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  1 / 12856 MEDLINE  
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PMID:28938141
Autor:Ye X; Li H; Zhang L; Chai R; Tu R; Gao H
Dirección:Anhui Province Key Laboratory of Farmland Ecological Conservation and Pollution Prevention, School of Resources and Environment, Anhui Agricultural University, 130 Changjiang West Road, Hefei 230036, China.
Título:Amendment damages the function of continuous flooding in decreasing Cd and Pb uptake by rice in acid paddy soil.
Fuente:Ecotoxicol Environ Saf; 147:708-714, 2018 Jan.
ISSN:1090-2414
País de publicación:Netherlands
Idioma:eng
Resumen:Combinations of remediation technologies are needed to solve the problem of soil contamination in paddy rice, due to multiple potential toxic elements (PTEs). Two potential mitigation methods, water management and in-situ remediation by soil amendment, have been widely used in treatment of PTE-polluted paddy soil. However, the interactive relationship between soil amendment and water management, and its influence on the accumulation of PTEs in rice are poorly understood. Greenhouse pot experiments were conducted to examine the effects of phosphate amendment on Cd and Pb availability in soil and their influence on Cd and Pb uptake into rice, on Fe and P availability in soil, and on the alteration of Fe amount and compartment on root surface among different water management strategies. Results indicated that Cd and Pb content in the shoot and grain were significantly affected by the different water management strategies in nonamended soils, and followed the order: wetting irrigation > conventional irrigation > continuous flooding. The application of phosphate amendment significantly decreased the variations of Cd and Pb absorption in shoot and grain of rice among different water treatments. The reasons may be attributed to the enhancement of P availability and the decrease of Fe availability in soil, and the decreased variations of Fe /Fe content in root coating after the application of phosphate amendment. These results suggested that the simultaneous use of phosphate amendment and continuous flooding to immobilize Cd and Pb, especially in acid paddy soils, should be avoided.
Tipo de publicación:JOURNAL ARTICLE
Nombre de substancia:0 (Acids); 0 (Soil); 0 (Soil Pollutants); 00BH33GNGH (Cadmium); 2P299V784P (Lead)


  2 / 12856 MEDLINE  
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PMID:28985652
Autor:Zhang BL; Ouyang YN; Xu JY; Liu K
Dirección:Engineering Research Center of Ecology and Agricultural Use of Wetland, Ministry of Education, Yangtze University, Jingzhou 434023, China; Hubei Collaborative Innovation Center for Grain Industry, Yangtze University, Jingzhou 434023, China. Electronic address: zhangbl833@hotmail.com.
Título:Cadmium remobilization from shoot to grain is related to pH of vascular bundle in rice.
Fuente:Ecotoxicol Environ Saf; 147:913-918, 2018 Jan.
ISSN:1090-2414
País de publicación:Netherlands
Idioma:eng
Resumen:The remobilization of cadmium (Cd) from shoots to grain is the key process to determine the Cd accumulation in grain. The apoplastic pH of plants is an important factor and signal in influencing on plant responding to environmental variation and inorganic elements uptake. It is proposed that pH of rice plants responds and influences on Cd remobilization from shoots to grain when rice is exposed to Cd stress. The results of hydroponic experiment showed that: pH of the rice leaf vascular bundles among 3 cultivars was almost increased, pH value of 1 cultivar was slightly increasing when rice plants were treated with Cd. The decrease degree of H concentration in leaf vascular bundles was different among cultivars. The cultivar with higher decreasing in H concentration, showed higher Cd transfer efficiency from shoots to grain. The H concentration of leaf vascular bundles under normal condition was negatively correlated to cadmium accumulation in leaf. Moreover, pH change was related to Cd accumulation in shots and remobilization from shoots to grain. Uncovering the role of pH response is a key component for the understanding Cd uptake and remobilization mechanism for rice production.
Tipo de publicación:JOURNAL ARTICLE
Nombre de substancia:0 (Soil Pollutants); 00BH33GNGH (Cadmium)


