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  1 / 19020 MEDLINE  
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PMID:29028793
Autor:Negera E; Walker SL; Girma S; Doni SN; Tsegaye D; Lambert SM; Idriss MH; Tsegay Y; Dockrell HM; Aseffa A; Lockwood DN
Dirección:London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine (LSHTM), London, United Kingdom.
Título:Clinico-pathological features of erythema nodosum leprosum: A case-control study at ALERT hospital, Ethiopia.
Fuente:PLoS Negl Trop Dis; 11(10):e0006011, 2017 Oct.
ISSN:1935-2735
País de publicación:United States
Idioma:eng
Resumen:BACKGROUND: Leprosy reactions are a significant cause of morbidity in leprosy population. Erythema nodosum leprosum (ENL) is an immunological complication affecting approximately 50% of patients with lepromatous leprosy (LL) and 10% of borderline lepromatous (BL) leprosy. ENL is associated with clinical features such as skin lesions, neuritis, arthritis, dactylitis, eye inflammation, osteitis, orchitis, lymphadenitis and nephritis. ENL is treated mainly with corticosteroids and corticosteroids are often required for extended periods of time which may lead to serious adverse effects. High mortality rate and increased morbidity associated with corticosteroid treatment of ENL has been reported. For improved and evidence-based treatment of ENL, documenting the systems affected by ENL is important. We report here the clinical features of ENL in a cohort of patients with acute ENL who were recruited for a clinico-pathological study before and after prednisolone treatment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A case-control study was performed at ALERT hospital, Ethiopia. Forty-six LL patients with ENL and 31 non-reactional LL matched controls were enrolled to the study and followed for 28 weeks. Clinical features were systematically documented at three visits (before, during and after predinsolone treatment of ENL cases) using a specifically designed form. Skin biopsy samples were obtained from each patient before and after treatment and used for histopathological investigations to supplement the clinical data. RESULTS: Pain was the most common symptom reported (98%) by patients with ENL. Eighty percent of them had reported skin pain and more than 70% had nerve and joint pain at enrolment. About 40% of the patients developed chronic ENL. Most individuals 95.7% had nodular skin lesions. Over half of patients with ENL had old nerve function impairment (NFI) while 13% had new NFI at enrolment. Facial and limb oedema were present in 60% patients. Regarding pathological findings before treatment, dermal neutrophilic infiltration was noted in 58.8% of patients with ENL compared to 14.3% in LL controls. Only 14.7% patients with ENL had evidence of vasculitis at enrolment. CONCLUSION: In our study, painful nodular skin lesions were present in all ENL patients. Only 58% patients had dermal polymorphonuclear cell infiltration showing that not all clinically confirmed ENL cases have neutrophilic infiltration in lesions. Very few patients had histological evidence of vasculitis. Many patients developed chronic ENL and these patients require inpatient corticosteroid treatment for extended periods which challenges the health service facility in resource poor settings, as well as the patient's quality of life.
Tipo de publicación:JOURNAL ARTICLE
Nombre de substancia:0 (Adrenal Cortex Hormones)


