Base de dados : LILACS
Pesquisa : G05.360.340.024.340.340 [Categoria DeCS]
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Id: lil-656268
Autor: Morais, Sirlei Antunes; Almeida, Fábio de; Suesdek, Lincoln; Marrelli, Mauro Toledo.
Título: Low genetic diversity in Wolbachia-Infected Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) from Brazil and Argentina / Baixa diversidade genética em Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae) infectado por Wolbachia do Brasil e Argentina
Fonte: Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. Säo Paulo;54(6):325-329, Nov.-Dec. 2012. ilus.
Idioma: en.
Resumo: Culex quinquefasciatus is a vector of human pathogens, including filarial nematodes and several viruses. Although its epidemiological relevance is known to vary across geographical regions, an understanding of its population genetic structure is still incipient. In light of this, we evaluated the genetic diversity of Cx. quinquefasciatus and Cx. pipiens x Cx. quinquefasciatus hybrids collected from nine localities in Brazil and one site in Argentina. We used mitochondrial genes cox1 and nd4, along with the coxA and wsp genes of the maternally-inherited Wolbachia endosymbiont. The nd4 fragment was invariant between samples, whilst cox1 exhibited four haplotypes that separated two types of Cx. quinquefasciatus, one clustered in southern Brazil. Low sequence diversity was generally observed, being discussed. Both Brazilian and Argentinian mosquitoes were infected with a single Wolbachia strain. As reported in previous studies with these populations, cox1 and nd4 diversity is not congruent with the population structure revealed by nuclear markers or alar morphology. Future Cx. quinquefasciatus research should, if possible, evaluate mtDNA diversity in light of other markers.

Culex quinquefasciatus é vetor de patógenos humanos, incluindo nematódeos filarídeos e vários vírus. Embora a sua relevância epidemiológica varie entre as diferentes regiões geográficas, o conhecimento da estrutura genética da população é ainda incipiente. Em vista disso, foram avaliados os níveis de diversidade genética de Cx. quinquefasciatus e de híbridos Cx. quinquefasciatus x Cx. pipiens de nove cidades do Brasil e em La Plata, na Argentina. Para os testes foram utilizados fragmentos dos genes mitocondriais cox1 e nd4, juntamente com coxA e wsp do endossimbionte Wolbachia, herdado maternalmente. O fragmento nd4 não apresentou variação entre as amostras, e o cox1 exibiu quatro haplótipos que separaram dois tipos de Cx. quinquefasciatus, com um deles agrupado no sul do Brasil. Os dados de sequência mostraram baixa diversidade, sendo esta discutida. Ambas as amostras de mosquitos brasileiros e argentinos estão infectados com uma única cepa de Wolbachia. A diversidade apresentada por nd4 e cox1 não é congruente com a estrutura da população revelada por marcadores nucleares e morfologia alar de estudos anteriores com estas mesmas populações. Pesquisas com Cx. quinquefasciatus devem, se possível, avaliar a diversidade por DNA mitocondrial na luz de outros marcadores.
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Bergo, Eduardo Sterlino
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Id: lil-602054
Autor: Bourke, Brian Patrick; Nagaki, Sandra Sayuri; Bergo, Eduardo Sterlino; Cardoso, Jáder da Cruz; Sallum, Maria Anice Mureb.
Título: Molecular phylogeny of the Myzorhynchella Section of Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) (Diptera: Culicidae): genetic support for recently described and resurrected species
Fonte: Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz;106(6):705-715, Sept. 2011. ilus, tab.
Idioma: en.
Projeto: FAPESP; . CNPq. 300351/2008-9.
Resumo: Phylogenetic relationships among species of the Myzorhynchella Section of Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) were investigated using the nuclear ribosomal DNA second internal transcribed spacer (ITS2), the nuclear whitegene and mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) regions. The recently described Anopheles pristinus and resurrected Anopheles guarani were also included in the study. Bayesian phylogenetic analyses found Anopheles parvus to be the most distantly related species within the Section, a finding that is consistent with morphology. An. pristinus and An. guarani were clearly resolved from Anopheles antunesi and Anopheles lutzii, respectively. An. lutzii collected in the same mountain range as the type locality were found within a strongly supported clade, whereas individuals from the southern state of Rio Grande do Sul, tentatively identified as An. lutzii based on adult female external morphology, were distinct from An. lutzii, An. antunesi and from each other, and may therefore represent two new sympatric species. A more detailed examination of An. lutzii sensu latoalong its known geographic range is recommended to resolve these anomalous relationships.
Responsável: BR1.1 - BIREME