  3 / 12856 MEDLINE  
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PMID:28922784
Autor:Jiao L; Chen L; White DL; Tinker L; Chlebowski RT; Van Horn LV; Richardson P; Lane D; Sangi-Haghpeykar H; El-Serag HB
Dirección:Department of Medicine, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, and Dan L. Duncan Cancer Center, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX; Center for Innovations in Quality, Effectiveness and Safety (IQuESt), Michael E. DeBakey VA Medical Center, Houston, TX; Division of Public Health Sciences, Fred
Título:Low-fat Dietary Pattern and Pancreatic Cancer Risk in the Women's Health Initiative Dietary Modification Randomized Controlled Trial.
Fuente:J Natl Cancer Inst; 110(1), 2018 Jan 01.
ISSN:1460-2105
País de publicación:United States
Idioma:eng
Resumen:Background: Observational studies suggest that diet may influence pancreatic cancer risk. We investigated the effect of a low-fat dietary intervention on pancreatic cancer incidence. Methods: The Women's Health Initiative Dietary Modification (WHI-DM) trial is a randomized controlled trial conducted in 48 835 postmenopausal women age 50 to 79 years in the United States between 1993 and 1998. Women were randomly assigned to the intervention group (n = 19 541), with the goal of reducing total fat intake and increasing intake of vegetables, fruits, and grains, or to the usual diet comparison group (n = 29 294). The intervention concluded in March 2005. We evaluated the effect of the intervention on pancreatic cancer incidence with the follow-up through 2014 using the log-rank test and multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression model. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results: In intention-to-treat analyses including 46 200 women, 92 vs 165 pancreatic cancer cases were ascertained in the intervention vs the comparison group (P = .23). The multivariable hazard ratio (HR) of pancreatic cancer was 0.86 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.67 to 1.11). Risk was statistically significantly reduced among women with baseline body mass indexes (BMIs) of 25 kg/m2 or higher (HR = 0.71, 95% CI = 0.53 to 0.96), but not among women with BMIs of less than 25 kg/m2 (HR = 1.62, 95% CI = 0.97 to 2.71, Pinteraction = .01). Conclusions: A low-fat dietary intervention was associated with reduced pancreatic cancer incidence in women who were overweight or obese in the WHI-DM trial. Caution needs to be taken in interpreting the findings based on subgroup analyses.
Tipo de publicación:JOURNAL ARTICLE; MULTICENTER STUDY; RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL


  4 / 12856 MEDLINE  
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PMID:29291460
Autor:Choi JH; Lee S; Nah JY; Kim HK; Paek JS; Lee S; Ham H; Hong SK; Yun SH; Lee T
Dirección:Microbial Safety Team, National Institute of Agricultural Science, Rural Development Administration, Wanju 55365, Republic of Korea.
Título:Species composition of and fumonisin production by the Fusarium fujikuroi species complex isolated from Korean cereals.
Fuente:Int J Food Microbiol; 267:62-69, 2018 Feb 21.
ISSN:1879-3460
País de publicación:Netherlands
Idioma:eng
Resumen:To assess the risk of fumonisin contamination in Korean cereals, we isolated colonies of the Fusarium fujikuroi species complex (FFSC) from barley, maize, rice and soybean samples from 2011 to 2015. A total of 878 FFSC strains were isolated mostly from maize and rice, and species identity of the isolates were determined using the DNA sequence of the translation elongation factor 1-α (TEF-1α) and RNA polymerase II (RPB2) genes. Fusaria recovered from Korean cereals included F. fujikuroi (317 isolates and a frequency of 36%), F. proliferatum (212 isolates and 24.1%), F. verticillioides (170 isolates and 19.4%), F. concentricum (86 strains and 9.8%), F. andiyazi (56 isolates and 6.4%), F. subglutinans (28 isolates and 3.2%), F. thapsinum (5 isolates and 0.6%), and F. circinatum (2 isolates and 0.2%). The rice samples were dominated by F. fujikuroi (47.4%), F. proliferatum (27.3%), and F. concentricum (15.1%), whereas maize samples were dominated by F. verticillioides (33.9%), F. fujikuroi (25.3%), and F. proliferatum (21.1%). A phylogenetic analysis of 70 representative isolates demonstrated that each species was resolved as genealogically exclusive in the ML tree. Fumonisin production potential was evaluated using a PCR assay for the fumonisin biosynthesis gene, FUM1 in all of the isolates. Most of the isolates tested (94%) were positive for FUM1. All of the isolates assigned to F. fujikuroi, F. proliferatum, F. verticillioides and F. thapsinum were positive for FUM1 irrespective of their host origin. Seventy-seven representative isolates positive for FUM1 were examined for fumonisin production in rice medium. The majority of F. proliferatum (26/27, 96.3%), F. verticillioides (16/17, 94.1%) and F. fujikuroi (19/25, 76.0%) produced both FB and FB . Notably, 16 of 19 fumonisin-producing F. fujikuroi produced >1000µg/g of fumonisins (FB +FB ) in rice medium, which is higher than that in previous reports. These results suggest that F. fujikuroi can produce high levels of fumonisins similar to F. verticillioides and F. proliferatum.
Tipo de publicación:JOURNAL ARTICLE
Nombre de substancia:0 (Fumonisins); 0 (Peptide Elongation Factor 1); EC 2.7.7.- (RNA Polymerase II)


