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Id: biblio-894901
Autor: Evans, Harry C; Elliot, Simon L; Barreto, Robert W.
Título: Entomopathogenic fungi and their potential for the management of Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) in the Americas
Fonte: Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz;113(3):206-214, Mar. 2018. graf.
Idioma: en.
Projeto: CAPES.
Resumo: Classical biological control has been used extensively for the management of exotic weeds and agricultural pests, but never for alien insect vectors of medical importance. This simple but elegant control strategy involves the introduction of coevolved natural enemies from the centre of origin of the target alien species. Aedes aegypti - the primary vector of the dengue, yellow fever and Zika flaviviruses - is just such an invasive alien in the Americas where it arrived accidentally from its West African home during the slave trade. Here, we introduce the concept of exploiting entomopathogenic fungi from Africa for the classical biological control of Ae. aegypti in the Americas. Fungal pathogens attacking arthropods are ubiquitous in tropical forests and are important components in the natural balance of arthropod populations. They can produce a range of specialised spore forms, as well as inducing a variety of bizarre behaviours in their hosts, in order to maximise infection. The fungal groups recorded as specialised pathogens of mosquito hosts worldwide are described and discussed. We opine that similar fungal pathogens will be found attacking and manipulating Ae. aegypti in African forests and that these could be employed for an economic, environmentally-safe and long-term solution to the flavivirus pandemics in the Americas.
Responsável: BR1.1 - BIREME


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Id: lil-623734
Autor: Harvey, William R; Crawford, Dwight N; Eisen, Naomi S; Fernandes, Veronica F; Spaeth, Daniel D; Wolfersberger, Michael G.
Título: The potassium impermeable apical membrane of insect epithelia: a target for development of safe pesticides
Fonte: Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz;82(supl.3):29-34, 1987. ilus.
Idioma: en.
Conferência: Apresentado em: International Symposium on Insect Physiology, Biochemistry and Control, Rio de Janeiro, Nov. 10-13, 1987.
Projeto: National Institue of Health; . United States Department of Agriculture.
Resumo: Columnar cell apical membranes (CCAM) in series with goblet cell apical membranes (GCAM) form an electroosmotic barrier separating the midgut lumen from epithelial cell cytoplasm. A unique K+ ATPase in GCAM generates three gradients across this barrier. A greater than 180 mV electrical gradient (lumen positive) drives amino acid uptake through voltage-dependent K+ symports. A greater than 1000-fold [H+] gradient (lumen alkaline) and a greater than 10-fold [K+] gradient (lumen concentrated) are adaptations to the high tannin and high K+ content, respectively, in dietary plant material. Agents which act on the apical membrane and disrupt the PD, H+, or K+ gradients are potential insecticides. Insect sensory epithelia and mammalian stria vascularis maintain similar PD and K+ gradients but would not be exposed to ingested anti-apical membrane insecticides. Following the demonstration by Sacchi et al. that Bacillus thuringiensis delta-endotoxin (Bt) induces specifically a K+ conductance increase in CCAM vesicles, we find that the K+ channel blocking agent, Ba2+, completely reverses Bt inhibition of the K+-carried short circuit current in the isolated midgut of Manduca sexta. Progress in characterizing the apical membrane includes finding that fluorosulfonylbenzoyladenosine binds specifically to certain GCAM polypeptides and that CCAM vesicles can be mass produced by Ca2+ or Mg2+ precipitation from Manduca sexta midgut.
Responsável: BR1.1 - BIREME