  2 / 19020 MEDLINE  
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PMID:28339025
Autor:Li X; Cao R; Lu H; Tian W; Yu N; Zhang P; Dong Z
Dirección:Department of Intensive Care Unit of Anesthesiology, The Second Hospital of Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang, Hebei 050000, P.R. China.
Título:Cerebral hemorrhage therapy by targeting VEGF and HGF in a preclinical trial in rats.
Fuente:Mol Med Rep; 15(5):3093-3098, 2017 May.
ISSN:1791-3004
País de publicación:Greece
Idioma:eng
Resumen:Cerebral hemorrhage is the most common type of human cerebrovascular disease and frequently causes paralysis, vegetative state and mortality. The modulatory actions of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) are vital in the human nervous system. The present study investigated the association between cerebral hemorrhage and the expression of VEGF and HGF in a rat model of cerebral hemorrhage. The therapeutic potential of cerebral hemorrhage was also evaluated using targeted drugs for VEGF and HGF in the cerebral hemorrhage rat model. Behavioral and preclinical changes and the survival rates of rats were assessed after treatment with VEGF receptor (VEGFR) and HGF receptor (HGFR). The results of Tarlov scores demonstrated that movement of limbs and coordination when walking were significantly improved in moderate and severe hemorrhage lesions in the VEGFR plus HGFR­treated group and mainly alleviated in primary hemorrhage lesions compared with rats in the single VEGFR or HGFR­treated groups and the control group (**P<0.01). Decreasing expression levels of VEGF and HGF were observed in the neural tissue of animals treated with VEGFR plus HGFR compared with the control group (**P<0.01). These preclinical observations indicated that VEGF and HGF serve a function in the pathological injury and repair of cerebral tissue in rats with cerebral hemorrhages. The therapeutic benefits of VEGFR plus HGFR suggested that VEGFR plus HGFR may be candidate drugs for cerebral hemorrhage, and thus offer a promising treatment for clinicians and doctors.
Tipo de publicación:JOURNAL ARTICLE
Nombre de substancia:0 (Drug Combinations); 0 (RNA, Messenger); 0 (Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A); 0 (vascular endothelial growth factor A, rat); 67256-21-7 (Hepatocyte Growth Factor); EC 2.7.10.1 (Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-met); EC 2.7.10.1 (Receptors, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor)


  3 / 19020 MEDLINE  
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PMID:29020077
Autor:Liu D; Chiappe LM; Serrano F; Habib M; Zhang Y; Meng Q
Dirección:University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China.
Título:Flight aerodynamics in enantiornithines: Information from a new Chinese Early Cretaceous bird.
Fuente:PLoS One; 12(10):e0184637, 2017.
ISSN:1932-6203
País de publicación:United States
Idioma:eng
Resumen:We describe an exquisitely preserved new avian fossil (BMNHC-PH-919) from the Lower Cretaceous Yixian Formation of eastern Inner Mongolia, China. Although morphologically similar to Cathayornithidae and other small-sized enantiornithines from China's Jehol Biota, many morphological features indicate that it represents a new species, here named Junornis houi. The new fossil displays most of its plumage including a pair of elongated, rachis-dominated tail feathers similarly present in a variety of other enantiornithines. BMNHC-PH-919 represents the first record of a Jehol enantiornithine from Inner Mongolia, thus extending the known distribution of these birds into the eastern portion of this region. Furthermore, its well-preserved skeleton and wing outline provide insight into the aerodynamic performance of enantiornithines, suggesting that these birds had evolved bounding flight-a flight mode common to passeriforms and other small living birds-as early as 125 million years ago.
Tipo de publicación:JOURNAL ARTICLE


  4 / 19020 MEDLINE  
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PMID:28953899
Autor:Long K; Prothero D; Madan M; Syverson VJP
Dirección:Department of Geological Sciences, California State Polytechnic University, Pomona, California, United States of America.
Título:Did saber-tooth kittens grow up musclebound? A study of postnatal limb bone allometry in felids from the Pleistocene of Rancho La Brea.
Fuente:PLoS One; 12(9):e0183175, 2017.
ISSN:1932-6203
País de publicación:United States
Idioma:eng
Resumen:Previous studies have demonstrated that the Pleistocene saber-toothed cat Smilodon fatalis had many forelimb adaptations for increased strength, presumably to grapple with and subdue prey. The Rancho La Brea tar pits yield large samples of juvenile limb bones forming a growth series that allow us to examine how Smilodon kittens grew up. Almost all available juvenile limb bones were measured, and reduced major axis fits were calculated to determine the allometric growth trends. Contrary to expectations based on their robust limbs, Smilodon kittens show the typical pattern of growth found in other large felids (such as the Ice Age lion, Panthera atrox, as well as living tigers, cougars, servals, and wildcats) where the limb grows longer and more slender faster than they grow thick. This adaptation is thought to give felids greater running speed. Smilodon kittens do not grow increasingly more robust with age. Instead, they start out robust and follow the ancestral felid growth pattern, while maintaining their robustness compared to other felids. Apparently, the growth of felid forelimbs is highly canalized and their ontogeny is tightly constrained.
Tipo de publicación:JOURNAL ARTICLE


