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  1 / 21139 MEDLINE  
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PMID:28606334
Autor:Obe WV; Simmonite N; Reel S; Reidy S
Dirección:Division of Podiatry and Clinical Sciences, University of Huddersfield, Queensgate, Huddersfield HD1 3DH, UK. Electronic address: W.Vernon@hud.ac.uk.
Título:An investigation into the cause of the inner dark areas and outer lighter areas (ghosting) seen in dynamically-created two-dimensional bare footprints.
Fuente:Sci Justice; 57(4):276-282, 2017 Jul.
ISSN:1355-0306
País de publicación:England
Idioma:eng
Resumen:Dynamic bare footprints differ from static bare footprints through the presence of additional, lighter markings around the rear of the heel print and apices of the toe print areas. These images can appropriately be described as inner dark and outer ghosting features. To date, the functional cause of both features has not been understood. To gain such an understanding could potentially allow the further development and use of these features in forensic identification. The aim of this project was to investigate the causes of the inner dark and outer ghosting features seen in dynamic bare footprints through an observational, practice-based action research approach within a gait laboratory. Volunteer male participants provided bare footprints on inkless paper taped to a Kistler force plate with video cameras situated either side. Ground reaction force data were collected as the footprints were formed and the event recorded using video cameras to allow these data to be correlated later. The findings suggest that the ghosting at the heel is the result of splaying of the fibro fatty pad, while that at the toes is the result of the distal ends of the toes coming into contact with the ground as the heel is lifted. Footprint, ground reaction force and video data comparisons showed that the inner dark area of the heel print corresponded with the main body of the heel contacting the ground. Outer ghosting corresponded with a backward splaying of the fat pad and the heel strike transient spike in vertical ground reaction force during increased loading. The inner dark area of the toes corresponded with a longer period of toe contact with the ground. Outer ghosting corresponded with the decreasing vertical ground reaction force and shorter contact time as the toes were leaving the ground towards the end of the contact phase of gait. Although the sample size was limited, these are new appreciations which could facilitate the use of the inner dark features in identification to provide additional points for comparison in cases involving dynamic bare footprints. Further work is now indicated to study these features in different populations and under varying conditions.
Tipo de publicación:JOURNAL ARTICLE


  2 / 21139 MEDLINE  
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PMID:28385335
Autor:van Werkhoven H; Piazza SJ
Dirección:Department of Health and Exercise Science, Appalachian State University, Boone, NC 28608, USA; Biomechanics Laboratory, Department of Kinesiology, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802, USA. Electronic address: vanwerkhovenh@appstate.edu.
Título:Foot structure is correlated with performance in a single-joint jumping task.
Fuente:J Biomech; 57:27-31, 2017 May 24.
ISSN:1873-2380
País de publicación:United States
Idioma:eng
Resumen:Variability in musculoskeletal structure has the potential to influence locomotor function. It has been shown, for example, that sprinters have smaller Achilles tendon moment arms and longer toes than non-sprinters, and toe length has been found to correlate with toe flexor work in running humans. These findings suggest that interindividual variation in human foot structure allows for function that is adapted to various motor tasks. The purpose of this study was to test for correlations between foot anthropometry and single-joint maximal-height jumping performance. Ten male subjects performed static jumps using only their ankles for propulsion. Several anthropometric measures were taken. Bivariate correlation analyses were performed between all anthropometric variables and the average jump height for each subject. Results showed that the best jumpers had longer lateral heel lengths (r=0.871; p=0.001) and longer toes (r=0.712; p=0.021). None of the other anthropometric variables (stature, mass, lower extremity lengths) measured were found to correlate significantly with jump height. A factor analysis was performed to investigate whether some underlying feature related to body stature could explain jumping performance. Taller subjects did not necessarily jump higher. Specific variations in foot structure, unrelated to other general stature measures, were associated with performance in this single-joint jumping task.
Tipo de publicación:JOURNAL ARTICLE


