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Id: lil-41896
Autor: Organización Panamericana de la Salud; .Organización Mundial de la Salud.
Título: Evaluación de la estrategia de salud para todos en el año 2000: séptimo informe sobre la situación sanitaria mundial / Evaluation of the strategy of health for all by the year 2000: 7th report on the world sanitary situation.
Fonte: s.l; Organización Panamericana de la Salud; 1986. 259 p. tab. (OMS/OPS. Región de las Américas, 3).
Idioma: es.
Descritores: SAUDE PARA TODOS NO ANO ACTINOMYCETALES0
-Paraguai
Peru
Argentina
Barbados
Belize
Bolívia
Brasil
Colômbia
Região do Caribe
Granada
Santa Lúcia
Costa Rica
Cuba
Equador
El Salvador
Guatemala
Guiana
Haiti
Honduras
Jamaica
México
Antilhas Holandesas
Nicarágua
América do Norte
República Dominicana
Zona do Canal do Panamá
Responsável: BR1.1 - BIREME
BR1.1/389.00; UY4.1; COLSPAHO; BR599.1; 614(4/9)(047)=134.2, O68e, v.3, AG, , . 10001005783


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Id: biblio-905545
Autor: Anon.
Título: Resultados de la Primera Medición de las Metas Regionales de Recursos Humanos para la Salud 2007-2015 Grenada / Results of the First Measurement of the Regional Goals of Human Resources for Health 2007-2015 Grenada.
Fonte: s.l; s.n; s.d. 5 p. ilus.
Idioma: es.
Descritores: Objetivos
Granada
Mão de Obra em Saúde
-Emprego
Equidade na Alocação de Recursos
Pessoal de Saúde
Sistemas de Saúde
Limites: Humanos
Masculino
Feminino
Responsável: BR1.1 - BIREME


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Id: lil-672717
Autor: Arathy, DS; Vanpee, G; Belot, G; Mathew, V; DeAllie, C; Sharma, R.
Título: Antimicrobial drug resistance in escherichia coli isolated from commercial chicken eggs in Grenada, West Indies / Resistencia antimicrobiana a los medicamentos en escherichia coli aislada de huevos comerciales de gallina en Granada, West Indies
Fonte: West Indian med. j;60(1):53-56, Jan. 2011. graf, tab.
Idioma: en.
Resumo: OBJECTIVE: To determine the antimicrobial resistance profile of Escherichia coli (E coli) isolated from the shell membrane and yolk of commercial chicken eggs in Grenada. METHODS: A total of 450 eggs were collected from different locations including small (33.3%) and big farms (26.7%), roadside vendors (26.7%) and supermarkets (13.3%). The shell membranes and yolk were cultured separately on blood agar and McConkey Agar. Escherichia coli were identified using biochemical tests and API20E strips. The isolates were tested for antimicrobial sensitivity. RESULTS: A total of 55 E coli isolates were obtained. Of which 34 isolates were from shell membrane and 21 from yolk samples. Twenty-two of the total 34 isolates from shell membrane exhibited resistance to one or more ofthe antibiotics used in the study whereas 11 of the 21 yolks isolate also showed resistance to one or more ofthe tested antibiotics. Among the six antibiotics tested, the highest level of resistance was observed for ampicillin, 42.9 per cent and 31.8 per cent respectively for shell membrane and yolk isolates. The lowest resistance rate among all the antibiotics was observed against enrofloxacin (0%). Multi-drug resistance (resistance to > 3 compounds) was observed in 10.9% of the isolates. CONCLUSIONS: This study on E coli drug resistance in commercial chicken eggs in Grenada generated baseline data indicating that chicken eggs used for food can harbour resistant E coli. A regular monitoring ofcommensal and clinical isolates of E coli for antibacterial resistance is warranted.