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Id: lil-502300
Autor: Calado, Daniéla C; Foster, Peter G; Bergo, Eduardo S; Santos, Cecília L. S dos; Galardo, Allan Kardec R; Sallum, Maria Anice Mureb.
Título: Resurrection of Anopheles goeldii from synonymy with Anopheles nuneztovari (Diptera, Culicidae) and a new record for Anopheles dunhami in the Brazilian Amazon
Fonte: Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz;103(8):791-799, Dec. 2008. ilus, tab.
Idioma: en.
Projeto: FAPESP; . CNPq.
Resumo: Nucleotide sequences of the internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) rDNA and partial sequences of the cytochrome coxidase subunit I (COI) mtDNA and white gene nDNA were obtained from specimens of Anopheles nuneztovari A collected in Macapá (state of Amapá), Óbidos, Prainha and Almeirim (state of Pará), Itacoatiara and Parintins (state of Amazonas), Brazil, and compared with previously published sequences of A. nuneztovari s.l. Results of the Bayesian phylogenetic analyses performed using either COI or combined ITS2, COI and white gene sequences suggest that An. nuneztovari B/C is distinct from specimens obtained in the Amazonas/Solimões River basin. Anopheles goeldii, currently in synonymy with An. nuneztovari, was described from individuals collected in Belterra (= Fordlândia) in the Tapajós River, state of Pará, Southern Amazonas River. Morphological comparisons of the characteristics of the male genitalia indicated that An. nuneztovari A and An. goeldii are similar but distinct from An. nuneztovariB/C by the apex of the aedeagus. In considering the results of the phylogenetic analyses and morphological comparisons, An. goeldii is resurrected from synonymy with An. nuneztovari. Additionally, Anopheles dunhamiis reported for the first time in Parintins. This species can be distinguished from An. goeldiiby characters of the male genitalia and molecular data.
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Bracco, José Eduardo
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Id: lil-417072
Autor: Costa-da-Silva, André Luis da; Capurro, Margareth Lara; Bracco, José Eduardo.
Título: Genetic lineages in the yellow fever mosquito Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) from Peru
Fonte: Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz;100(6):539-544, Oct. 2005. mapas, tab.
Idioma: en.
Projeto: Sucen; . Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo; . Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico.
Resumo: The yellow fever mosquito Aedes aegypti was introduced in Peru in 1852 and was considered to be eradicated in 1958. In 2001, Ae. aegypti had been recorded in 15 out of 24 Peruvian Departments. Peru has great ecological differences between the east and west sides of Andes. Because of this, we consider that Ae. aegypti populations of both east and west sides can have a genetically distinct population structure. In this study we examined genetic variability and genealogical relationships among three Ae. aegypti Peruvian populations: Lima, Piura (west Andes), and Iquitos (east Andes) using a fragment of the ND4 gene of the mitochondrial genome. Three haplotypes were detected among 55 samples. Lima and Iquitos showed the same haplotype (Haplotype I), whereas Piura has two haplotypes (Haplotype II and III). Haplotype II is four mutational steps apart from Haplotype I, while Haplotype III is 13 mutational steps apart from Haplotype I in the network. The analysis of molecular variation showed that mostly of the detected genetic variation occurs at interpopulational level. The significant value phist suggests that Piura population is structured in relation to Lima and Iquitos populations and the gene flow of the ND4 is restricted in Piura when compared to Lima and Iquitos. Genetic relationship between haplotype I and haplotype II suggests introduction of the same mtDNA lineage into those localities. However the existence of a genetically distant haplotype III also suggests introduction of at least two Ae. aegypti lineages in Peru.
Responsável: BR1.1 - BIREME


