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Pesquisa : D20.147 [Categoria DeCS]
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Id: biblio-1022118
Autor: Silva Lemões, Juliana; Lemons e Silva, Claudia Fernanda; Farias Avila, Sabrina Peres; Scherrer Montero, Cândida Raquel; Anjos e Silva, Sérgio Delmar dos; Samios, Dimitrios; Ruaro Peralba, Maria do Carmo.
Título: Chemical pretreatment of Arundo donax L. for second-generation ethanol production
Fonte: Electron. j. biotechnol;31:67-54, Jan. 2018. ilus, tab, graf.
Idioma: en.
Projeto: Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico.
Resumo: Background: Pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass is essential for using it as a raw material for chemical and biofuel production. This study evaluates the effects of variables in the chemical pretreatment of the Arundo biomass on the glucose and xylose concentrations in the final enzymatic hydrolysate. Three pretreatments were tested: acid pretreatment, acid pretreatment followed by alkaline pretreatment, and alkaline pretreatment. Results: The amounts of glucose and xylose released by the enzymatic hydrolysis of the Arundo biomass obtained from acid pretreatment ranged from 6.2 to 19.1 g/L and 1.8 to 3.1 g/L, respectively. The addition of alkaline pretreatment led to a higher yield from the enzymatic hydrolysis, with the average glucose concentration 3.5 times that obtained after biomass hydrolysis with an acid pretreatment exclusively. The use of an alkaline pretreatment alone resulted in glucose and xylose concentrations similar to those obtained in the two-step pretreatment: acid pretreatment followed by alkaline pretreatment. There was no significant difference in 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, furfural, or acetic acid concentrations among the pretreatments. Conclusion: Alkaline pretreatment was essential for obtaining high concentrations of glucose and xylose. The application of an alkaline pretreatment alone resulted in high glucose and xylose concentrations. This result is very significant as it allows a cost reduction by eliminating one step.
Responsável: CL1.1 - Biblioteca Central


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Id: biblio-1021560
Autor: Matsakas, Leonidas; Giannakou, Maria; Vörös, Dimitrij.
Título: Effect of synthetic and natural media on lipid production from Fusarium oxysporum
Fonte: Electron. j. biotechnol;30:95-102, nov. 2017. tab, graf.
Idioma: en.
Resumo: Background: Dependence on fossil resources, for the production of fuels and energy, has resulted in environmental and financial problems, which require our immediate action in order to reverse the situation. Use of renewable sources for the production of fuels and energy is an important alternative with biodiesel remains as one of the promising options. Aim of this work is to evaluate the fungus Fusarium oxysporum for its potentials to accumulate microbial lipids when grown on synthetic media and saccharified sweet sorghum stalks. Results: The effect of different carbon sources, nitrogen sources and C/N ratio on the lipid production was initially examined, which resulted in a lipid concentration of 4.4 g/L, with lipid content of 42.6% w/w. Sweet sorghum stalks were able to support growth and lipid production of the fungus, both as carbon source and as nitrogen source. It was also shown that saccharification of the dried stalks is an important step to increase lipid production. Removal of the remaining stalk solids enabled the lipid production during cultivation in increased initial solids of up to 16 w/w. This resulted in a lipid production of 3.81 g/L. Conclusions: It was demonstrated that F. oxysporum can be used as an efficient oleaginous microorganism, with sweet sorghum serving as an excellent raw material for the cultivation of the fungus. The lipids obtained during this work were also found to have a fatty acid profile with good potentials to be used for biodiesel production.
Responsável: CL1.1 - Biblioteca Central


