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Id: biblio-869971
Autor: Moreira, Márcio Borges; Oliveira, Adriana; Hanna, Elenice S.
Título: Arranjo de estímulos em treino discriminativo simples com compostos e emergência de classes de estímulos equivalentes / Arreglo de estímulo en compuestos simples con entrenamiento discriminativo y la clase equivalente de estímulos / Stimulus arrangement in simple discriminative training with compound and emergence of stimulus equivalence classes
Fonte: Temas psicol. (Online);25(1):351-367, mar. 2017. ilus, tab.
Idioma: pt.
Resumo: O treino discriminativo simples simultâneo com compostos (DSSi) tem produzido variabilidade nos resultados de testes de estímulos equivalentes. O presente trabalho investigou em dois estudos o papel de variáveis metodológicas, que alteram as chances de controle por aspectos não definidos como relevantes, sobre a formação de classes de estímulos equivalentes. O Estudo 1 avaliou o efeito da utilização de um composto incorreto (S-) para cada composto correto (S+) em cada tentativa do DSSi que garantia o contexto de discriminação condicional sem redundância (e.g., A1B1 com A1B2 ou A1B1 com A2B1). Cinco estudantes universitários aprenderam as discriminações básicas e mostraram relações simétricas e transitivas. O Estudo 2 verificou o efeito da inclusão de um elemento redundante (mancha preta) nos compostos de uma das classes, utilizando um delineamento intra-sujeito. Avaliou-se o efeito dessa manipulação em um procedimento de treino de relações condicionais arbitrárias com DSSi sobre os desempenhos nos testes de relações emergentes, utilizando-se MTS e DSSi. Os doze universitários mostraram relações simétricas, mas apenas cinco apresentaram relações transitivas. Esses resultados expandem as evidências de que configurações das tentativas de treino e as características irrelevantes dos estímulos podem gerar falso positivo nos treinos discriminativos.

El entrenamiento discriminativo sencilla simultáneamente con compuestos (DSSi) han producido variabilidad en los resultados de las pruebas de estímulos equivalentes. Este estudio investigó en dos estudios el papel de las variables metodológicas que alteran las posibilidades de control por parte de los aspectos no definidos como relevantes, sobre la formación de las clases de equivalencia de estímulo. Estudio 1 evaluó el efecto del uso de un compuesto incorrecta (S+) para cada compuesto correcta (S +) en cada intento de garantía DSSi que el contexto discriminación condicional sin redundancia (por ejemplo, A1B1 con A1B2 A1B1 o con A2B1). Cinco estudiantes universitarios aprendieron la discriminación básica y mostraron relaciones simétricas y transitivas. El segundo estudio evaluó el efecto de la inclusión de un elemento redundante (punto negro) en los compuestos de las clases utilizando un diseño intrasujeto. Se evaluó el efecto de esta manipulación en un procedimiento de formación de las relaciones condicionales arbitrarias con DSSi sobre actuaciones en relaciones emergentes pruebas, utilizando MTS y DSSi. Los doce estudiantes mostraron relaciones simétricas, pero sólo cinco tenido relaciones transitivas. Estos resultados amplían la evidencia de que los intentos de formación configuraciones y características irrelevantes de los estímulos pueden generar falsos positivos en la práctica discriminatoria.
Responsável: BR1338.1 - Biblioteca Central Prof. Eurico Back


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Id: biblio-842220
Autor: Langsdorff, Luiza Costa; Domeniconi, Camila; Schmidt, Andréia; Gomes, Camila Graciella; Souza, Deisy das Graças de.
Título: Learning by exclusion in individuals with autism and Down syndrome
Fonte: Psicol. reflex. crit;30:9, 2017. tab.
Idioma: en.
Resumo: Abstract This study aimed to investigate the number of exclusion trials necessary for teaching auditory-visual relationships to individuals with autism and Down syndrome. Study participants were seven individuals with autism and a history of early behavioral intervention (EI), four adults with autism without a history of early behavioral intervention (NI), and three adults with Down syndrome. A set of procedures was used for teaching the auditory-visual matching to sample, and naming responses of the new stimuli were tested. For the individuals with autism and EI and for the individuals with Down syndrome, the required number of repetitions was stable and concentrated in the minimum programmed by the procedure (two repetitions). However, the procedure was not effective for teaching new conditional relationships for the adults with autism and NI. The results indicate that the procedure can constitute an important teaching technology; however, its efficacy appears to vary depending on the educational profile of the participant.
Responsável: BR1.1 - BIREME