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Id: biblio-841774
Autor: Souza, Nataly A; Brazil, Reginaldo P; Araki, Alejandra S.
Título: The current status of the Lutzomyia longipalpis (Diptera: Psychodidae: Phlebotominae) species complex
Fonte: Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz;112(3):161-174, Mar. 2017. tab, graf.
Idioma: en.
Resumo: Lutzomyia longipalpis s.l. is a complex of sibling species and is the principal vector of American visceral leishmaniasis. The present review summarises the diversity of efforts that have been undertaken to elucidate the number of unnamed species in this species complex and the phylogenetic relationships among them. A wide variety of evidence, including chemical, behavioral and molecular traits, suggests very recent speciation events and complex population structure in this group. Although significant advances have been achieved to date, differential vector capacity and the correlation between structure of parasite and vector populations have yet to be elucidated. Furthermore, increased knowledge about recent epidemiological changes, such as urbanisation, is essential for pursuing effective strategies for sandfly control in the New World.
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Id: lil-745984
Autor: Zuriaga, María Angeles; Mas-Coma, Santiago; Bargues, María Dolores.
Título: A nuclear ribosomal DNA pseudogene in triatomines opens a new research field of fundamental and applied implications in Chagas disease
Fonte: Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz;110(3):353-362, 05/2015. tab, graf.
Idioma: en.
Projeto: RICET.
Resumo: A pseudogene, designated as "ps(5.8S+ITS-2)", paralogous to the 5.8S gene and internal transcribed spacer (ITS)-2 of the nuclear ribosomal DNA (rDNA), has been recently found in many triatomine species distributed throughout North America, Central America and northern South America. Among characteristics used as criteria for pseudogene verification, secondary structures and free energy are highlighted, showing a lower fit between minimum free energy, partition function and centroid structures, although in given cases the fit only appeared to be slightly lower. The unique characteristics of "ps(5.8S+ITS-2)" as a processed or retrotransposed pseudogenic unit of the ghost type are reviewed, with emphasis on its potential functionality compared to the functionality of genes and spacers of the normal rDNA operon. Besides the technical problem of the risk for erroneous sequence results, the usefulness of "ps(5.8S+ITS-2)" for specimen classification, phylogenetic analyses and systematic/taxonomic studies should be highlighted, based on consistence and retention index values, which in pseudogenic sequence trees were higher than in functional sequence trees. Additionally, intraindividual, interpopulational and interspecific differences in pseudogene amount and the fact that it is a pseudogene in the nuclear rDNA suggests a potential relationships with fitness, behaviour and adaptability of triatomine vectors and consequently its potential utility in Chagas disease epidemiology and control.
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Id: lil-745650
Autor: Cadavid, Jorge Mario; Rúa, Guillermo; Campo, Omer; Bedoya, Gabriel; Rojas, Winston.
Título: Cambios genéticos temporales y microgeográficos de Aedes aegypti en Medellín, Colombia / Microgeographic and temporal genetic changes of Aedes aegypti from Medellín, Colombia
Fonte: Biomédica (Bogotá);35(1):53-61, ene.-mar. 2015. ilus, graf, tab.
Idioma: es.
Resumo: Introducción. Las poblaciones de Aedes aegypti pueden experimentar cambios en cuanto a su abundancia y diversidad genética y, con ello, su potencial evolutivo para responder al control vectorial. El conocimiento de los cambios en la variación genética a escala espacio-temporal, permite entender mejor la epidemiología del dengue y contribuye al diseño adecuado y oportuno de estrategias antivectoriales. Objetivo. Evaluar los cambios genéticos, la diversidad y el flujo génico en seis poblaciones microgeográficas de Ae. aegypti en Medellín en diferentes períodos epidemiológicos del dengue. Materiales y métodos. En 255 especímenes provenientes de seis barrios de Medellín, se evaluó la variación en la composición de los haplotipos mtDNA CO1 , así como la diversidad y la diferenciación genética en un período epidémico (2010) y en otro endémico (2012). Resultados. Se detectaron dos grupos de haplotipos muy diferenciados entre sí en ambos períodos, al igual que un haplotipo de alta frecuencia presente en todos los barrios. La mayor diversidad de haplotipos se registró en el 2012, pero la mayor diversidad de nucleótidos se presentó en el 2010. No se observó correlación significativa entre las distancias genéticas y geográficas. Conclusión. La composición genética de Ae. aegypti varía temporalmente sin un patrón predecible. La presencia de un haplotipo de gran frecuencia en ambos períodos podría ser indicio de una variación persistente adaptada al control vectorial. Sin embargo, la circulación simultánea de haplotipos CO1 muy diferenciados y compatibles con múltiples introducciones, sugiere que diversos acervos genéticos serían aptos para la transmisión. Estos resultados son compatibles con la dispersión del mosquito por efecto de actividades antrópicas, lo cual posibilitaría la diseminación rápida del virus durante epidemias en Medellín.