  5 / 19020 MEDLINE  
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PMID:28602440
Autor:Watelet B; Jeancolas J; Lanéelle D; Bienvenu B; Le Hello C
Dirección:Service de médecine vasculaire, CHU de Caen, avenue de la Côte-de-Nacre, 14033 Caen cedex, France. Electronic address: watelet-b@chu-caen.fr.
Título:[Prevalence of macrovascular arterial involvement of the 4 limbs in systemic sclerosis: About a case series of 14 patients].
Título:Prévalence de l'atteinte artérielle macrovasculaire des 4 membres dans la sclérodermie systémique : à propos de 14 patients..
Fuente:Rev Med Interne; 38(7):430-435, 2017 Jul.
ISSN:1768-3122
País de publicación:France
Idioma:fre
Resumen:INTRODUCTION: Trophic disorders of the extremities are a common complication of systemic sclerosis (SSc), mainly related to microvascular damage. However, SSc seems to be a risk factor for premature athero-thrombotic disease that can affect the peripheral arteries, participate in the occurrence of trophic disorders and promote the occurrence of infectious complications. The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of arterial disease of the limbs in SSc patients. METHODS: Consecutive inclusions in the context of a multidisciplinary consultation centered on disability of the hand with collection of clinical data [cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF), history of trophic disorders of ischemic origin, peripheral pulse palpation, Allen maneuver the upper (UL) and lower limbs (LL)], and hemodynamic data (flow recorded by Doppler in radial, ulnar, anterior and posterior tibial arteries, and measurement of systolic indices ankles). RESULTS: Fourteen patients were included (11 right-handers, 2 left-handers, 1 ambidextrous). The sex-ratio male/female was 0.27 and the average age of 58.1±10.4 years. The main CVRF were age and smoking. In the UL, 42.8% of patients had a history of trophic disorders, Allen maneuver was abnormal for 35.7% of the superficial palmar arch, 42.9% of ulnar pulse were not perceived and there was no recordable flow in 25% of ulnar artery. In the LL, 14.3% of patients had already presented trophic disorders toes, Allen maneuver was abnormal for 15.4% of the posterior tibial artery, 25.6% of posterior tibial pulse were not perceived and flow of 15.4% of posterior tibial arteries was pathological. CONCLUSION: The distal macrovascular disease preferentially affecting the ulnar and posterior tibial arteries with a high frequency to the UL and two times less at LL. The pathophysiology is unclear but it could be a proper manifestation of SSc. It seems necessary that SSc patients have a strict balance of their CVRF and a screening of macrovascular arterial lesions. There is also the question of the place of an anti-atherosclerotic therapy in these patients.
Tipo de publicación:JOURNAL ARTICLE; REVIEW


  6 / 19020 MEDLINE  
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PMID:28454909
Autor:Yamashita D; Fujii K; Yoshioka S; Isaka T; Kouzaki M
Dirección:Japan Institute of Sports Sciences, Tokyo, Japan. Electronic address: daichi.yamashita@jpnsport.go.jp.
Título:Asymmetric interlimb role-sharing in mechanical power during human sideways locomotion.
Fuente:J Biomech; 57:79-86, 2017 May 24.
ISSN:1873-2380
País de publicación:United States
Idioma:eng
Resumen:Sideways movement at a wide variety of speeds is required in daily life and sports. The purpose of this study was to identify the characteristics of asymmetry in power output between lower limbs during sideways gait patterns. Seven healthy men performed steady-state sideways locomotion at various speeds. The mechanical external power of each limb was calculated and decomposed to the lateral and vertical components by the center of mass velocity and ground reaction force. We acquired data from 126 steps of sideways walking at 0.44-1.21m/s, and from 41 steps of sideways galloping at 1.04-3.00m/s. The results showed asymmetric power production between the limbs during sideways locomotion. During sideways walking, the trailing limb predominantly produced positive external power and the leading limb produced predominantly negative external power, and these amplitudes increased with step speed. In contrast, during sideways galloping, negative and subsequent positive power production was observed in both limbs. These differences in asymmetric interlimb role-sharing were mainly due to the vertical component. During sideways galloping, the trailing limb absorbs vertical power produced by the leading limb due to the longer flight time. This characteristic of vertical power production in the trailing limb may explain the presence of a double-support phase, which is not observed during forward running, even at high speeds. Our results will help to elucidate the asymmetric movements of the limbs in lateral directions at various speeds.
Tipo de publicación:JOURNAL ARTICLE


