 15 (36.6%) patients had HBV chronic hepatitis and asymptomatic malaria coinfections (Group B). The HBV-DNA median levels were 1.4×105IU/mL in HBV-mono-infected patients and 2.0×105IU/mL in coinfected patients. Echotomography and hepatic elastometry presented similar findings for both groups of patients. CONCLUSIONS: Coinfected patients seem to present with the same clinical symptoms of the liver disease as HBV mono-infected patients.
Descritores: Emigrantes e Imigrantes/estatística & dados numéricos
Infecções Assintomáticas/epidemiologia
Coinfecção/epidemiologia
Hepatite B/epidemiologia
Malária/epidemiologia
-Estudos de Coortes
África ao Sul do Saara/etnologia
Hepatite B/diagnóstico
Itália/epidemiologia
Malária/diagnóstico
Limites: Humanos
Masculino
Feminino
Adolescente
Adulto
Adulto Jovem
Responsável: BR1.1 - BIREME


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Id: biblio-1093547
Autor: Barja López, Juan Manuel.
Título: Sarcoma de Kaposi epidémico en África Subsahariana / Epidemic Kaposi sarcoma in Sub-Saharan Africa
Fonte: Rev. cuba. med. trop;71(1):e311, ene.-abr. 2019. graf.
Idioma: es.
Resumo: El sarcoma de Kaposi se ha convertido en uno de los tumores más prevalentes en África tras la epidemia de VIH, que afecta de una manera similar a hombres y mujeres. El retraso diagnóstico y el limitado acceso a tratamiento antirretroviral o quimioterapia condicionan el pronóstico de los pacientes que lo padecen. En este artículo se realiza una revisión sobre la referida enfermedad, con el objetivo de describir sus aspectos más relevantes en los últimos años en África, como son su epidemiología, caractéristicas clínicas y opciones terapéuticas existentes. Este tumor es provocado por la infección por virus herpes humano tipo 8, que resulta más prevalente en las zonas rurales del continente africano. Se postula la transmisión a través de la saliva como la vía más importante de contagio en África. La inmunodepresión que causa el VIH favorece el efecto oncogénico del virus. La forma epidémica de SK se manifiesta inicialmente como lesiones hiperpigmentadas o violáceas en la piel, que pueden extenderse a linfáticos o mucosas y a nivel sistémico, principalmente a pulmón o aparato digestivo. El síndrome de reconstitución inmune sistémica puede complicar la evolución del paciente. El inicio temprano de la terapia antirretroviral resulta imprescindible. Además, el pronóstico de los pacientes mejora con la suma de tratamiento quimioterápico con doxorrubicina, vincristina, etopóxido o bleomicina principalmente(AU)

Kaposi sarcoma (KS) has become one of the most prevalent tumors in Africa after the HIV epidemic. KS affects both men and women. Diagnostic delay and limited access to antiretroviral treatment or chemotherapy have an impact on the prognosis of KS patients. A review was conducted about KS with the purpose of describing its most outstanding characteristics in recent years in Africa, such as its epidemiology, clinical features, and existing therapeutic options. This tumor is caused by infection with human herpesvirus 8, which is more prevalent in rural areas of the African continent. Transmission via saliva was found to be the most important transmission route in Africa. HIV-related immunosuppression fosters the oncogenic effect of the virus. The epidemic form of KS initially presents as hyperpigmented or violet-colored skin lesions which may extend to lymph nodes or mucosae, or systemically, mainly to the lungs or the digestive tract. Systemic immune reconstitution syndrome may complicate the patient's evolution. Early start of antiretroviral therapy is indispensable. Additionally, prognosis improves with chemotherapy with doxorubicin, vincristine, etoposide or bleomycin, mainly(AU)
Descritores: Sarcoma de Kaposi/tratamento farmacológico
Sarcoma de Kaposi/epidemiologia
Neoplasias Cutâneas/complicações
-África ao Sul do Saara/epidemiologia
Herpesvirus Humano 8/patogenicidade
Terapia Antirretroviral de Alta Atividade/métodos
Limites: Humanos
Masculino
Feminino
Responsável: CU1.1 - Biblioteca Médica Nacional


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Id: biblio-848067
Autor: Global Health Strategies initiatives.
Título: Shifting paradigm: How the BRICS are reshaping global health and development.
Fonte: s.l; Global Health Strategies initiatives; 2012. 109 p.
Idioma: en.
Descritores: Saúde Global
Cooperação Internacional
-África ao Sul do Saara
Brasil
China
Economia
Índia
Federação Russa
Responsável: BR2260 - NETHIS - Núcleo de Estudos sobre Bioética e Diplomacia em Saúde