OBJETIVO: Determinar el perfil de resistencia antimicrobiana de Escherichia coli (E coli) aislada de la membrana de la cáscara y la yema de huevos comerciales de gallinas en Granada. MÉTODO: Un total de 450 huevos fueron recolectados de diferentes localidades, incluyendo granjas pequeñas (33.3%) y grandes (26.7%), vendedores a la orilla de los caminos (26.7%), y los supermercados (13.3%). Las membranas de la cáscara y yema fueron puestas por separado en un cultivo de agar sangre y agar McConkey. Las Escherichia coli fueron identificadas usando pruebas bioquímicas y tiras API20E. Los aislados fueron sometidos a pruebas para determinar su sensibilidad antimicrobiana. RESULTADOS: Se obtuvo un total de 55 aislados de E coli. De estos, 34 aislados provenían de la membrana de las cáscaras y 21 de las muestras de yemas. Veintidós del total 34 aislados de la membrana, mostraron ser resistentes a uno o más de los antibióticos usados en el estudio, mientras que 11 de los 21 aislados de yemas también mostraron resistencia a uno o más de los antibióticos probados. Entre los seis antibióticos probados, el nivel más alto de resistencia se observó frente a la ampicilina, 42.9 por ciento y 31.8 por ciento respectivamente para la membrana de la cáscara y los aislados de yema. La tasa de resistencia más baja entre todos los antibióticos se observó frente a la enrofloxacina (0%). Una resistencia multidroga (resistencia a > 3 compuestos) se observó en 10.9% de los aislados. CONCLUSIONES: Este estudio sobre la resistencia medicamentosa de E en los huevos comerciales de gallina en Granada, generó datos básicos que indican que los huevos de gallina usados para la alimentación pueden ser fuente de E coli resistentes a los medicamentos. Se garantiza un monitoreo regular de aislados comensales y clínicos de E coli a fin de detectar su resistencia antibacteriana.
Descritores: Antibacterianos/farmacologia
Galinhas/microbiologia
Ovos/microbiologia
Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos
Escherichia coli/isolamento & purificação
-Farmacorresistência Bacteriana
Granada
Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana
Limites: Animais
Responsável: BR1.1 - BIREME


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Id: lil-672639
Autor: Gomez, A; Alexis-Thomas, C.
Título: HIV/AIDS: perceptions of the Grenadian faith-based community / VIH/SIDA: percepciones de la comunidad de fe Granadina
Fonte: West Indian med. j;59(4):356-361, July 2010.
Idioma: en.
Resumo: OBJECTIVE: This exploratory study conducted in 2008 aimed at gathering the views and opinions of leaders of the faith-based community (FBC) in Grenada about the increased incidence of HIV/AIDS in the Caribbean region including their beliefs and attitudes towards persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLHIV/AIDS). DESIGN AND METHODS: The study followed a cross-sectional design and used a qualitative approach. Telephone surveys were conducted with all faith-based organizations and semi-structured interviews done with key leaders representing the faith-based community in Grenada. RESULTS: Findings showed that perceptions of HIV/AIDS are embedded in a socio-political-cultural context where many risk behaviours and factors intertwine in complex ways. Religious beliefs are based on love, compassion and acceptance. The most prominent risk behaviours associated with the spread of HIV/AIDS identified by leaders are homosexuality, prostitution, promiscuity and substance abuse which are in direct contradiction to their beliefs and teachings. Leaders felt that these risk behaviours were exacerbated by changes in family structure and the absence of a common moral discourse shared by all sectors of society. CONCLUSION: The faith-based community has a significant presence across Grenada and it can be an effective partner in helping communities understand and prevent HIV/AIDS and overcome the stigma and discrimination associated with this disease. Training and effective strategies are needed to engage them in the national response to HIV/AIDS without threatening their ideologies and practices.