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Id: biblio-980937
Autor: Garcia, Carla; Faria, Cacilda Márcia Duarte Rios; Dalla Santa, Herta Stutz; Botelho, Renato Vasconcelos; Maia, Aline José.
Título: Antimicrobial activity of Agaricus brasiliensis on Plasmopara viticola and its effect on the induction of resistance to the control of downy mildew on Isabel Precoce / Atividade antimicrobiana de Agaricus brasiliensis sobre Plasmopara viticola e seu efeito na indução de resistência para o controle de míldio em videiras Isabel Precoce
Fonte: Arq. Inst. Biol;85:e0052017, 2018. graf.
Idioma: en.
Resumo: Agaricus brasiliensis include bioactive compounds that can act as antibiotics, bacteriostatic, fungistatic and nematostatic substances. In this sense, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of a single application of aqueous mycelial suspension (AMS) of A. brasiliensis in control of downy mildew (Plasmopara viticola) and resistance induction in 'Isabel Precoce' grapevines under greenhouse conditions. Treatments consisted of three doses of 1%, 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% AMS A. brasiliensis, as well as treatment with acibenzolar-S-methyl (ASM). The variables analyzed were: sporangiospore germination, disease severity, represented by the area under the disease progress curve (AUDPC), catalase enzyme activity, peroxidase and polyphenol. The 10%, 15% and 20% doses of AMS caused approximately 80% reduction in germination of P. viticola sporangiospores. The treatments did not show significant effects in reducing both the AUDPC of mildew and polyphenol oxidase enzyme activity. The A. brasiliensis aqueous mycelial suspension showed a fungitoxic effect on the germination of sporangiopores; however, it was not enough to reduce the severity of mildew in the 'Isabel Precoce' grapevines, even when acting on the catalase and peroxidase enzymes. Thus, experiments should be performed to verify the viability of the reproductive structures of the pathogen externalized in the vines when treated with A. brasiliensis AMS.(AU)

Agaricus brasiliensis possui compostos bioativos que apresentam atividade antimicrobiana e induz mecanismos de defesa em plantas contra patógenos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a aplicação da suspensão miceliada aquosa de A. brasiliensis no controle do míldio (Plasmopara viticola) e indução de resistência em videiras Isabel Precoce. Os tratamentos foram: 0, 1, 5, 10, 15 e 20% da suspensão miceliada aquosa de A. brasiliensis, além do tratamento com acibenzolar-S-metil. As variáveis analisadas foram: germinação de esporangiósporos; severidade da doença, representada pela área abaixo da curva de progresso da doença; atividade da enzima catalase; peroxidase e polifenoloxidase. As doses 10, 15 e 20% de suspensão miceliada aquosa de A. brasiliensis proporcionaram redução de aproximadamente 80% na germinação dos esporangiósporos de P. viticola. Os tratamentos não apresentaram efeitos significativos na redução da área abaixo da curva de progresso da doença do míldio e na atividade da enzima polifenoloxidase. A dose de 10% da suspensão miceliada aquosa de A. brasiliensis reduziu a atividade de catalase e induziu a atividade da peroxidase. A suspensão miceliada aquosa de A. brasiliensis apresentou efeito fungitóxico na germinação de esporangióporos, entretanto não foi suficiente para reduzir a severidade do míldio da videira Isabel Precoce, mesmo atuando na atividade das enzimas catalase e peroxidase. Assim, experimentos deverão ser realizados para verificar a viabilidade das estruturas reprodutivas do patógeno exteriorizadas nas videiras quando tratadas com suspensão miceliada aquosa de A. brasiliensis.(AU)
Responsável: BR1942.1 - NID - Biblioteca - Núcleo de Informação e Documentação


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Id: biblio-955167
Autor: Anon.
Título: Evaluación del crecimiento de cuatro especies del género Bacillus sp, primer paso para entender su efecto biocontrolador sobre Fusarium sp / Evaluation of growth of four species of the genus Bacillus sp, the first step to understand their biocontrol effect on Fusarium sp
Fonte: NOVA publ. cient;14(26):53-62, July-Dec. 2016. ilus, tab.
Idioma: es.
Resumo: Evaluar las condiciones de crecimiento de cuatro especies de Bacillus sp. nativas a escala de 10ml en Medio Mínimo de Sales (MMS) como primer paso para entender su acción biocontroladora contra Fusarium sp. Métodos. El procedimiento para evaluar el crecimiento de los aislamientos UCMC-TB1, UCMC-TB2, UCMC-TB3 y UCMC-TB4 se realizó utilizando espectrofotometría y recuento directo en placa y pruebas de antagonismo dual en placa para evaluar el efecto controlador contra Fusarium sp. Resultados. Se confirmó la identificación por pruebas bioquímicas de los cuatro aislamientos: Bacillus licheniformis, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus pumilusy Bacillus cereus; todas las cepas presentaron antagonismo in vitro. El Bacillus subtilis fue la especie que demostró mayor capacidad antagónica (79,73%PICR) y las características más destacadas de esta cepa fueron su velocidad de crecimiento. El género Bacillus es uno de los más reportados para usar en el control biológico de hongos como Fusarium sp. el cual ataca un gran número de cultivos de interés económico para el sector agrícola en Colombia.