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Armonia, Paschoal Laercio
Id: biblio-874003
Autor: Silva, Adam de Mello; Santos, Camila Correia dos; Reggiori, Maurício Gamarra; Andia-Merlin, Ruth; Martins, Rosemary Baptista; Alegretti, Carlos Eduardo; Okida, Yugo; Armonia, Paschoal Laércio; Giovani, Elcio Magdalena.
Título: Estudo dos fatores emocionais e psicológicos que podem interferir no tratamento odontológico / Study of emotional and psychological factors that may interfere in the dental treatment
Fonte: J. Health Sci. Inst = Rev. Inst. Ciênc. Saúde;27(3):249-253, jul.-set. 2009. graf.
Idioma: en.
Resumo: Introduction - Submission to dental treatment has been reported by patients as a condition giving rise to stress because they may experience some discomfort causing them to postpone visits to the dental office because of situations that include pain. Identify these conditions is a challenge that dentists should include their care procedures in order to modify this pessimistic view where the main focus (oral health) can be achieved. This work results in the identification of factors that interfere with patient-dentist approximation for the dental treatment. Material and Method - We interviewed 54 patients. Results - The results were significant: 14.85% said they going to the dental office is stressful. 83.3% reported that the dentist managed to deal with fear and anxiety during the dental treatment, 22.0% had requested to stop a consultation because of not keeping the self control. The most common symptoms: palpitations, cold hands, panic, increased sweating. When questioned about what most frightened them: equipment used during the consultations is the main cause of fear. Conclusion - It was concluded that the patient-dentist relationship is a complex and extensive subject, however, it identifies situations that may be related to fear, so that when controlled it facilitates adherence and reduce the dropout to dental treatments, improving clinical and practical care and patient approach to the dentist
Responsável: BR12.1 - Biblioteca Setorial da Ciências da Saúde


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Id: biblio-830415
Autor: Huertas Díaz, Omar; Díaz Mejía, Nadia Marleth; Trujillo González, José Saúl.
Título: David Matza: perspectiva criminológica de la deriva a la delincuencia juvenil / David Matza: criminological perspective of minors drifting towards juvenile delinquency / David Matza: perspectiva criminológica da deriva à delinquência juveni
Fonte: Rev. crim;58(3):49-60, sep.-dic. 2016. ilus, graf, mapas, tab.
Idioma: es.
Resumo: El fenómeno de la delincuencia juvenil es un tema que aún en la actualidad sigue generando polémica; las líneas de investigación enfocan su esfuerzo en la búsqueda de las razones por las cuales un menor entra en el mundo delincuencial. Sin embargo, omiten la existencia de autores que dedicaron sus estudios a dar respuesta a tal cuestión. Un autor clave en el estudio del fenómeno delincuencial es el sociólogo estadounidense David Matza, pionero en las teorías de carácter social que pretenden dar respuestas a las incógnitas planteadas dentro de la temática juvenil; el presente artículo se enfocará en el análisis y reflexión de los principales postulados de su teoría de las subculturas delincuenciales, por medio de una perspectiva basada en la interacción, lo cual nos mostrará que es una subcultura a la par de la cultura convencional, con miembros que no distan de aquellos jóvenes que son considerados normales por la mayoría de la sociedad. Así se explica por qué algunos jóvenes se aproximan al quebrantamiento de la ley.

The phenomenon of juvenile delinquency has continued to be an ongoingly controversial issue; current research lines are focusing their efforts in search of the reasons why a minor ends up entering the delinquent world. Nevertheless, they fail to acknowledge the presence of authors having devoted their studies in trying to provide an answer to that question. A leading scholar in the study of this phenomenon is sociologist David Matza from the United States, a pioneer in theories of social nature attempting to give a solution to all the unknowns posed within the context of juvenile topics. This article is focused on analysis and reflection about the major premises of his theory dealing with delinquent subcultures from a perspective based on interaction. This will show us, therefore, that this is a subculture in keeping with the conventional culture, with members not far from those young people considered normal by a majority of society. This is the explanation concerning why some of them are quite close to breaking the law.

O fenômeno da delinquência juvenil é um assunto que ainda no tempo atual continua a gerar polémica; as linhas da investigação focalizam seu esforço na busca das razões para que um menor entre no mundo delinquencial. Não obstante, omitem a existência dos autores que dedicaram seus estudos à resposta da questão. Um autor chave no estudo do fenômeno delinquencial é o sociólogo americano David Matza, pioneiro nas teorias do caráter social que tentam dar a respostas às incógnitas expostas dentro da temática juvenil; esse artigo focara-se na análise e na reflexão dos postulados principais de sua teoria das subculturas delinquenciais, por meio de uma perspectiva baseada na interação, que nos mostrará que é uma subcultura no mesmo nível da cultura convencional, com membros que não distam daqueles jovens que são considerados normais pela maioria da sociedade. Assim explica-se porquê alguns jovens aproximam-se a infringir a lei
Responsável: CO332 - Facultad de Medicina