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Id: biblio-1010289
Autor: Stasiak-Rózanska, Lidia; Blazejak, Stanislaw; Gientka, Iwona; Bzducha-Wróbel, Anna; Lipinska, Edyta.
Título: Utilization of a waste glycerol fraction using and reusing immobilized Gluconobacter oxydans ATCC 621 cell extract
Fonte: Electron. j. biotechnol;27:44-48, May. 2017. tab.
Idioma: en.
Resumo: Background: Depletion of petroleum resources has enforced the search for alternative sources of renewable energy. Introduction of biofuels into the market was expected to become a solution to this disadvantageous situation. Attempts to cover fuel demand have, however, caused another severe problem­the waste glycerol generated during biodiesel production at a concentration of approximately 10% w/w. This, in turn, prompted a global search for effective methods of valorization of the waste fraction of glycerol. Results: Utilization of the waste fraction at 48 h with an initial glycerol concentration of 30 g·L-1 and proceeding with 62% efficiency enabled the production of 9 g·L-1 dihydroxyacetone at 50% substrate consumption. The re-use of the immobilized biocatalyst resulted in a similar concentration of dihydroxyacetone (8.7 g·L-1) in two-fold shorter time, with an efficiency of 85% and lower substrate consumption (35%). Conclusions: The method proposed in this work is based on the conversion of waste glycerol to dihydroxyacetone in a reaction catalyzed by immobilized Gluconobacter oxydans cell extract with glycerol dehydrogenase activity, and it could be an effective way to convert waste glycerol into a valuable product.
Responsável: CL1.1 - Biblioteca Central


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Id: biblio-1009757
Autor: Matsakas, Leonidas; Gao, Qiuju; Jansson, Stina; Rova, Ulrika; Christakopoulos, Paul.
Título: Green conversion of municipal solid wastes into fuels and chemicals
Fonte: Electron. j. biotechnol;26:69-83, Mar. 2017. ilus, graf, tab.
Idioma: en.
Resumo: Presently, the society is facing a serious challenge for the effective management of the increasing amount of produced municipal solid wastes. The accumulated waste has caused a series of environmental problems such as uncontrolled release of greenhouse gases. Moreover, the increasing amount of wastes has resulted in a shortage of areas available for waste disposal, resulting in a nonsustainable waste management. These problems led to serious public concerns, which in turn resulted in political actions aiming to reduce the amount of wastes reaching the environment. These actions aim to promote sustainable waste management solutions. The main objective of these policies is to promote the recycling of municipal solid waste and the conversion of waste to energy and valuable chemicals. These conversions can be performed using either biological (e.g., anaerobic digestion) or thermochemical processes (e.g., pyrolysis). Research efforts during the last years have been fruitful, and many publications demonstrated the effective conversation of municipal solid waste to energy and chemicals. These processes are discussed in the current review article together with the change of the waste policy that was implemented in the EU during the last years.
Responsável: CL1.1 - Biblioteca Central


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Id: biblio-1008992
Autor: Phukoetphim, Niphaphat; Salakkam, Apilak; Laopaiboon, Pattana; Laopaiboon, Lakkana.
Título: Improvement of ethanol production from sweet sorghum juice under batch and fed-batch fermentations: effects of sugar levels, nitrogen supplementation, and feeding regimes
Fonte: Electron. j. biotechnol;26:84-92, Mar. 2017. graf, tab.
Idioma: en.
Resumo: Background: Fermentation process development has been very important for efficient ethanol production. Improvement of ethanol production efficiency from sweet sorghum juice (SSJ) under normal gravity (NG, 160 g/L of sugar), high gravity (HG, 200 and 240 g/L of sugar) and very high gravity (VHG, 280 and 320 g/L of sugar) conditions by nutrient supplementation and alternative feeding regimes (batch and fed-batch systems) was investigated using a highly ethanol-tolerant strain, Saccharomyces cerevisiae NP01. Results: In the batch fermentations without yeast extract, HG fermentation at 200 g/L of sugar showed the highest ethanol concentration (PE, 90.0 g/L) and ethanol productivity (QE, 1.25 g/L·h). With yeast extract supplementation (9 g/L), the ethanol production efficiency increased at all sugar concentrations. The highest PE (112.5 g/L) and QE (1.56 g/L·h) were observed with the VHG fermentation at 280 g/L of sugar. In the fed-batch fermentations, two feeding regimes, i.e., stepwise and continuous feedings, were studied at sugar concentrations of 280 g/L. Continuous feeding gave better results with the highest PE and QE of 112.9 g/L and 2.35 g/L·h, respectively, at a feeding time of 9 h and feeding rate of 40 g sugar/h. Conclusions: In the batch fermentation, nitrogen supplementation resulted in 4 to 32 g/L increases in ethanol production, depending on the initial sugar level in the SSJ. Under the VHG condition, with sufficient nitrogen, the fed-batch fermentation with continuous feeding resulted in a similar PE and increased QP by 51% compared to those in the batch fermentation.
Responsável: CL1.1 - Biblioteca Central