Introduction: Aedes aegypti populations may experience changes in abundance and genetic diversity in addition to changes in their evolutionary capability to respond to vector control. The knowledge on the changes in genetic variation on a spatio-temporal scale improves the epidemiological understanding of dengue and supports the appropriate and timely design of vector control strategies. Objective: To assess the genetic changes, diversity and gene flow in six microgeographical populations of Ae. aegypti in Medellín for different epidemiological periods of dengue. Materials and methods: A total of 255 specimens from six different neighborhoods in Medellín were used to assess variations in the CO1 mtDNA haplotype composition, diversity and genetic differentiation for an epidemic period (2010) and an endemic period (2012). Results: Two groups of highly differentiated haplotypes were present in both periods, and a high-frequency haplotype was assessed for all neighborhoods. The highest haplotype diversity was recorded in 2012, but the maximum nucleotide diversity was recorded in 2010. No significant correlation between genetic and geographic distances was observed. Conclusions: The genetic composition of Ae. aegypti varies over time without a predictable pattern. In addition, the presence of a high-frequency haplotype in both periods could indicate a persistent variation adapted to vector control. However, the simultaneous movement of highly differentiated CO1 haplotypes compatible with multiple introductions suggests that different gene pools would be suitable for transmission. These results are consistent with mosquito dispersion due to human activities, which would enable the rapid spread of the virus during epidemics in Medellin.
Responsável: CO332 - Facultad de Medicina


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Id: lil-742746
Autor: RAMOS, Almino Cardoso; RAMOS, Manoela Galvão; GALVÃO-NETO, Manoel dos Passos; MARINS, Josemberg; BASTOS, Eduardo Lemos de Souza; ZUNDEL, Natan.
Título: Total clipless cholecystectomy by means of harmonic sealing / Colecistectomia laparoscópica totalmente ultrassônica sem uso de clipe metálico
Fonte: ABCD arq. bras. cir. dig;28(1):53-56, 2015. tab, graf.
Idioma: en.
Resumo: BACKGROUND: In traditional laparoscopic cholecistectomy, the cystic duct and artery are commonly closed by metallic clips just before their division. Although the placement of these clips for occluding cystic artery and duct can be considered safe, biliary leaks and bleeding may occur especially by its dislodgement. AIM: To report a prospective case-series in total clipless cholecystectomy by means of harmonic shears for closure and division of the artery and cystic duct as well removal of the gallbladder from the liver. METHODS: Was evaluate a series of 125 patients who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy where the sealing and division of cystic artery and duct was carried out only by harmonic shears. The intact extracted gallbladder was submitted to a reverse pressure test for assessment of the technique safety by means of CO2 insuflation. RESULTS: The most common indication for surgery was gallstones. The mean operative time was 26 min and all gallbladders were dissected intact from the liver bed. There was no mortality and the overall morbidity rate was 0.8% with no hemorrhage or leaks. The reverse pressure test showed that all specimens support at least 36-mmHg of pressure without leaking. CONCLUSION: The harmonic shears is effective and safe in laparoscopic cholecystectomy as a sole instrument for sealing and division of the artery and cystic duct. The main advantages could be related to the safety and decreased operative time. .