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Id: biblio-833257
Autor: Lima, Maria Regina Soares de.
Título: A política externa brasileira e os desafios da cooperação Sul-Sul / Brazilian foreign policy and the challenges of South-South cooperation
Fonte: Rev. Bras. Polít. Int;48(1):[36], 2005.
Idioma: pt.
Descritores: Atos Internacionais
Cooperação Sul-Sul
-África ao Sul do Saara
Brasil
Cooperação Econômica
Índia
Segurança
Limites: Humanos
Responsável: BR2260 - NETHIS - Núcleo de Estudos sobre Bioética e Diplomacia em Saúde


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Id: biblio-832918
Autor: Calain, Philippe.
Título: Oil for health in sub-Saharan Africa: health systems in a 'resource curse' environment
Fonte: Global Health;4(10):[35], 2008.
Idioma: en.
Resumo: Background In a restricted sense, the resource curse is a theory that explains the inverse relationship classically seen between dependence on natural resources and economic growth. It defines a peculiar economic and political environment, epitomised by oil extraction in sub-Saharan Africa. Methods Based on secondary research and illustrations from four oil-rich geographical areas (the Niger Delta region of Nigeria, Angola, southern Chad, Southern Sudan), I propose a framework for analysing the effects of the resource curse on the structure of health systems at sub-national levels. Qualitative attributes are emphasised. The role of the corporate sector, the influence of conflicts, and the value of classical mitigation measures (such as health impact assessments) are further examined. Results Health systems in a resource curse environment are classically fractured into tripartite components, including governmental health agencies, non-profit non-governmental organisations, and the corporate extractive sector. The three components entertain a range of contractual relationships generally based on operational considerations which are withdrawn from social or community values. Characterisation of agencies in this system should also include: values, operating principles, legitimacy and operational spaces. From this approach, it appears that community health is at the same time marginalised and instrumentalised toward economic and corporate interests in resource curse settings. Conclusion From a public health point of view, the resource curse represents a fundamental failure of dominant development theories, rather than a delay in creating the proper economy and governance environment for social progress. The scope of research on the resource curse should be broadened to include more accurate or comprehensive indicators of destitution (including health components) and more open perspectives on causal mechanisms.
Descritores: África ao Sul do Saara
Impactos na Saúde/análise
Exploração de Recursos Naturais
Óleos
Saúde Pública
-Conflito de Interesses
Gestão Ambiental
Ética nos Negócios
Risco
Limites: Humanos
Responsável: BR2260 - NETHIS - Núcleo de Estudos sobre Bioética e Diplomacia em Saúde


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Id: lil-762354
Autor: McIntyre, Di.
Título: Pague o músico e escolha a dança: modificando os mecanismos de financiamento para lidar com as iniquidades do mix público-privado / Pay musician and select the dance: changing the funding mechanisms to address the inequities of the public-private mix
Fonte: In: McIntyre, Di; Mooney, Gavin. Aspectos econômicos da equidade em saúde. Rio de Janeiro, Fiocruz, 2014. p.223-250, tab, graf.
Idioma: pt.
Descritores: Atenção à Saúde/economia
Gastos em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos
Indicadores Básicos de Saúde
Sistemas de Saúde
Financiamento da Assistência à Saúde
Seguro Saúde
-África ao Sul do Saara
Limites: Humanos
Tipo de Publ: Bibliografia
Responsável: BR526.1 - Biblioteca de Saúde Pública
BR526.1; 362.1042, M478a