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Id: biblio-968875
Autor: Oliveira, Alexandre Bosco de; Costa, Anne Pinheiro; Londe, Luciana C. N; Schaffer, Bruce; Vargas, Ana I; Vendrame, Wagner A.
Título: Effectiveness of a micronutrient delivery system fertilizer in jatropha plants is related to enhanced photosynthesis, gas exchange and biomass allocation / Eficácia de um sistema de fornecimento de micronutrientes em plantas de jatropha está relacionado com incrementos na fotossíntese, troca gasosa e alocação de biomassa
Fonte: Biosci. j. (Online);34(6 Supplement 1):97-107, nov./dec. 2018.
Idioma: en.
Resumo: This study aimed at comparing the growth and physiological changes in Jatropha curcas L. (jatropha or physic nut) young plants fertilized or not with a commercial product based on a micronutrient delivery system (MDS), under different doses of NPK. Measurements of growth, chlorophyll content, and leaf gas exchange were performed in the greenhouse, where plants were arranged in a split-split plot design. Plants were grown for 120 days in 3.9 L pots containing local soil, with or without MDS (main plot), combined with NPK doses (0; 1.8; 4.7 and 7.4 g L-1) in subplots. Dose-response curves showed that most variables were positively responsive to NPK doses in plants growing without MDS, whereas slight responses or even opposite behavior was observed in MDS-fertilized plants. MDS application under low NPK doses resulted in higher biomass allocation in leaves and roots, increases in number of leaves and chlorophyll content, plant height, stem diameter, shoot and root dry weight, stomatal conductance, photosynthesis, leaf transpiration, and water use efficiency, as well as decreases in intercellular CO2 in the leaf and vapor-pressure deficit. The enhanced biomass allocation, photosynthesis and gas exchange in MDS-supplemented plants indicates the relevant role played by this fertilizer in jatropha metabolism, resulting in more vigorous plants.

Este estudo teve como objetivo comparar o crescimento e as mudanças fisiológicas em plantas jovens de Jatropha curcas L. (pinhão manso), fertilizadas ou não, com um produto comercial baseado em um sistema de fornecimento de micronutrientes (MDS), sob diferentes doses de NPK. Medidas de crescimento, teor de clorofila e troca gasosa foliar foram realizados em casa de vegetação, onde as plantas foram arranjadas em um delineamento de blocos casualizados com parcela subdividida. As plantas foram cultivadas por 120 dias em potes de 3,9 L contendo solo local, com ou sem MDS (parcela principal), combinado com doses de NPK (0; 1,8; 4,7 e 7,4 g L-1) nas subparcelas. Curvas doseresposta mostraram que a maioria das variáveis responderam positivamente às doses de NPK em plantas crescendo sem MDS, enquanto respostas fracas ou mesmo comportamento oposto foi observado em plantas fertilizadas com MDS. A aplicação de MDS em doses baixas de NPK resultaram em maior alocação de biomassa nas folhas e raízes, aumento no número de folhas e teor de clorofila, altura da planta, diâmetro do caule, pesos secos da parte aérea e raiz, condutância estomatal, fotossíntese, transpiração foliar e eficiência no uso da água, bem como na redução do CO2 intercelular na folha e déficit de pressão de vapor. O aumento na alocação de biomassa, fotossíntese e troca gasosa em plantas suplementadas com MDS indica o papel relevante deste fertilizante no metabolismo de pinhão manso, resultando em plantas mais vigorosas.
Responsável: BR396.1 - Biblioteca Central