RACIONAL: A colecistectomia laparoscópica na técnica tradicional oclui o ducto cístico e a artéria cística por clipes cirúrgicos, que podem se deslocar ou desprender no pós-operatório, possibilitando a ocorrência de fístula biliar ou hemorragia. OBJETIVO: Relato prospectivo de série de casos de colecistectomias laparoscópicas sem uso de clipe cirúrgico, sendo que a ligadura e secção da artéria cística e do ducto cístico foram realizadas por meio de bisturi ultrassônico. MÉTODO: Foram incluídos 125 pacientes submetidos à colecistectomia laparoscópica sem utilização de clipe cirúrgico metálico, onde a ligadura da artéria e do ducto cístico e também a remoção da vesícula biliar de seu leito hepático foram realizadas por meio de tesoura ultrassônica. Realizou-se teste de pressão reversa na vesícula biliar removida intacta do leito hepático para verificar a segurança da técnica. RESULTADOS: A principal indicação cirúrgica foi a colelitíase. O tempo cirúrgico médio foi de 26 min e todas as vesículas biliares foram retiradas intactas do leito hepático. Não houve mortalidade e a taxa global de morbidade foi de 0,8%, sem hemorragias ou fístulas. O teste de pressão reversa mostrou que o ducto cístico ocluído pelo bisturi harmônico suportou ao pelo menos 36 mmHg de pressão sem que ocorresse nenhum vazamento. CONCLUSÃO: O bisturi harmônico é eficaz e seguro em colecistectomias laparoscópicas eletivas como um instrumento único para ocluir e seccionar tanto a artéria cística quanto o ducto cístico. Vantagens podem ser apontadas ao método com relação a sua segurança e diminuição do tempo cirúrgico. .
Responsável: BR1.1 - BIREME


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Id: lil-741142
Autor: Yalcinkaya, Emre; Yuksel, Uygar Cagdas; Celik, Murat; Kabul, Hasan Kutsi; Barcin, Cem; Gokoglan, Yalcin; Yildirim, Erkan; Iyisoy, Atila.
Título: Relationship between Neutrophil-To-Lymphocyte Ratio and Electrocardiographic Ischemia Grade in STEMI / Associação entre a Relação Neutrófilos/Linfócitos e o Grau de Isquemia Eletrocardiográfica no IAMEST
Fonte: Arq. bras. cardiol;104(2):112-119, 02/2015. tab.
Idioma: en.
Resumo: Background: Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) has been found to be a good predictor of future adverse cardiovascular outcomes in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Changes in the QRS terminal portion have also been associated with adverse outcomes following STEMI. Objective: To investigate the relationship between ECG ischemia grade and NLR in patients presenting with STEMI, in order to determine additional conventional risk factors for early risk stratification. Methods: Patients with STEMI were investigated. The grade of ischemia was analyzed from the ECG performed on admission. White blood cells and subtypes were measured as part of the automated complete blood count (CBC) analysis. Patients were classified into two groups according to the ischemia grade presented on the admission ECG, as grade 2 ischemia (G2I) and grade 3 ischemia (G3I). Results: Patients with G3I had significantly lower mean left ventricular ejection fraction than those in G2I (44.58 ± 7.23 vs. 48.44 ± 7.61, p = 0.001). As expected, in-hospital mortality rate increased proportionally with the increase in ischemia grade (p = 0.036). There were significant differences in percentage of lymphocytes (p = 0.010) and percentage of neutrophils (p = 0.004), and therefore, NLR was significantly different between G2I and G3I patients (p < 0.001). Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that only NLR was the independent variable with a significant effect on ECG ischemia grade (odds ratio = 1.254, 95% confidence interval 1.120–1.403, p < 0.001). Conclusion: We found an association between G3I and elevated NLR in patients with STEMI. We believe that such an association might provide an additional prognostic value for risk stratification in patients with STEMI when combined with standardized risk scores. .