Objetive. Evaluate the conditions of growth of four species of native Bacillus sp. on the scale of in minimal medium 10ml Sales (MMS) as a first step to understand their biocontrol action against Fusarium sp. Methods. The procedure for evaluating the growth of UCMC-TB1, UCMC-TB2, UCMC-TB3 and TB4 UCMC-isolates was performed using spectrophotometry and direct plate count and dual antagonism tests to evaluate the effect against Fusarium sp. Results. Identification by biochemical tests of the four isolates were confirmed: Bacillus licheniformis, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus pumilus and Bacillus cereus; all showed antagonism in vitro. Bacillus subtilis was the species that showed increased antagonistic capacity (79.73% PICR) and the main features of this strain were the speed of growth and death. The genus Bacillus is one of the most reported for use in the biological control of fungi such as Fusarium sp. It is attacking a large number of crops of economic interest to the agricultural sector in Colombia.
Responsável: CO332 - Facultad de Medicina


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Id: lil-787559
Autor: Sarmento, Ulana Chaves; Miguita, Carlos Henrique; Almeida, Luís Henrique de Oliveira; Gaban, Cleusa Rocha Garcia; Silva, Lilliam May Grespan Estodutto da; Souza, Albert Schiaveto de; Garcez, Walmir Silva; Garcez, Fernanda Rodrigues.
Título: Larvicidal efficacies of plants from Midwestern Brazil: melianodiol from Guarea kunthiana as a potential biopesticide against Aedes aegypti
Fonte: Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz;111(7):469-474tab, graf.
Idioma: en.
Resumo: A total of 36 ethanol extracts from different anatomical parts of 27 plant species (18 families), native to the Pantanal and Cerrado biomes in Midwest Brazil, was assessed for their effect against Aedes aegypti larvae, the vector of dengue, hemorrhagic dengue, Zika and chikungunya fevers. Only the extract obtained from seeds of Guarea kunthiana (Meliaceae) proved active (LC50 = 169.93 μg/mL). A bioassay-guided investigation of this extract led to the isolation and identification of melianodiol, a protolimonoid, as the active constituent (LC50 = 14.44 mg/mL). Meliantriol, which was also obtained from the bioactive fraction, was nevertheless devoid of any larval toxicity, even at the highest concentration tested (LC50 > 100.0 mg/mL). These results indicate that the larvicidal activity of melianodiol stems from the presence of the carbonyl moiety at C-3 in the 21,23-epoxy-21,24,25-trihydroxy-tirucall-7-ene-type skeleton. The structures of both protolimonoids were established on the basis of spectral methods (1H and 13C NMR and MS). This is the first report on the toxicity of melianodiol against Ae. aegypti larvae. Based on the results, melianodiol can be regarded as a potential candidate for use as an ecologically sound biocontrol agent for reducing the larval population of this vector.
Responsável: BR1.1 - BIREME