OBJETIVO: Este estudio exploratorio realizado en 2008 tuvo por objetivo recoger los puntos de vistas y opiniones de líderes de la comunidad de fe en Granada, acerca del aumento de la incidencia de VIH/SIDA en la región caribena, incluyendo sus creencias y actitudes hacia personas que viven con VIH/SIDA (PLVIH/SIDA). DISEÑO Y MÉTODOS: El estudio tuvo por base un diseno transversal y un enfoque cualitativo. Se llevaron a cabo encuestas telefónicas con todas las organizaciones de fe y se realizaron entrevistas semiestructuradas a líderes importantes, representantes de la comunidad defe en Granada. RESULTADOS: Los hallazgos mostraron que las percepciones del VIH/SIDA se hallan embebidas en un contexto socio-político-cultural en el que múltiples comportamientos y factores de riesgo se entrelazan deformas complejas. Las creencias religiosas se basan en el amor, la compasión y la aceptación. Los comportamientos de riesgo más sobresalientes asociados con la diseminación del VIH/SIDA, identificados por los líderes fueron la homosexualidad, la prostitución, la promiscuidad, y el abuso de substancias que están en la contradicción directa con sus creencias y ensenanzas. Los líderes sentían que estas conductas de riesgo se hallaban exacerbadas por los cambios en la estructura de la familia y la ausencia de un discurso moral común compartido por todos los sectores de la sociedad. CONCLUSIÓN: La comunidad de fe tiene una presencia significativa en toda Granada y puede ser un aliado eficaz a la hora de ayudar a las comunidades a entender y prevenir el VIH/SIDA, así como a superar el estigma y la discriminación asociados con esta enfermedad. Se necesitan entrenamiento y estrategias efectivas para comprometer a las comunidades de fe a una respuesta nacional frente al VIH/SIDA, sin amenazar sus prácticas e ideologías.
Descritores: Infecções por HIV/psicologia
Religião e Psicologia
Doenças Virais Sexualmente Transmissíveis/psicologia
-Estudos Transversais
Características Culturais
Granada/epidemiologia
Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia
Homossexualidade/psicologia
Incidência
Entrevistas como Assunto
Trabalho Sexual/psicologia
Assunção de Riscos
Fatores Socioeconômicos
Comportamento Sexual/psicologia
Doenças Virais Sexualmente Transmissíveis/epidemiologia
Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/psicologia
Limites: Feminino
Humanos
Masculino
Responsável: BR1.1 - BIREME


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Id: lil-672518
Autor: Gomez, A; Atallah, W; Bidaisee, S; Patel, C; Amuleru-Marshall, O.
Título: The centrality of community dynamics in the socio-economic recovery of devastated communities / El carácter central de la dinámica de la comunidad en la recuperación socio-económica de las comunidades devastadas
Fonte: West Indian med. j;58(5):441-445, Nov. 2009. ilus, tab.
Idioma: en.
Resumo: OBJECTIVE: To assess and explore the health and socio-economic outcomes of Jubilee, a community on the Caribbean island of Grenada hit by Hurricane Ivan in 2004 and to identify remaining barriers to recovery. METHODS: The assessment consisted of a mixed methods approach employing observations, household surveys, in-depth interviews and focus groups. RESULTS: Eighty-five per cent of the residents live in a single-family home type dwelling which is occupied by multiple families. Twenty-seven per cent of the respondents depended on a river or stream for water and 83% utilized an outdoor pit latrine. Construction accounted for 28% of the employment while 16% reported having no occupation. Public and private transportation was limited and 48% of the residents lived on less than one United States of America (US) dollar per day. Access to healthcare was reported by 89% and the prevalence of diabetes and hypertension was identified by 13% and 30% of the residents respectively. Social fragmentation within the community represents a barrier that keeps the community from developing common goals leading to full economic recovery. CONCLUSION: Jubilee has not fully recovered from the effects of Hurricane Ivan, but progress has been made in the reconstruction effort. These efforts have addressed the most immediate and basic needs of the community, mainly utility service infrastructure and home repairs. However, issues related to the community's economic recovery are still unresolved.

OBJETIVO: Evaluar y explorar la salud y los resultados socio-económicos de Jubilee, una comunidad de la isla caribeña de Granada, afectada por el huracán Iván en el 2004, e identificar los obstáculos que aún quedan para la recuperación. MÉTODOS: La evaluación consistió en un abordaje de métodos mezclados que empleaban la observación, encuestas domésticas, entrevistas detalladas, y grupos focales (grupos de discusión). RESULTADOS: El ochenta y cinco por ciento de los residentes viven en viviendas que son para una sola familia, pero están ocupadas por familias múltiples. El veinte por ciento de los encuestados dependían de un río o una corriente para obtener agua, y un 83% utilizaba letrinas de pozo exteriores. La construcción daba cuenta del 28% de los empleos, en tanto que el 16% reportó no tener ocupación. Tanto el transporte público como el privado se hallaban limitados, y el 48% de los residentes vivían con menos de un dólar americano (1 USD) por día. Acceso a la atención a la salud fue reportado por 89% y la prevalencia de la diabetes y la hipertensión fue identificada por el 13% y el 30% de los residentes, respectivamente. La fragmentación social dentro de la comunidad representa un obstáculo que impide que la comunidad desarrolle metas comunes, que conduzcan a una plena recuperación económica. CONCLUSIÓN: Jubilee no se ha recuperado totalmente de los efectos del huracán Iván, pero ha habido progreso en los esfuerzos por la reconstrucción. Estos esfuerzos han estado dirigidos a las necesidades básicas y más inmediatas de la comunidad, fundamentalmente a la reparación de las casas y las infraestructuras de servicios. Sin embargo, los problemas relacionados con la recuperación económica de la comunidad siguen aún sin solución.
Descritores: Tempestades Ciclônicas
Desastres
Nível de Saúde
Apoio Social
-Grupos Focais
Granada
Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde
Higiene
Qualidade de Vida
Fatores Socioeconômicos
Limites: Adolescente
Adulto
Criança
Feminino
Humanos
Masculino
Responsável: BR1.1 - BIREME