  3 / 21139 MEDLINE  
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PMID:28303298
Autor:Walter WR; Burke CJ; Adler RS
Dirección:Hospital for Joint Diseases, New York University Langone Medical Center, 301 E 17th St, New York, NY, 10003, USA. william.walter@nyumc.org.
Título:Ultrasound-guided therapeutic injections for neural pathology about the foot and ankle: a 4 year retrospective review.
Fuente:Skeletal Radiol; 46(6):795-803, 2017 Jun.
ISSN:1432-2161
País de publicación:Germany
Idioma:eng
Resumen:OBJECTIVE: To describe a 4-year clinical experience with ultrasound-guided therapeutic perineural injections of peripheral nerves about the foot and ankle. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Retrospective analysis of foot and ankle perineural injections performed between January 2012 and August 2016. Demographics, clinical indications, presence of structural pathology, immediate and interval pain relief, as well as complications were recorded. RESULTS: Fifty-nine therapeutic injections were performed among 46 patients, accounting for multiple injections in a single visit or multiple visits [mean age = 43 years (range 18-75), 31 female (67%) and 15 male (33%)]. Most commonly, perineural injections involved the hallux branch of the medial plantar nerve (n = 17, 22%). Least commonly, perineural injections involved the saphenous nerve (n = 3, 4%). Other injections in our series include sural (10), superficial (11) and deep (7) peroneal, medial (5) and lateral (3) plantar nerves, and the posterior tibial nerve (3). Ultrasound evaluation revealed structural abnormality associated with the nerve in 30 cases (51%)-most commonly thickening with perineural scarring (n = 14). Of 45 injections with complete documentation, immediate relief of symptoms was reported in 43 (96%) cases. Interval symptom relief was achieved in 23 injections [short term (n = 12), intermediate (n = 6), and long term (n = 5)] out of 38 for which follow-up was available (61%). Complications are rare, occurring in only one case. CONCLUSION: Ultrasound-guided perineural injections about the foot and ankle are safe and provide lasting symptomatic relief for many indications. Concomitant sonographic evaluation identifies structural abnormalities that may contribute to neuropathic symptoms, allowing targeting of injection or clinical therapy.
Tipo de publicación:JOURNAL ARTICLE
Nombre de substancia:0 (Anesthetics, Local)


  4 / 21139 MEDLINE  
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PMID:27746151
Autor:Bennett KJ; McDermott S; Mann JR; Hardin J
Dirección:University of South Carolina, School of Medicine, Department of Family & Preventive Medicine, Columbia SC, USA. Electronic address: kevin.bennett@sc.edu.
Título:Receipt of recommended services among patients with selected disabling conditions and diabetes.
Fuente:Disabil Health J; 10(1):58-64, 2017 Jan.
ISSN:1876-7583
País de publicación:United States
Idioma:eng
Resumen:BACKGROUND: Receiving recommended services for patients with diabetes is associated with improved outcomes and reduced morbidity. People with diabetes who also have a condition associated with disability represent one group that is at risk for health disparities. OBJECTIVE: To examine service utilization among persons with selected disabling conditions and diabetes, compared to those without. METHODS: 2007-2012 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey Full-Year Consolidated files, medical conditions files, and the 1996-2012 pooled linkage files were merged for this analysis. This analysis focused on five selected conditions that are associated with disability: Visual impairment and blindness, spinal cord injury, intellectual disability, multiple sclerosis, and muscular dystrophy. Unadjusted and adjusted rates of receipt estimated using various multivariable regression techniques. RESULTS: The proportion with diabetes was higher among those with a selected condition (12.1%) than without (7.1%). Respondents with a selected condition were more likely to have a foot exam; for all other services, the rate of receipt across the two groups was similar. Controlling for other factors, having a selected condition was only a significant factor for foot exams (AOR 1.49, 1.07-2.07). Different factors, but not having a selected condition, were associated with the receipt of each additional service. CONCLUSIONS: In general, individuals received the full complement of recommended diabetes management services at a low rate, whether or not they had one of the selected disabling conditions. The comparison results indicated few disparities in diabetes management services among those with selected conditions compared those without these conditions, excepting foot exams, which were more common in the group with a disabling condition.
Tipo de publicación:JOURNAL ARTICLE