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Id: lil-757142
Autor: Sartori, Melina; Nesci, Andrea; Formento, Ángela; Etcheverry, Miriam.
Título: Selection of potential biological control of Exserohilum turcicum with epiphytic microorganisms from maize / Selección de microorganismos epifíticos de maíz como potenciales agentes de biocontrol de Exserohilum turcicum
Fonte: Rev. argent. microbiol;47(1):62-71, Mar. 2015. tab.
Idioma: en.
Resumo: The aims of this study were to select microbial isolates from phyllosphere of maize and to examine their antagonistic activity against Exserohilum turcicum. Selection was performed through the ability of isolates to compete with the pathogen using an index of dominance and to affect growth parameters of E. turcicum. Most of the epiphytic populations obtained for the screening were bacteria. These isolates were found in the order of 6 log CFU/g of leaf fresh weight. According to similar morphological characteristics and staining, 44 out of 111 isolates obtained were selected for testing antagonistic effects. At water potential, ψ, −1.38 MPa and −4.19 MPa, three Bacillus isolates showed dominance at a distance (5/0) and a significant reduction of growth rate of the pathogen. Three Bacillus isolates only decreased the growth rate of E. turcicum at −1.38 MPa. At −4.19 MPa the growth rate decreased with three isolates of Pantoea and three Bacillus. In this study a negative and significant correlation was observed between the growth rate of E. turcicum and the dominance index in the interaction of the pathogen with some bacteria. These results show that with decreasing growth rate of the pathogen the dominance index of the interaction increases. Eleven potential biocontrol agents against E. turcicum were selected.

El objetivo de este estudio fue seleccionar aislamientos microbianos de la filósfera de maíz y examinar su actividad antagonista contra Exserohilum turcicum. La selección se realizó a través de la capacidad de los aislamientos de competir con el patógeno usando un índice de dominancia y también la capacidad de afectar los parámetros de crecimiento de E. turcicum. La mayoría de las poblaciones epifíticas aisladas para la selección fueron bacterias. Estos aislamientos se encontraron en el orden de 6 log de UFC por gramo de peso fresco de hoja de maíz. En base a características morfológicas y tintóreas similares, se seleccionaron 44 de 111 aislamientos obtenidos para evaluar su capacidad antagónica. A los potenciales agua, ψ, −1,38 MPa y −4,19 MPa, tres aislados del género Bacillus mostraron dominancia a distancia (5/0) y una reducción significativa de la velocidad de crecimiento del patógeno. Tres aislamientos de Bacillus disminuyeron la velocidad de crecimiento de E. turcicum a −1,38 MPa. A −4,19 MPa la velocidad de crecimiento disminuyó con tres aislamientos de Pantoea y tres de Bacillus. En este estudio se observó una correlación negativa y significante entre la velocidad de crecimiento de E. turcicum y el índice de dominancia cuando el patógeno interactuó con algunas bacterias. Esto estaría indicando que cuando disminuye la velocidad de crecimiento del patógeno se incrementa el índice de dominancia de la interacción. Se seleccionaron once posibles agentes de biocontrol contra E. turcicum.
Responsável: AR1.2 - Instituto de Investigaciónes Epidemiológicas


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Id: lil-755811
Autor: Soleimani-Delfan, Abbas; Etemadifar, Zahra; Emtiazi, Giti; Bouzari, Majid.
Título: Isolation of Dickeya dadantii strains from potato disease and biocontrol by their bacteriophages
Fonte: Braz. j. microbiol;46(3):791-797, July-Sept. 2015. tab, ilus.
Idioma: en.
Resumo:

One of the most economically important bacterial pathogens of plants and plant products is Dickeya dadantii. This bacterium causes soft rot disease in tubers and other parts of the potato and other plants of the Solanaceae family. The application of restricted host range bacteriophages as biocontrol agents has recently gained widespread interest. This study purposed to isolate the infectious agent of the potato and evaluate its biocontrol by bacteriophages. Two phytopathogenic strains were isolated from infected potatoes, identified based on biochemical and 16S rRNA gene sequencing, and submitted to GenBank as D. dadantii strain pis3 (accession no. HQ423668) and D. dadantii strain sip4 (accession no. HQ423669). Their bacteriophages were isolated from Caspian Sea water by enriching the water filtrate with D. dadantii strains as hosts using spot or overlay methods. On the basis of morphotypes, the isolated bacteriophages were identified as members of the Myoviridae and Siphoviridae families and could inhibit the growth of antibiotic resistant D. dadantii strains in culture medium. Moreover, in Dickeya infected plants treated with bacteriophage, no disease progression was detected. No significant difference was seen between phage-treated and control plants. Thus, isolated bacteriophages can be suggested for the biocontrol of plant disease caused by Dickeya strains.