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Souza, Deisy das Graças de
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Id: lil-785104
Autor: Huziwara, Edson Massayuki; Souza, Deisy das Graças de; Tomanari, Gerson Yukio.
Título: Patterns of eye movement in matching-to-sample tasks
Fonte: Psicol. reflex. crit;29:2, 2016. tab, graf.
Idioma: en.
Projeto: CNPq; . FAPESP.
Resumo: Abstract The present study evaluated whether during a matching-to-sample procedure (MTS), the time spent observing stimuli is related to the establishment of selection or rejection controlling relationships in human participants. It also evaluated whether different response topographies (i.e., participants using the keyboard or mouse) would influence the duration of eye fixations. Ten college students participated. The procedure established conditional relationships among six sets of abstract stimuli. Five participants selected the comparison stimuli using a computer mouse and five used a keyboard. An eye-scan device recorded eye movements throughout the training procedure. After participants completed training, probes verified whether the conditional relationships learned were controlled by selection (e.g., if A1, select B1), by rejection (e.g., if A1, reject B2), or both. All participants displayed a similar pattern of stimuli observation. Time spent observing the sample stimulus (e.g., A1) was longer than observing the comparison stimuli (e.g., B1 and B2). Time spent observing S+ (positive stimuli; e.g., B1) was longer than observing S- (negative stimuli; e.g., B2). Duration of eye fixation was not related to selection or rejection controlling relationships, but different response topographies appeared to modulate the amount of time spent observing stimuli. (AU)
Responsável: BR1.1 - BIREME


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Id: lil-753911
Autor: Fernandes, D P B; Silva, I J O; Nazareno, A C; Donofre, A C; Sevegnani, K B.
Título: Reconhecimento de cores de objetos e de alimentos de cromaticidades opostas por pintos de corte / Recognition of colors of objects and food opposite chromaticities by broiler chicks
Fonte: Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec;67(3):873-881, May-Jun/2015. tab, graf.
Idioma: pt.
Resumo: Objetivou-se com esta pesquisa avaliar, por meio de testes de preferência, a capacidade de percepção de pintos de corte no reconhecimento de objetos e alimentos de diferentes cores. A pesquisa foi realizada no Brasil e consistiu no condicionamento de 60 pintos de um dia sexados, sendo 30 pintos machos e 30 pintos fêmeas, durante três dias, com esferas azuis e alimento vermelho, cores escolhidas por terem cromaticidades opostas. Após a fase de condicionamento, foi realizado um teste de preferência, no qual os animais eram colocados individualmente no centro de uma arena de teste com quatro opções, sendo elas: alimento vermelho; alimento azul; esferas vermelhas; esferas azuis. Cada ave foi avaliada durante 10 minutos...

The aim of this research was to evaluate, by preference tests, the ability of perception of broiler chicks in the recognition of objects and foods of different colors. The survey was conducted in Brazil and consisted in the conditioning of 60 sexed one-day-old chicks using 30 male chicks and 30 female chicks for three days with blue balls and red food colors chosen for having opposed chromaticities. After the conditioning phase, a preference test was performed, in which the animals were placed individually in the center of an arena test with four options: red food, blue food, red balls and blue balls. Each bird was measured for 10 minutes...
Responsável: BR68.1 - Biblioteca Virginie Buff D'Ápice


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Id: lil-718326
Autor: Conde, Erick Q; Cavallet, Mikael; Torro-Alves, Nelson; Matsushima, Elton H; Fraga-Filho, Roberto S; Jazenko, Fernanda; Busatto, Geraldo; Gawryszewski, Luiz G.
Título: Effects of affective valence on a mixed Spatial Correspondence Task: a reply to Proctor (2013)
Fonte: Psychol. neurosci. (Impr.);7(2):83-90, Jan.-June 2014. ilus, graf, tab.
Idioma: en.
Projeto: CNPq; . CAPES; . FAPERJ; . CNPq; . Fapesp.
Resumo: The present study investigated the influence of emotional valence on the spatial stimulus-key location correspondence effect in three experiments using the Affective Spatial Correspondence task (AffSCt). We initially reanalyzed the results of Conde et al. (2011) according to the model proposed by Proctor (2013). In that study, compatible and incompatible responses were chosen according to the participants' team preference. In one block, the volunteers had to press a key on the same side for the Favorite team and on the opposite side for the Rival team. In another block, a reverse code was used. We found that responses were faster for the Favorite-compatible/Rival-incompatible condition (614 ms) compared with the Favorite-incompatible/Rival-compatible condition (691 ms). The same experimental arrangement was replicated in another Brazilian city, and similar results were found. Additionally, we employed non-affective "fake" soccer teams as a control condition, and no mapping-rule effect was observed. Finally, a final experiment that used the same design but different non-affective stimuli (yellow and blue bars) was performed to provide further evidence that the valence effect in the present experimental paradigm only occurs with affective stimuli. As expected, non-affective stimuli did not produce an overall advantage for any mapping rules, corroborating earlier findings with similar mixed designs. The results confirmed the previous findings and validity of the AffSCt as a methodology to investigate the effects of emotional valence on stimulus-response correspondence. However, we are unable to provide a conclusive explanation to support the several hypotheses proposed previously in our paper and by Proctor (2013)...
Responsável: BR85.1 - Biblioteca Dante Moreira Leite