  7 / 19020 MEDLINE  
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PMID:28431344
Autor:Rice TM; Troszak L; Erhardt T; Trent RB; Zhu M
Dirección:University of California Berkeley, United States. Electronic address: tomrice@berkeley.edu.
Título:Novelty helmet use and motorcycle rider fatality.
Fuente:Accid Anal Prev; 103:123-128, 2017 Jun.
ISSN:1879-2057
País de publicación:England
Idioma:eng
Resumen:OBJECTIVES: To compare the risk of fatal injury across helmet types among collision-involved motorcyclists. METHODS: We used data from a cohort of motorcyclists involved in police-reported traffic collisions. Eighty-four law enforcement agencies in California collected detailed information on helmet and rider characteristics during collision investigations in June 2012 through July 2013. Multiply-adjusted risk ratios were estimated with log-binomial regression. RESULTS: The adjusted fatal injury risk ratio for novelty helmets was 1.95 (95% CI 1.11-3.40, p 0.019), comparing novelty helmets with full-face helmets. The risk ratios for modular, open-face, and half-helmets, compared with full-face helmets, were not significant. CONCLUSIONS: A more complete understanding of the inadequacy of novelty helmets can be used in educational and law enforcement countermeasures to improve helmet use among motorcycling populations in California and other US states. Law enforcement approaches to mitigating novelty helmet use would seem attractive given that novelty helmets can be visually identified by law enforcement officers with sufficient training.
Tipo de publicación:COMPARATIVE STUDY; JOURNAL ARTICLE


  8 / 19020 MEDLINE  
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PMID:28293484
Autor:Hänggi J; Vitacco DA; Hilti LM; Luechinger R; Kraemer B; Brugger P
Dirección:Division Neuropsychology Department of Psychology University of Zurich Zurich Switzerland.
Título:Structural and functional hyperconnectivity within the sensorimotor system in xenomelia.
Fuente:Brain Behav; 7(3):e00657, 2017 Mar.
ISSN:2162-3279
País de publicación:United States
Idioma:eng
Resumen:INTRODUCTION: Xenomelia is a rare condition characterized by the persistent and compulsive desire for the amputation of one or more physically healthy limbs. We highlight the neurological underpinnings of xenomelia by assessing structural and functional connectivity by means of whole-brain connectome and network analyses of regions previously implicated in empirical research in this condition. METHODS: We compared structural and functional connectivity between 13 xenomelic men with matched controls using diffusion tensor imaging combined with fiber tractography and resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging. Altered connectivity in xenomelia within the sensorimotor system has been predicted. RESULTS: We found subnetworks showing structural and functional hyperconnectivity in xenomelia compared with controls. These subnetworks were lateralized to the right hemisphere and mainly comprised by nodes belonging to the sensorimotor system. In the connectome analyses, the paracentral lobule, supplementary motor area, postcentral gyrus, basal ganglia, and the cerebellum were hyperconnected to each other, whereas in the xenomelia-specific network analyses, hyperconnected nodes have been found in the superior parietal lobule, primary and secondary somatosensory cortex, premotor cortex, basal ganglia, thalamus, and insula. CONCLUSIONS: Our study provides empirical evidence of structural and functional hyperconnectivity within the sensorimotor system including those regions that are core for the reconstruction of a coherent body image. Aberrant connectivity is a common response to focal neurological damage. As exemplified here, it may affect different brain regions differentially. Due to the small sample size, our findings must be interpreted cautiously and future studies are needed to elucidate potential associations between hyperconnectivity and limb disownership reported in xenomelia.
Tipo de publicación:JOURNAL ARTICLE