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Responsável: BR1.1 - BIREME


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Id: lil-746131
Autor: TRINDADE, R.C.P; FERREIRA, E.S.; GOMES, I.B.; SILVA, L.; SANT’ANA, A.E.G.; BROGLIO, S.M.F.; SILVA, M.S..
Título: Extratos aquosos de inhame (Dioscorea rotundata Poirr. ) e de mastruz (Chenopodium ambrosioides L. ) no desenvolvimento da lagarta-do-cartucho-do-milho Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith, 1797) / Aqueous extracts of yam (Dioscorea rotundata Poirr. ) and chenopodium (Chenopodium ambrosioides L. ) in the development of fall armyworm Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith, 1797)
Fonte: Rev. bras. plantas med;17(2):291-296, Apr-Jun/2015. tab, graf.
Idioma: pt.
Resumo: RESUMO: Estudou-se o efeito de extratos aquosos de inhame (0; 5; 10; e 20% p/p) e de mastruz (0; 2; 4; 6; 8 e 10% p/p) na biologia da lagarta-do-cartucho. Secções de folhas de milho foram mergulhadas por 30 segundos em soluções de cada concentração; após a secagem, colocou-se em cada secção uma lagarta recém-eclodida. Foram avaliadas a viabilidade e a duração das fases larval e pupal, peso e comprimento das lagartas e pupas. Em relação ao extrato de inhame, a concentração de 20% causou maior influência na fase larval, sendo a viabilidade reduzida para 12%, com duração de 7 dias, diferindo da testemunha com 17 dias. O extrato da mesma planta a 10% causou 48% de mortalidade. Em todas as concentrações esse extrato também afetou a fase de pupa; na testemunha, 85% das pupas foram viáveis, enquanto nos demais tratamentos a viabilidade não excedeu a 25%. Para o peso e comprimento das lagartas, os resultados não foram significativos. Para o mastruz, o extrato a 20% causou influência na fase larval com baixa viabilidade e mortalidade logo nos primeiros seis dias de avaliação. Outras concentrações de mastruz não deferiram entre si nas fases larval e pupal. Verificou-se que a alimentação das lagartas com folhas tratadas com mastruz diminuiu o peso das pupas.

ABSTRACT: The effect of aqueous extracts of yam (0, 5, 10, and 20% h/h) and chenopodium (0, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10% h/h) on the biology of fall armyworm was studied. Sections of maize leaves were dipped for 30 seconds in solutions of each concentration; after the section dried, a recently hatched caterpillar was placed onto each treated section. The viability and duration of the larval and pupal stages and the weight and length of the caterpillars and pupae were evaluated. For yam, the extract at 20% concentration caused the greatest influence on the larval stage of the insect, significantly reducing larval viability to 12%, with 7 day larval stage duration, differing from the control at 17 days. The extract of the same plant at 10% caused 48% larval mortality. At all concentrations, that extract also affected the pupal stage; in the control, pupal viability was 85%, whereas for the other concentrations the viability did not exceed 25%. No significant differences were observed for the weight and length of caterpillars. For chenopodium, the extract at 20% concentration caused influence on the larval stage, as it showed the lowest viability, causing mortality in six days. Other chenopodium concentrations did not show differences for the larval and pupal stages. Feeding caterpillars with leaves treated with the extract of chenopodium decreased pupal weight.
Responsável: BR1.1 - BIREME


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Id: lil-696005
Autor: Tetreau, Guillaume; Stalinski, Renaud; David, Jean-Philippe; Despres, Laurence.
Título: Monitoring resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis in the field by performing bioassays with each Cry toxin separately
Fonte: Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz;108(7):894-900, 1jan. 2013. tab, graf.
Idioma: en.
Projeto: ANR.
Resumo: Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis (Bti) is increasingly used worldwide for mosquito control and is the only larvicide used in the French Rhône-Alpes region since decades. The artificial selection of mosquitoes with field-persistent Bti collected in breeding sites from this region led to a moderate level of resistance to Bti, but to relatively high levels of resistance to individual Bti Cry toxins. Based on this observation, we developed a bioassay procedure using each Bti Cry toxin separately to detect cryptic Bti-resistance evolving in field mosquito populations. Although no resistance to Bti was detected in none of the three mosquito species tested (Aedes rusticus, Aedes sticticus and Aedes vexans), an increased tolerance to Cry4Aa (3.5-fold) and Cry11Aa toxins (8-fold) was found in one Ae. sticticus population compared to other populations of the same species, suggesting that resistance to Bti may be arising in this population. This study confirms previous works showing a lack of Bti resistance in field mosquito populations treated for decades with this bioinsecticide. It also provides a first panorama of their susceptibility status to individual Bti Cry toxins. In combination with bioassays with Bti, bioassays with separate Cry toxins allow a more sensitive monitoring of Bti-resistance in the field.
Responsável: BR1.1 - BIREME