  9 / 21 LILACS  
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Texto completo SciELO Brasil
Câmara, Volney de Magalhäes
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Id: lil-747143
Autor: Hoshino, Ana; Pacheco-Ferreira, Heloisa; Sanches, Seisse Gabriela G.; Carvallo, Renata; Cardoso, Nathália; Perez, Maurício; Câmara, Volney de Magalhães.
Título: Mercury Exposure in a Riverside Amazon Population, Brazil: A Study of the Ototoxicity of Methylmercury
Fonte: Int. arch. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.);19(2):135-140, Apr-Jun/2015. tab, graf.
Idioma: en.
Resumo: Introduction Mercury poisoning causes hearing loss in humans and animals. Acute and long-term exposures produce irreversible peripheral and central auditory system damage, and mercury in its various forms of presentation in the environment is ototoxic. Objective We investigated the otoacoustic emissions responses in a riverside population exposed to environmental mercury by analyzing the inhibitory effect of the medial olivocochlear system (MOCS) on transient otoacoustic emissions (TEOAE). Methods The purpose of the research was to evaluate the entire community independently of variables of sex and age. All of the participants were born and lived in a riverside community. After otolaryngologic evaluation, participants were received tympanometry, evaluation of contralateral acoustic reflexes, pure tone audiometry, and recording of TEOAEs with nonlinear click stimulation. Hair samples were collect to measure mercury levels. Results There was no significant correlation between the inhibitory effect of the MOCS, age, and the level of mercury in the hair. Conclusions The pathophysiological effects of chronic exposure may be subtle and nonspecific and can have a long period of latency; therefore, it will be important to monitor the effects of mercury exposure in the central auditory system of the Amazon population over time. Longitudinal studies should be performed to determine whether the inhibitory effect of the MOCS on otoacoustic emissions can be an evaluation method and diagnostic tool in populations exposed to mercury. .
Descritores: Espondilartrite/epidemiologia
-África ao Sul do Saara/epidemiologia
Artrite Psoriásica/epidemiologia
Artrite Psoriásica/genética
Artrite Psoriásica/virologia
Artrite Reativa/epidemiologia
Artrite Reativa/genética
Artrite Reativa/virologia
Predisposição Genética para Doença
Infecções por HIV/complicações
/genética
HLA-BABORTION, EUGENIC ANTIGEN/genética
Espondilartrite/diagnóstico
Espondilartrite/genética
Espondilartrite/virologia
Espondilite Anquilosante/epidemiologia
Espondilite Anquilosante/genética
Espondilite Anquilosante/virologia
Limites: Humanos
Tipo de Publ: Revisão
Responsável: BR1.1 - BIREME


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Id: lil-746617
Autor: Silva, Yvana Lopes Pinheiro da; Costa, Rita Zanlorensi Visneck; Pinho, Kátia Elisa Prus; Ferreira, Ricardo Rabello; Schuindt, Sueliton Miyamoto.
Título: Effects of iodinated contrast agent, xylocaine and gadolinium concentration on the signal emitted in magnetic resonance arthrography: a samples study / Efeitos do contraste iodado, da xilocaína e da concentração de gadolínio no sinal emitido em exames de artrorressonância magnética: estudo por amostras
Fonte: Radiol. bras;48(2):69-73, Mar-Apr/2015. graf.
Idioma: en.
Resumo: Objective: To investigate the effects of dilution of paramagnetic contrast agent with iodinated contrast and xylocaine on the signal intensity during magnetic resonance arthrography, and to improve the paramagnetic contrast agent concentration utilized in this imaging modality. Materials and Methods: Samples specially prepared for the study with three different concentrations of paramagnetic contrast agent diluted in saline, iodinated contrast agent and xylocaine were imaged with fast spin echo T1-weighted sequences with fat saturation. The samples were placed into flasks and graphical analysis of the signal intensity was performed as a function of the paramagnetic contrast concentration. Results: As compared with samples of equal concentrations diluted only with saline, the authors have observed an average signal intensity decrease of 20.67% for iodinated contrast agent, and of 28.34% for xylocaine. However, the increased gadolinium concentration in the samples caused decrease in signal intensity with all the dilutions. Conclusion: Minimizing the use of iodinated contrast media and xylocaine and/or the use of a gadolinium concentration of 2.5 mmol/L diluted in saline will improve the sensitivity of magnetic resonance arthrography. .

Objetivo: Investigar, mediante quantificação da intensidade do sinal emitido em amostras, se a diluição do agente de contraste paramagnético com contraste iodado e xilocaína alteram o sinal emitido pelo meio de contraste paramagnético durante o exame de artrorressonância magnética, e aperfeiçoar a concentração de contraste paramagnético utilizada no exame. Materiais e Métodos: Foi realizada sequência de pulso fast spin eco ponderada em T1 com saturação de gordura, utilizando três diferentes concentrações de contraste paramagnético diluídas em solução salina, contraste iodado e xilocaína. As amostras foram colocadas em frascos e a análise gráfica da intensidade do sinal em função da concentração de contraste paramagnético foi realizada. Resultados: Constatou-se que as diluições de contraste paramagnético em contraste iodado e xilocaína diminuíram, em média, a intensidade do sinal em 20,67% para o contraste iodado e 28,34% para a xilocaína, em comparação com as amostras de concentração idêntica diluídas apenas em solução salina. Porém, o aumento da concentração de gadolínio nas amostras ocasionou a diminuição da intensidade do sinal emitido pelo gadolínio, para todas as diluições. Conclusão: Minimizar o uso do meio de contraste iodado e da xilocaína e/ou a utilização de uma concentração de gadolínio com 2,5 mmol/L, diluída em solução salina, irá aperfeiçoar a sensibilidade do exame de artrorressonância magnética. .
Descritores: Internet/provisão & distribuição
-África ao Sul do Saara
Tipo de Publ: Comentário
Carta
Responsável: BR1.1 - BIREME



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