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Id: biblio-964873
Autor: Torres, Francisco Eduardo; Teodoro, Paulo Eduardo; Ribeiro, Larissa Pereira; Correa, Caio Cezar Guedes; Hernandes, Fernanda Baptistella; Fernandes, Reliane Lima; Gomes, Anna Catharina; Lopes, Kamila Vieira.
Título: Correlations and path analysis on oil content of castor genotypes / Correlações e análise de trilha sobre o teor de óleo de genótipos de mamona
Fonte: Biosci. j. (Online);31(5):1363-1369, sept./oct. 2015.
Idioma: en.
Resumo: With the aim of to evaluate the correlation and the direct and indirect effects of morphological descriptors on oil content of castor (Ricinus communis L.) genotypes, an experiment was conducted in the agricultural years 2010/2011 and 2011/2012 at Universidade Estadual de Mato Grosso do Sul ­ Unit of Aquidauana (UEMS/UUA). The experimental design used was randomized blocks with three replications. The treatments consisted of seven castor genotypes (BRS Energia, IAC-2028, IAC-Guarani, BRS Nordestina, BRS Paraguaçu, IAC-80 and IAC-226). The following descriptors were evaluated: plant height (PH), stem diameter (SD), number of bunches (NB), number of fruits (NF), mass of fruits (MF), mass of hundred seeds (MHS) and oil content (OC). Initially, it was determined the following genetic parameters: genotypic variance, environmental variance, coefficient of experimental variation, coefficient of genotypic variation, heritability, environmental correlations, phenotypic correlations and genetic correlations. The phenotypic correlations were deployed by path analysis in estimates of direct and indirect effects, and preceded the diagnosis of multicollinearity in explanatory variables and independent explanatory variables on the OC (primary dependent variable). The results indicated that the direct and indirect selection of genotypes with plant height, stem diameter, number of bunches and mass of hundred seeds is promising to select genotypes with high oil content in castor.

Com o objetivo de avaliar a correlação e os efeitos diretos e indiretos de caracteres morfológicos sobre o teor de óleo de genótipos de mamona (Ricinus communis L.), um experimento foi conduzido nos anos agrícolas 2010/2011 e 2011/2012 na Universidade Estadual de Mato Grosso do Sul, Unidade Universitária de Aquidauana (UEMS/UUA). O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos casualizados com três repetições. Os tratamentos consistiram de sete genótipos de mamona (BRS Energia, IAC-2028, IAC-Guarani, BRS Nordestina, BRS Paraguaçu, IAC-80 e IAC-226). Foram avaliados os descritores: altura da planta (PH), diâmetro do colmo (SD), número de cachos (NB), número de frutos (NF), massa de frutos (MF), massa de cem sementes (MHS) and teor de óleo (OC). Inicialmente foram determinados os seguintes parâmetros genéticos: variância genotípica, variância ambiental, coeficiente de variância experimental, coeficiente de variação genotípica, herdabilidade, correlações ambientais, correlações fenotípicas e correlações genotípicas. As correlações fenotípicas foram desdobradas pela análise de trilha em estimativas de efeitos diretos e indiretos, e procedeu-se ao diagnóstico da multicolinearidade das variáveis independentes explicativas sobre o OC (variável dependente principal). Os resultados indicam que a seleção direta e indireta de genótipos com altura da planta, diâmetro do colmo, número de cachos e massa de cem sementes são promissoras para se selecionar genótipos com maior teor de óleo em mamona.
Responsável: BR396.1 - Biblioteca Central