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Id: lil-672453
Autor: Keenan, J; Sharma, R; Dicker, R; Rayner, J; Stone, D.
Título: Seroprevalence of Leptospira in Rattus Norvegicus in Grenada, West Indies
Fonte: West Indian med. j;58(2):114-117, Mar. 2009. graf, tab.
Idioma: en.
Resumo: OBJETIVE: To determine the seroprevalence of Leptospira and the serovars responsible for Leptospira exposure in rats in Grenada in order to assess rats as a reservoir host for human infection. DESIGN AND METHODS: Rattus norvegicus rodents were collected representing each of the six parishes on the island of Grenada. Serum from 237 rats was tested by the microscopic agglutination test (MAT) and an Immunoglobulin G (IgG) Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). Seroprevalence rates among parishes were compared using a chi-squared test of homogeneity. RESULTS: Of the 237 serum samples tested, 64 were positive by either MAT or ELISA for an overall seroprevalence of 27%. The ELISA identified 24.5 % (57/233) of the rats positive at a titer of > 1:160. The MAT identified 7.1% (13/183) of the rats positive at a titer of > 1:100. Six of the 13 MAT positive samples had antibodies to multiple serovars. The serovars identified by the MAT with the greatest frequency were from the Icterohaemorrhagiae serogroup. Two rats had antibodies for serogroup Cynopteri, the first time this serogroup has been identified on Grenada. CONCLUSIONS: Our results for Leptospira exposure in rats in Grenada support R. norvegicus as an important reservoir host for Leptospira, particularly those from the Icterohaemorrhagiae serogroup. Because this serogroup is the primary serogroup responsible for documented human exposure in Grenada, exposed rats represent a public health threat.
Descritores: Leptospira/isolamento & purificação
Ratos/microbiologia
-Granada
Limites: Animais
Responsável: BR1.1 - BIREME


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Id: lil-422746
Autor: Kutcher, Stan; Chehil, Sonia; Roberts, Thorne.
Título: An integrated program to train local health care providers to meet post-disaster mental health needs
Fonte: Rev. panam. salud pública = Pan am. j. public health;18(4/5):338-345, oct.-nov. 2005.
Idioma: en.
Resumo: En el presente trabajo se describe un programa de entrenamiento para la atención de la salud mental después de desastres, desarrollado por la Sección Internacional del Departamento de Psiquiatría de la Universidad de Dalhousie (Halifax, Canadá) y llevado a cabo en la isla de Granada después de que el huracán Iván azotó ese país en septiembre de 2004. Este programa de entrenamiento para entrenadores utilizó un modelo integrado de salud comunitaria para ayudar a los proveedores de los servicios sanitarios locales a desarrollar las habilidades necesarias para identificar los trastornos mentales frecuentes después de un desastre natural y aplicar tratamientos basados en pruebas científicas. Este programa también favorece el enfoque actual de atención sostenible de salud mental en la comunidad, promovido por la Organización Mundial de la Salud y la Organización Panamericana de la Salud. Además, se contrapone a las actividades verticales de consejería psicosocial dirigidas a toda la población, en su mayoría ineficaces y costosas, que se han venido empleando en el Caribe después de desastres naturales.
Descritores: Planejamento em Desastres
Desastres
Pessoal de Saúde/educação
Serviços de Saúde Mental
Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/terapia
-Região do Caribe
Educação Baseada em Competências
Medicina Baseada em Evidências/educação
Granada
Serviços de Saúde Mental/normas
Limites: Humanos
Tipo de Publ: Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Responsável: BR1.1 - BIREME