  5 / 21139 MEDLINE  
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PMID:28538320
Autor:Charlton JM; Hammond CA; Cochrane CK; Hatfield GL; Hunt MA
Dirección:Motion Analysis and Biofeedback Laboratory, Department of Physical Therapy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.
Título:The Effects of a Heel Wedge on Hip, Pelvis and Trunk Biomechanics During Squatting in Resistance Trained Individuals.
Fuente:J Strength Cond Res; 31(6):1678-1687, 2017 06.
ISSN:1533-4287
País de publicación:United States
Idioma:eng
Resumen:Barbell back squats are a popular exercise for developing lower extremity strength and power. However, this exercise has potential injury risks, particularly to the lumbar spine, pelvis, and hip joint. Previous literature suggests heel wedges as a means of favorably adjusting trunk and pelvis kinematics with the intention of reducing such injury risks. Yet no direct biomechanical research exists to support these recommendations. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the effects of heel wedges compared with barefoot on minimally loaded barbell back squats. Fourteen trained male participants performed a barbell back squat in bare feet or with their feet raised bilaterally with a 2.5-cm wooden block while 3-dimensional kinematics, kinetics, and electromyograms were collected. The heel wedge condition elicited significantly less forward trunk flexion angles at peak knee flexion, and peak external hip joint moments (p ≤ 0.05) compared with barefoot conditions. However, no significant differences were observed between conditions for trunk and pelvis angle differences at peak knee flexion (p > 0.05). Lastly, no peak or root mean square differences in muscle activity were elicited between conditions (p > 0.05). Our results lend support for the suggestions provided in literature aimed at using heel wedges as a means of reducing excessive forward trunk flexion. However, the maintenance of a neutral spine, another important safety factor, is not affected by the use of heel wedges. Therefore, heel wedges may be a viable modification for reduction of excessive forward trunk flexion but not for reduction in relative trunk-pelvis flexion during barbell back squats.
Tipo de publicación:JOURNAL ARTICLE


  6 / 21139 MEDLINE  
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PMID:28538308
Autor:Silinskas V; GrUnovas A; Stanislovaitiene J; Buliuolis A; Trinkunas E; Poderys J
Dirección:Institute of Sport Science and Innovations, Lithuanian Sports University, Kaunas, Lithuania.
Título:Effect of Electrical Myostimulation on the Function of Lower Leg Muscles.
Fuente:J Strength Cond Res; 31(6):1577-1584, 2017 06.
ISSN:1533-4287
País de publicación:United States
Idioma:eng
Resumen:Electrical myostimulation (EMS) method is applied to improve skeletal muscle function. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of EMS applied to the sole and calf muscles on their strength and on maximal sprint performance. Each of 10 training sessions involved 10 seconds of stimulation and 50 seconds of rest for a total of 10 minutes. After the 10 training sessions, the maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) of right calf muscles increased by 6.0% from 830.0 ± 47.0 N to 878.0 ± 45.3 N (p ≤ 0.05). When EMS was applied to trained athletes, their 10-m sprint performance improved by 2.1% (p ≤ 0.05). In the second part of the study, a 3-week training program with EMS was applied to athletes, which significantly improved their 10-m sprint performance from a standing start by 5.3% and from a running start by 4.7% (p ≤ 0.05). Thus, 10 EMS cycles up to the maximal tolerated intensity applied every other day improved the MVC of foot flexion muscles and 10-m sprint performance from both standing and running starts. Three weeks of EMS training did not affect the intensity of calf muscle blood flow and oxygen saturation at rest. The training program supplemented with 10 EMS sessions produced significantly greater effects on the 10-m sprint performance from both a standing and a running start.
Tipo de publicación:CLINICAL TRIAL; JOURNAL ARTICLE