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Id: lil-653718
Autor: Fernandes, Fernanda Mara; Araújo, Jackson Victor; Braga, Fabio Ribeiro; Gazzinelli-Guimarães, Pedro Henrique; Araujo, Juliana Milani; Ferreira, Sebastião Rodrigo; Carvalho, Rogério Oliva; Mello, Ingrid Ney Kramer de; Fujiwara, Ricardo Toshio.
Título: In vitro biological control of infective larvae of Ancylostoma ceylanicum / Controle biológico in vitro de larvas infectantes de Ancylostoma ceylanicum
Fonte: Rev. bras. parasitol. vet;21(3):283-286, July-Sept. 2012. ilus.
Idioma: en.
Resumo: The aim of this study was to evaluate the predatory activity of the fungus Duddingtonia flagrans (AC001) on infective larvae of Ancylostoma ceylanicum after gastrointestinal transit in hamsters. Twenty animals were used in the experiment, divided into two groups: a treated group (10 animals) and a control group (10 animals). In the group treated with D. flagrans, each animal received mycelium from the AC001 isolate, at an oral dose of 5 mg/25 g of live weight. To evaluate the predatory activity of the fungus, fecal samples were collected from the animals in both groups, at the times of 6, 8, 12, 24 and 36 hours after the treatment. Then, subsamples of 2 g of feces were placed in Petri dishes containing 2% water-agar (2% WA) culture medium and 1000 L3 of A. ceylanicum. Over the study period, the following percentage reductions were observed: 43.2% (6 hours), 30.8% (8 hours), 25.8% (12 hours), 30% (24 hours) and 11% (36 hours). The fungus D. flagrans presented predatory activity on the L3 of A. ceylanicum, after passing through the hamsters' gastrointestinal tract. It was therefore concluded that the fungus D. flagrans may be an alternative for biological control of the L3 of A. ceylanicum.

O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a atividade predatória do fungo Duddingtonia flagrans (AC001) sobre larvas infectantes de Ancylostoma ceylanicum após o trânsito gastrintestinal em hamsters. Foram utilizados vinte animais no experimento, divididos em dois grupos: um grupo tratado (10 animais) e um grupo controle (10 animais). No grupo tratado com D. flagrans, cada animal recebeu 5mg/25g de peso vivo de micélio do isolado AC001, por via oral. Para avaliar a atividade predatória do fungo, amostras fecais foram coletadas de ambos os grupos de animais nos horários de: 6, 8, 12, 24 e 36 após o tratamento. A seguir, 2g de fezes foram colocadas em placas de Petri contendo o meio de cultura ágar-água 2% (AA2%) e 1000 L3 de A. ceylanicum. Ao longo dos horários estudados os seguintes percentuais de redução foram observados: 43,2% (6 horas); 30,8% (8 horas); 25,8% (12 horas); 30% (24 horas) e 11% (36 horas). O fungo D. flagrans (AC001) apresentou atividade predatória sobre as L3 de A. ceylanicum após o trânsito pelo trato gastrintestinal de hamsters. Além disso, foi observada uma diferença significativa nos percentuais obtidos de cada horário em relação ao numero de L3 recuperadas (P < 0,01). Conclui-se, portanto, que o fungo D. flagrans pode ser uma alternativa de controle biológico das L3 de A. ceylanicum.
Responsável: BR1.1 - BIREME



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