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Id: lil-410099
Autor: Asulin, Y; Mc Cann, T. J; Mc Carty, C. W; Hage, R. W; Rooney, P. J; Macpherson, C. N.
Título: Cancer incidence and mortality in Grenada 1990-2000
Fonte: West Indian med. j;53(6):368-373, Dec. 2004.
Idioma: en.
Resumo: This paper summarizes and discusses the available cancer incidence (1996-2000) and mortality data (1990-2000) for the tri-island Caribbean nation of Grenada, Carriacou and Petit Martinique. Data for the analysis came from three sources: the Grenada Department of Statistics, the histopathology specimen books from St George's General Hospital and the Death Registry of the Ministry of Health, Grenada. The age-standardized rates (ASR) per 100 000 for all cancer sites combined were 170.2 in females and 158.2 in males. The four most frequent diagnoses (ASR) by cancer site in females were cervix (60.7), breast (49.1), uterus (28.4) and skin (13.3); and among males, prostate (61.4), bladder (16.3), skin (19.3) and stomach (10). Age-standardized mortality rates per 100 000 for all cancer sites combined were 105.4 in females and 165 in males. The four most frequent cancer associated mortalities (ASR) in females were breast (17.9), uterus (11.2), colon (10.3) and cervix (9.7); and among males, prostate (53.6), lung (18.7), stomach (14.5) and colon (10.9). This study found statistically significant spatial trends for overall cancer mortality and temporal trends in incidence and mortality rates for prostate and for incidence rates of stomach cancer. These rates are compared with those from other areas in the Caribbean and the United States of America and encourage efforts to establish a cancer registry in Grenada
Descritores: Neoplasias/epidemiologia
Vigilância da População
-Granada/epidemiologia
Incidência
Neoplasias/mortalidade
Limites: Humanos
Masculino
Feminino
Recém-Nascido
Lactente
Pré-Escolar
Criança
Adolescente
Adulto
Pessoa de Meia-Idade
Tipo de Publ: Estudo Comparativo
Responsável: BR1.1 - BIREME


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Id: lil-410080
Autor: Noel, T. P; Zabriskie, J; Macpherson, C. N; Perrotte, G.
Título: Beta-haemolytic streptococci in school children 5-15 years of age with an emphasis on rheumatic fever, in the tri-island state of Grenada
Fonte: West Indian med. j;54(1):22-27, Jan. 2005.
Idioma: en.
Resumo: The objective of this study is to determine the prevalence of beta-haemolytic streptococci in the pharynx and antibodies to beta-haemolytic streptococci in school children 5-15 years of age in the tri-island state of Grenada Blood samples and throat swabs were obtained from 1388 school children, aged 5-15 years old attending randomly selected schools in each parish of the tri-island state of Grenada. Serum samples were subjected to antistreptolysin o testing (ASOT) while throat swabs were cultured on sheep blood agar plates. The prevalence of positive throat swab was 15.4 (95 CI = 13.4, 17.2). The rate was highest in St Patrick (21.8) and lowest in Carriacou (5.7). The prevalence of antibodies was 38.6 (95 CI = 37.6, 42.8). It was highest in St Patrick (54.4) and lowest in Petit Martinique (26.8). In St Patrick, males were significantly more likely than females to have a positive ASOT (p = 0.0084). In St George's, males were significantly more likely than females to have a positive throat culture (p = 0.0172). Thirty-four per cent of the positive cultures were type A, 10 were type C and 56 type G. The data illustrate that there is a high prevalence of beta-haemolytic streptococci in school children in certain parishes in Grenada. Public health measures should address prevention and control of beta3-haemolytic streptococcal infection in order to prevent the possible sequelae of this disease
Descritores: Febre Reumática/epidemiologia
Infecções Estreptocócicas/epidemiologia
-Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis
Febre Reumática/prevenção & controle
Granada/epidemiologia
Infecções Estreptocócicas/prevenção & controle
Morbidade
Limites: Humanos
Masculino
Feminino
Pré-Escolar
Criança
Adolescente
Responsável: BR1.1 - BIREME


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Id: lil-405004
Autor: Panagos, André; Lacy, Erik R; Gubler, Duane J; Macpherson, Calum N. L.
Título: Dengue in Grenada
Fonte: Rev. panam. salud pública = Pan am. j. public health;17(4):225-229, abr. 2005.
Idioma: en.
Descritores: Aedes
Estudos de Casos e Controles
Dengue
Controle de Mosquitos
-Granada
Responsável: US1.1 - HQ Library



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