  7 / 21139 MEDLINE  
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PMID:28031030
Autor:Renner N; Wirth SH; Osterhoff G; Böni T; Berli M
Dirección:Orthopädische Klinik Luzern AG, Hirslanden Klinik St.Anna, Luzern, Switzerland. niklas.renner@okl-ag.ch.
Título:Outcome after protected full weightbearing treatment in an orthopedic device in diabetic neuropathic arthropathy (Charcot arthropathy): a comparison of unilaterally and bilaterally affected patients.
Fuente:BMC Musculoskelet Disord; 17(1):504, 2016 Dec 29.
ISSN:1471-2474
País de publicación:England
Idioma:eng
Resumen:BACKGROUND: Charcot neuropathic arthropathy (CN) is a chronic, progressive, destructive, non-infectious process that most frequently affects the bone architecture of the foot in patients with sensory neuropathy. We evaluated the outcome of protected weightbearing treatment of CN in unilaterally and bilaterally affected patients and secondarily compared outcomes in protected versus unprotected weightbearing treatment. METHODS: Patient records and radiographs from 2002 to 2012 were retrospectively analyzed. Patients with Type 1 or Type 2 diabetes with peripheral neuropathy were included. Exclusion criteria included immunosuppressive or osteoactive medication and the presence of bone tumors. Ninety patients (101 ft), mean age 60.7 ± 10.6 years at first diagnosis of CN, were identified. Protected weightbearing treatment was achieved by total contact cast or custom-made orthosis. Ulcer, infection, CN recurrence, and amputation rates were recorded. Mean follow-up was 48 (range 1-208) months. RESULTS: Per the Eichenholtz classification, 9 ft were prodromal, 61 in stage 1 (development), 21 in stage 2 (coalescence) and 10 in stage 3 (reconstruction). Duration of protected weightbearing was 20 ± 21 weeks and 22 ± 29 weeks in patients with unilateral and bilateral CN, respectively. In bilaterally affected patients, new ulcers developed in 9/22 (41%) feet. In unilaterally affected patients, new ulcers developed in 5/66 (8%) protected weightbearing feet and 4/13 (31%) unprotected, full weightbearing feet (p = 0.036). The ulceration rate was significantly higher in bilaterally versus unilaterally affected patients with a protected weightbearing regimen (p = 0.004). Soft tissue infection occurred in 1/13 (8%) unprotected weightbearing feet and 1/66 (2%) protected weightbearing feet in unilaterally affected patients, and in 1/22 (4%) protected weightbearing feet of bilaterally affected patients. Recurrence and amputation rates were similar across treatment modalities. CONCLUSIONS: Bilateral CN results in significantly more ulcers than unilateral CN and leads to slightly higher soft tissue infections. Protected weightbearing in an orthopedic device can reduce the risk for complications in acute CN of the foot and ankle.
Tipo de publicación:COMPARATIVE STUDY; JOURNAL ARTICLE


  8 / 21139 MEDLINE  
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PMID:28293471
Autor:Qian C; Tan F
Dirección:Department of Neurology Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University Shenyang China.
Título:Internal capsule: The homunculus distribution in the posterior limb.
Fuente:Brain Behav; 7(3):e00629, 2017 Mar.
ISSN:2162-3279
País de publicación:United States
Idioma:eng
Resumen:INTRODUCTION: In our experience, sometimes, the symptom of patients who suffered from infarction in internal capsule (IC) do not necessarily fit the classical fiber distribution. This study aims to explain this phenomenon. METHODS AND MATERIALS: A total of 34 patients with infarction lesions in the IC were included in this study, according to the clinical symptom, divided into three groups, group A (more severe weakness of the foot than the hand), group B (more severe weakness of the hand than the foot) and group C (equal weakness of hand and foot), and group Y (with facial nerve paresis) and group N (without facial nerve paresis). Measurements included the length ratio and the angle degree of infarction lesions compared with the posterior limb of the IC (PLIC). RESULTS: The length ratio of infarction lesions is significant difference between group A and group B ( = .027), the angle degree of infarction lesions is significant difference between group Y and group N ( = .038). CONCLUSION: From our results, we can conclude that the hand fibers are located laterally to foot fibers in the short axis of the posterior limb of the IC, and the face fibers are located in the premedial part of the posterior limb of the internal capsule.
Tipo de publicación:JOURNAL ARTICLE