  9 / 19020 MEDLINE  
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PMID:29023511
Autor:Sosnik J; Vieira WA; Webster KA; Siegfried KR; McCusker CD
Dirección:Department of Biology, University of Massachusetts Boston, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America.
Título:A new and improved algorithm for the quantification of chromatin condensation from microscopic data shows decreased chromatin condensation in regenerating axolotl limb cells.
Fuente:PLoS One; 12(10):e0185292, 2017.
ISSN:1932-6203
País de publicación:United States
Idioma:eng
Resumen:The nuclear landscape plays an important role in the regulation of tissue and positional specific genes in embryonic and developing cells. Changes in this landscape can be dynamic, and are associated with the differentiation of cells during embryogenesis, and the de-differentiation of cells during induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) formation and in many cancers. However, tools to quantitatively characterize these changes are limited, especially in the in vivo context, where numerous tissue types are present and cells are arranged in multiple layers. Previous tools have been optimized for the monolayer nature of cultured cells. Therefore, we present a new algorithm to quantify the condensation of chromatin in two in vivo systems. We first developed this algorithm to quantify changes in chromatin compaction and validated it in differentiating spermatids in zebrafish testes. Our algorithm successfully detected the typical increase in chromatin compaction as these cells differentiate. We then employed the algorithm to quantify the changes that occur in amphibian limb cells as they participate in a regenerative response. We observed that the chromatin in the limb cells de-compacts as they contribute to the regenerating organ. We present this new tool as an open sourced software that can be readily accessed and optimized to quantify chromatin compaction in complex multi-layered samples.
Tipo de publicación:JOURNAL ARTICLE
Nombre de substancia:0 (Chromatin)


  10 / 19020 MEDLINE  
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PMID:28843494
Autor:Masselink W; Masaki M; Sieiro D; Marcelle C; Currie PD
Dirección:Australian Regenerative Medicine Institute, Level 1, Building 75, Monash University, Wellington Road, Clayton, VIC 3800, Australia; Research Institute of Molecular Pathology (IMP), Vienna Biocenter (VBC), Campus-Vienna-Biocenter 1, 1030 Vienna, Austria.
Título:Phosphorylation of Lbx1 controls lateral myoblast migration into the limb.
Fuente:Dev Biol; 430(2):302-309, 2017 Oct 15.
ISSN:1095-564X
País de publicación:United States
Idioma:eng
Resumen:The migration of limb myogenic precursors from limb level somites to their ultimate site of differentiation in the limb is a paradigmatic example of a set of dynamic and orchestrated migratory cell behaviours. The homeobox containing transcription factor ladybird homeobox 1 (Lbx1) is a central regulator of limb myoblast migration, null mutations of Lbx1 result in severe disruptions to limb muscle formation, particularly in the distal region of the limb in mice (Gross et al., 2000). As such Lbx1 has been hypothesized to control lateral migration of myoblasts into the distal limb anlage. It acts as a core regulator of the limb myoblast migration machinery, controlled by Pax3. A secondary role for Lbx1 in the differentiation and commitment of limb musculature has also been proposed (Brohmann et al., 2000; Uchiyama et al., 2000). Here we show that lateral migration, but not differentiation or commitment of limb myoblasts, is controlled by the phosphorylation of three adjacent serine residues of LBX1. Electroporation of limb level somites in the chick embryo with a dephosphomimetic form of Lbx1 results in a specific defect in the lateral migration of limb myoblasts. Although the initial delamination and migration of myoblasts is unaffected, migration into the distal limb bud is severely disrupted. Interestingly, myoblasts undergo normal differentiation independent of their migratory status, suggesting that the differentiation potential of hypaxial muscle is not regulated by the phosphorylation state of LBX1. Furthermore, we show that FGF8 and ERK mediated signal transduction, both critical regulators of the developing limb bud, have the capacity to induce the phosphorylation of LBX1 at these residues. Overall, this suggests a mechanism whereby the phosphorylation of LBX1, potentially through FGF8 and ERK signalling, controls the lateral migration of myoblasts into the distal limb bud.
Tipo de publicación:COMPARATIVE STUDY; JOURNAL ARTICLE
Nombre de substancia:0 (Lbx1 protein, zebrafish); 0 (Recombinant Proteins); 0 (Transcription Factors); 0 (Zebrafish Proteins); 148997-75-5 (Fibroblast Growth Factor 8); 17885-08-4 (Phosphoserine); EC 2.7.11.24 (Extracellular Signal-Regulated MAP Kinases)



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