Fundamento: A relação neutrófilos/linfócitos (N/L) tem sido descrita como boa preditora de eventos cardiovasculares adversos futuros em pacientes com infarto agudo do miocárdio com elevação do segmento ST (IAMEST). Mudanças na porção terminal do complexo QRS também têm sido associadas a eventos adversos após IAMEST. Objetivo: Investigar a associação entre o grau de isquemia no ECG e a relação N/L em pacientes com IAMEST para determinar fatores de risco convencionais adicionais na estratificação precoce de risco. Métodos: Pacientes com IAMEST foram investigados. O grau de isquemia foi analisado a partir do ECG obtido à admissão. A contagem de leucócitos e seus subtipos foi realizada a partir de hemograma automatizado. De acordo com o grau de isquemia presente no ECG de admissão, os pacientes foram classificados em dois grupos, isquemia grau 2 (IG2) e isquemia grau 3 (IG3). Resultados: Pacientes com IG3 apresentaram valores médios significativamente menores de fração de ejeção do ventrículo esquerdo do que os pacientes com IG2 (44,58 ± 7,23 versus 48,44 ± 7,61; p = 0,001). Como esperado, a taxa de mortalidade intra-hospitalar aumentou proporcionalmente com o aumento no grau de isquemia (p = 0,036). Houve diferenças significativas nas porcentagens de linfócitos (p = 0,010) e de neutrófilos (p = 0,004) e, portanto, a relação N/L diferiu significativamente entre pacientes com IG2 e IG3 (p < 0,001). À análise de regressão logística multivariada, apenas a relação N/L emergiu como variável independente com efeito significativo sobre o grau de isquemia no ECG (odds ratio = 1,254; intervalo de confiança de 95% 1,120-1,403; p < 0,001). Conclusão: Nós encontramos uma associação entre IG3 e relação N/L aumentada em pacientes com IAMEST. Acreditamos que esta associação possa oferecer um valor prognóstico adicional para estratificação de risco em pacientes com IAMEST quando usado em combinação com escores de risco padronizados. .
Responsável: BR1.1 - BIREME


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Id: lil-733305
Autor: Salgado-de Snyder, V Nelly; Guerra-y Guerra, Germán.
Título: Un primer análisis de la investigación en México sobre los determinantes sociales de la salud: 2005-2012 / A first analysis of research on social determinants of health in Mexico: 2005-2012
Fonte: Salud pública Méx;56(4):393-401, jul.-ago. 2014. ilus.
Idioma: es.
Projeto: Comisión Europea. Seventh Framework Programme for Research and Technological Development.
Resumo: Objetivo. Examinar la investigación hecha en México sobre los determinantes sociales de la salud (DSS) durante el periodo 2005-2012 con base en la caracterización del sistema nacional de investigación en salud y la producción científica sobre este tema. Material y métodos. Análisis en dos etapas: revisión documental de fuentes oficiales sobre investigación en salud en México y búsqueda sistemática de literatura sobre DSS. Resultados. Los DSS fueron mencionados en el Programa de Acción Específico de Investigación en Salud 2007-2012, pero no figuran en las estrategias y objetivos; en su lugar, se enfatizan primordialmente aspectos de infraestructura y administrativos. En el periodo se publicaron 145 artículos sobre DSS, cuyas temáticas más abordadas fueron "condiciones de salud", "sistemas de salud" y "nutrición y obesidad". Conclusiones. A pesar de que existe investigación en México sobre DSS, la instrumentación de esos hallazgos en políticas de salud no se ha implementado. El Programa Sectorial de Salud 2013-2018 representa una ventana de oportunidad para posicionar resultados de investigación que promuevan políticas de equidad en salud.

Objective. To examine the research on social determinants of health (SDH) produced in Mexico during the period 2005-2012, based on the characterization of the national health research system and the scientific production on this topic. Materials and methods. Two-stage analyses: Review of Mexican documents and official sources on health research and systematic bibliographic review of the literature on SDH. Results. Although SDH were mentioned in the Specific Action Plan for Health Research 2007-2012, they are not implemented in strategies and goals, as the emphasis is put mostly in infrastructure and administrative aspects of research. In the period studied, 145 articles were published on SDH topics such as health conditions, health systems and nutrition and obesity. Conclusions. In spite of the availability of research on SDH in Mexico, the operationalization of such findings into health policies has not been possible. The current Sectorial Program on Health 2013-2018 represents a window of opportunity to position research findings that promote health equity policies.
Responsável: BR1.1 - BIREME



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