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Id: lil-703099
Autor: Reis, Thaize S; Postalli, Lidia Maria M; Souza, Deisy das Graças de.
Título: Teaching spelling as a route for reading and writing
Fonte: Psychol. neurosci. (Impr.);6(3):365-373, July-Dec. 2013. ilus, tab.
Idioma: en.
Projeto: Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo; . FAPESP; . National Council of Science and Technology.
Resumo: Reading and writing are functionally independent operants, in which the acquisition of one does not necessarily result in the acquisition of the other. However, when the main components of these behaviors become members of equivalence classes, the abilities become interdependent. Several studies have taught matching printed words to dictated words and matching pictures to dictated words, producing the emergence of equivalence classes and the emergence of reading and spelling, although reading scores were systematically higher than spelling scores. The present study taught spelling skills and sought to determine whether it affects reading skills. Four students learned to spell 30 Portuguese words using a computer-based constructed response matching-to-sample task. Simultaneously with presentation of the sample (i.e., a picture and its corresponding printed word or a dictated word), the computer screen showed a pool of 14 letters. The task was to select the letters in the correct order to spell a word that corresponded to the sample. Differential consequences followed correct and incorrect responses. Spelling and reading improved for all of the participants. Spelling performance was as accurate as reading performance for three of the four participants. These results replicate previous data that showed the effectiveness of the constructed response matching-to-sample task in teaching spelling and promoting the emergence of reading...
Responsável: BR85.1 - Biblioteca Dante Moreira Leite


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Id: lil-691404
Autor: Planeta, Cleopatra S..
Título: Animal models of alcohol and drug dependence
Fonte: Rev. bras. psiquiatr;35(supl.2):S140-S146, 2013.
Idioma: en.
Resumo: Drug addiction has serious health and social consequences. In the last 50 years, a wide range of techniques have been developed to model specific aspects of drug-taking behaviors and have greatly contributed to the understanding of the neurobiological basis of drug abuse and addiction. In the last two decades, new models have been proposed in an attempt to capture the more genuine aspects of addiction-like behaviors in laboratory animals. The goal of the present review is to provide an overview of the preclinical procedures used to study drug abuse and dependence and describe recent progress that has been made in studying more specific aspects of addictive behavior in animals.
Responsável: BR1.1 - BIREME


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Id: lil-689620
Autor: Delgado Delgado, Diana Marcela; Medina Arboleda, Iván Felipe.
Título: Cuando la contigüidad no es suficiente: bloqueo en relaciones de equivalencia / When Contiguity is not Enough: Blocking Equivalence Relations
Fonte: Univ. psychol;12(2):613-626, may.-agos. 2013. tab.
Idioma: es.
Resumo: El fenómeno de bloqueo describe una circunstancia en la cual se impide o se dificulta el la transferencia de funciones entre eventos que se han presentado en una relación de contigüidad espacio-temporal. Desde una perspectiva teórica y empírica, el efecto bloqueo no debería predecirse en la adquisición de clases de estímulos aun cuando algunos de los estímulos de la misma clase se presenten simultáneamente. El presente estudio examina si la historia adicional de entrenamiento A-EI bien sea previa o posterior al entrenamiento con un estímulo muestra compuesto AX, es la variable crítica en la presentación del efecto bloqueo. Los desempeños obtenidos en las pruebas de bloqueo por los participantes de un grupo expuesto al procedimiento de bloqueo, un grupo expuesto al procedimiento de bloqueo invertido, y un grupo control, sugieren que el entrenamiento adicional con un solo elemento del compuesto no impide la inclusión de todos los estímulos dentro de la clase. Los casos en los que se observó el efecto bloqueo se interpretan en términos de tipos de percepciones elementales y configurales.

The blocking effect describes a circumstance which impedes function transfer among events that are part of a relation of spatiotemporal contiguity. However, theoretical and empirical evidence in stimulus class acquisition predicts that the blocking effect should not be observed even if some of the stimul11n the class are presented simultaneously as compound stimuli. The present study examines if additional A-EI training, whether prior or following training with a compound sample AX, constitutes a critical variable in the occurrence of the blocking effect. Performances in blocking tests by a group exposed to the blocking procedure, a group exposed to the backward blocking procedure and a control group were compared. Findings suggest that additional training with one member of the compound does not impede responding to all stimuli as members of the class. Instances where the blocking effect was observed are interpreted in terms of configural and elemental types of responding.
Responsável: CO332 - Facultad de Medicina



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