  9 / 21139 MEDLINE  
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PMID:28272013
Autor:Kimawi AA; Snyder RJ; Cala MA; Cuffy C
Dirección:Jackson Health System, Miami, FL.
Título:When Traditional Offloading is not an Option, Could an External Fixator be a Solution?: A Case Report.
Fuente:Wounds; 29(2):46-50, 2017 Feb.
ISSN:1943-2704
País de publicación:United States
Idioma:eng
Resumen:Offloading is a cornerstone in managing diabetic plantar foot ulcers; however, it often represents one of the most challenging aspects of treatment for clinician and patient alike. The authors present a case of a 61-year-old African American man with type 2 diabetes and a limb-threatening plantar foot ulcer that required aggressive wound and surgical management. Due to the heavy drainage and patient adherence issues, traditional offloading techniques such as total contact cast, DH Pressure Relief Walker (Össur, Foothill Ranch, CA), and wedge shoes, among others, were not viable options. Without offloading, healing will be difficult to achieve and will take a long time, carrying a higher risk of limb loss. The decision was made to apply an Ilizarov circular frame with footplate to facilitate offloading and weight bearing in tandem with negative pressure therapy. Although this is still considered an unusual use of this device, the results were positive and the wound progressed to complete reepithelialization.
Tipo de publicación:CASE REPORTS; JOURNAL ARTICLE


  10 / 21139 MEDLINE  
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PMID:28587605
Autor:Müller H; Heinrich M; Mielenz N; Reese S; Steiner A; Starke A
Dirección:Clinic for Ruminants and Swine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Leipzig, An den Tierkliniken 11, 04103, Leipzig, Germany. hendrik.mueller@vetmed.uni-leipzig.de.
Título:Evaluation of arterial digital blood flow using Doppler ultrasonography in healthy dairy cows.
Fuente:BMC Vet Res; 13(1):162, 2017 Jun 06.
ISSN:1746-6148
País de publicación:England
Idioma:eng
Resumen:BACKGROUND: Local circulatory disturbances have been implicated in the development of foot disorders in cattle. The goals of this study were to evaluate the suitability of the interdigital artery in the pastern region in both hind limbs using pulsed-wave (PW) Doppler ultrasonography and to investigate quantitative arterial blood flow variables at that site in dairy cows. An Esaote MyLabOne ultrasound machine with a 10-MHz linear transducer was used to assess blood flow in the interdigital artery in the pastern region in both hind limbs of 22 healthy German Holstein cows. The cows originated from three commercial farms and were restrained in a standing hoof trimming chute without sedation. RESULTS: A PW Doppler signal suitable for analysis was obtained in 17 of 22 cows. The blood flow profiles were categorised into four curve types, and the following quantitative variables were measured in three uniform cardiac cycles: vessel diameter, pulse rate, maximum systolic velocity, maximum diastolic velocity, end-diastolic velocity, reverse velocity, maximum time-averaged mean velocity, blood flow rate, resistance index and persistence index. The measurements did not differ among cows from the three farms. Maximum systolic velocity, vessel diameter and pulse rate did not differ but other variables differed significantly among blood flow profiles. CONCLUSIONS: Differences in weight-bearing are thought to be responsible for the normal variability of blood flow profiles in healthy cows. The scanning technique used in this report for evaluation of blood flow in the interdigital artery appears suitable for further investigations in healthy and in lame cows.
Tipo de publicación:EVALUATION STUDIES; JOURNAL ARTICLE



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