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Id: biblio-964098
Autor: Oliveira, Glauter Lima; Hilst, Paulo Cesar; Silva, Laercio Junio da; Sekita, Marcelo Coelho; Dias, Denise Cunha Fernandes dos Santos.
Título: Teste de frio para avaliação do potencial fisiológico de sementes de pinhão manso (Jatropha curcas L) / Cold test methodology for evaluation of the physiological potential of Jatropha curcas seeds
Fonte: Biosci. j. (Online);31(2):509-517, mar./abr. 2015.
Idioma: pt.
Resumo: O pinhão manso (Jatropha curcas L.) é uma planta de grande destaque entre as oleaginosas promissoras para a produção de biodiesel. Contudo, para a comercialização segura de lotes são necessárias informações sobre a qualidade das sementes, especialmente vigor. Objetivou-se, neste trabalho, adequar a metodologia do teste de frio para a avaliação do vigor de sementes de pinhão manso. Sementes de cinco lotes de pinhão manso foram inicialmente submetidas a testes para avalição da qualidade fisiológica e, em seguida, submetidas ao teste de frio. Para isso, foram semeadas em papel toalha, tipo germitest, com e sem solo, sendo confeccionados rolos que foram mantidos a 10 oC, por cinco, sete, nove e 11 dias. Após cada período, os rolos foram transferidos para germinador a 25 oC, realizando-se a avaliação da germinação aos 5 e 7 dias. O experimento foi conduzido em delineamento inteiramente casualizado e as médias dos tratamentos comparadas pelo teste de Tukey (p < 0,05) e correlacionadas com os resultados dos demais testes. O teste de frio é eficiente para a estratificação dos lotes de sementes de pinhão manso em níveis de vigor. Recomenda-se utilizar a metodologia do rolo de papel sem solo e manter as sementes em BOD a 10 ºC por sete dias, seguida por um período de cinco dias em germinador a 25 ºC.

The physic nut has great potential for biodiesel production. However, for safe comercialization of the lots, information about seed quality is necessary, especially about vigor. This work aimed to adapt the cold test methodology for evaluation of the physiological quality of Jatropha curcas seeds. Seeds of five lots were initially characterized and then tested with cold test. For this, seeds were sown on germitest paper, with and without soil, and rollers were made. Then, the seeds were exposed to 10 oC during five, seven, nine and 11 days. After the cold period, the seed were transferred to germinator with temperature adjusted to 25 oC for later evaluation at 5 and 7 days. The statistical design was completely randomized and the treatment means were compared by Tukey test (p < 0,05) and correlated with the results of other tests. The cold test proved to be efficient for the lots stratification on levels of vigor. It is recommended to use paper roll without soil and keep the seeds in BOD at 10 ºC for seven days and then transfer them to germinator with temperature adjusted to 25 °C for five days.
Responsável: BR396.1 - Biblioteca Central


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Id: biblio-910587
Autor: Ferreira, Rondinele Alberto dos Reis; Silva, Rosalina Helena.
Título: Produção de biodiesel usando blend de óleo de abacate e de soja / Production of biodiesel using blend of avocado oil and soybean oil
Fonte: Hig. aliment;32(280/281):98-102, 30/06/2018. ilus, tab.
Idioma: pt.
Resumo: A crescente preocupação com questões ambientais vem criando a busca por fontes alternativas de combustíveis que sejam renováveis e não agridam o meio-ambiente. Com este pensamento, a elaboração de biodiesel com misturas de óleos vegetais (blend) é um processo que apresenta todos os requisitos necessários para a fabricação de um biocombustível seguro e dentro dos parâmetros estabelecidos pela legislação. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar a fabricação de biodiesel de óleo de soja misturado com óleo de abacate. Elaboraram se duas formulações de biodiesel com misturas de óleos vegetais: 50% de óleo de soja refinado e 50% de óleo de abacate refinado (F1) e 80% de óleo de soja refinado e 20% de óleo de abacate refinado (F2). Para comparação com o biodiesel derivado da mistura de óleos vegetais, foi efetuada a elaboração de biodiesel de óleo de soja (100%) (R1, R2 e R3). Os resultados das análises físico-químicas apresentaram-se dentro dos padrões especificados, com pequenas diferenças nas viscosidades analisadas. O biodiesel blend referente à formulação (F1) não apresentou separação de fases. A formulação (F2) apresentou um rendimento de 49,65%, próximo do biodiesel de soja, que foi de 53,79%, o que justifica sua elaboração, desde que o álcool anidro em excesso seja recuperado e a glicerina obtida purificada, reduzindo as perdas e os custos, viabilizando o processo de obtenção do biodiesel blend de soja e abacate.

The growing concern about environmental issues has created a search for alternative sources of fuel which are renewable and do not harm the environment. The elaboration of biodiesel with mixtures of vegetable oils (blend) is a process that possibly presents all the necessary requirements for the manufacture of a safe biofuel and within the parameters established by the legislation. The objective of this work was to study the of biodiesel production of soybean oil mixed with avocado oil. Two formulations of biodiesel were prepared with mixtures of vegetable oils: 50% refined soybean oil and 50% refined avocado oil (F1) and 80% refined soybean oil and 20% refined avocado oil (F2). In order to compare biodiesel derived from the blend of vegetable oils, soybean oil biodiesel was produced (100%) (R1, R2 and R3). The results of the physical chemical analyzes were within the specified standards, with small differences in the analyzed viscosities. The biodiesel blend (F1) did not show phase separation. The formulation (F2) presented a yield of 49.65%, close to soybean biodiesel, which was 53.79%, which justifies its elaboration, as long as the excess anhydrous alcohol is recovered and the obtained glycerin purified, reducing losses and the costs, enabling the process of obtaining of biodiesel blend of soy and avocado.
Responsável: BR526.1 - Biblioteca de Saúde Pública


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Id: biblio-965870
Autor: Blank, Arie Fitzgerald; Oliveira Neto, Manoel Antônio de; Fernandes, Roberta Pereira Miranda; Andrade, Thiago Matos; Oliveira, Alisson Marcel Souza de; Luz, José Magno Queiroz.
Título: Performance of sweet potato clones for starch and ethanol in three regions of the state of Sergipe, Brazil / Desempenho de clones de batata doce para amido e etanol em três regiões do estado de Sergipe, Brasil
Fonte: Biosci. j. (Online);33(1):66-75, jan./feb. 2017. tab.
Idioma: en.
Resumo: Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.) is a species that belongs to the family Convolvulaceae, and is originated from Central America and South America. As the growing conditions have great influence on the crop, the determination of harvesting time may vary with the cultivar, the growing region, or with the type of consumption (in natura or industrial). The aim of this work was to evaluate the performance of Ipomoea batatas L. clones, cultivated in three regions in the state of Sergipe, for starch and ethanol production. Thirty-one sweet potato clones grown in three municipalities of the state of Sergipe were tested in a randomized block design. The following variables were analyzed: root dry matter content (RDMC), root starch content (SC), starch yield (SY), ethanol yield (EY), and ethanol yield per ton of root (EYR). EY values ranged from 5910.39 to 8516.12 L ha-1; from 5141.85 to 6937.63 L ha-1; and from 5829.62 to 8211.77 L ha-1 in the municipalities of São Cristóvão, Malhador, and Canindé de São Francisco, respectively, for clones IPB-075 and IPB-087 and cultivar Palmas. Estimates of heritability (h2) were above 50%. The values of the ratio between the coefficient of genetic variation (CVg) and the coefficient of environmental variation (CVe) for RDMC, SC, and EYR were high.

A batata doce é uma espécie pertencente a família Convolvulaceae, originária da América Central e do Sul. As condições de cultivo têm grande influência na produção, sendo que a determinação do tempo de colheita varia de acordo com a cultivar, com a região de cultivo e com a forma de consumo (in natura ou industrial). O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o desempenho de clones de batata-doce (Ipomoea batatas L.) cultivados em três regiões do estado de Sergipe para produção de amido e etanol. Testou-se, em delineamento de blocos casualizados, 31 genótipos de batata doce em três município do Estado de Sergipe. As características analisadas foram: teor de matéria seca de raízes (RDMC), teor de amido nas raízes (SC), rendimento de raízes (SY), rendimento de etanol (EY) e rendimento de etanol por tonelada de raiz (EYR). Os valores de EY variaram de 5910,39 a 8516,12 L.ha-1, de 5141,85 a 6937,63 L ha-1 e de 5829,62 a 8211,77 L ha-1 para São Cristóvão, Malhador e Canindé de São Francisco, respectivamente, para os clones IPB-075 e IPB-087 e a cultivar Palmas. As estimativas de herdabilidade (h2) foram superiores a 50 %. Os valores da razão entre o coeficiente de variação genotípica e o ambiental para RDMC, SC, e EYR foram altos.
Responsável: BR396.1 - Biblioteca Central



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