  5 / 12856 MEDLINE  
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PMID:28463719
Autor:Karlsson I; Friberg H; Kolseth AK; Steinberg C; Persson P
Dirección:Dept. of Crop Production Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Box 7043, SE-750 07, Uppsala, Sweden. Electronic address: ida.karlsson@slu.se.
Título:Agricultural factors affecting Fusarium communities in wheat kernels.
Fuente:Int J Food Microbiol; 252:53-60, 2017 07 03.
ISSN:1879-3460
País de publicación:Netherlands
Idioma:eng
Resumen:Fusarium head blight (FHB) is a devastating disease of cereals caused by Fusarium fungi. The disease is of great economic importance especially owing to reduced grain quality due to contamination by a range of mycotoxins produced by Fusarium. Disease control and prediction is difficult because of the many Fusarium species associated with FHB. Different species may respond differently to control methods and can have both competitive and synergistic interactions. Therefore, it is important to understand how agricultural practices affect Fusarium at the community level. Lower levels of Fusarium mycotoxin contamination of organically produced cereals compared with conventionally produced have been reported, but the causes of these differences are not well understood. The aim of our study was to investigate the effect of agricultural factors on Fusarium abundance and community composition in different cropping systems. Winter wheat kernels were collected from 18 organically and conventionally cultivated fields in Sweden, paired based on their geographical distance and the wheat cultivar grown. We characterised the Fusarium community in harvested wheat kernels using 454 sequencing of translation elongation factor 1-α amplicons. In addition, we quantified Fusarium spp. using real-time PCR to reveal differences in biomass between fields. We identified 12 Fusarium operational taxonomic units (OTUs) with a median of 4.5 OTUs per field. Fusarium graminearum was the most abundant species, while F. avenaceum had the highest occurrence. The abundance of Fusarium spp. ranged two orders of magnitude between fields. Two pairs of Fusarium species co-occurred between fields: F. poae with F. tricinctum and F. culmorum with F. sporotrichoides. We could not detect any difference in Fusarium communities between the organic and conventional systems. However, agricultural intensity, measured as the number of pesticide applications and the amount of nitrogen fertiliser applied, had an impact on Fusarium communities, specifically increasing the abundance of F. tricinctum. There were geographical differences in the Fusarium community composition where F. graminearum was more abundant in the western part of Sweden. The application of amplicon sequencing provided a comprehensive view of the Fusarium community in cereals. This gives us better opportunities to understand the ecology of Fusarium spp., which is important in order to limit FHB and mycotoxin contamination in cereals.
Tipo de publicación:COMPARATIVE STUDY; JOURNAL ARTICLE
Nombre de substancia:0 (Mycotoxins)


  6 / 12856 MEDLINE  
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PMID:29425005
Autor:Novikova IV; Agafonov GV; Korotkikh EA; Kalaev VN; Nechaeva MS; Mal'tseva OY
Título:[Evaluation of antimutagenic properties of powdered malt and polymalt extracts with the use of micronucleus test].
Fuente:Gig Sanit; 95(7):669-75, 2016.
ISSN:0016-9900
País de publicación:Russia (Federation)
Idioma:rus
Resumen:There were performed studies of the occurrence of cells with pathologies in the buccal epithelium of volunteers who consume drinks based on mixtures ofpowdered malt and polymalt extracts of buckwheat, peas, corn and barley. There was shown their impact on the stability of the genetic material of examined cases. There was established activation of apoptosis, which leads to the elimination of cells with cytogenetic deteriorations. Poliymalt extracts possess protective properties, contribute to the suppression ofprocesses offormation of cells with genetic disorders (micronuclei (from 4.38 ± 0.67 %%, up to 2.53 ± 0.39 %% after intake), protrusions (from 1,98 ± 0,42 %%, up 0,85 ± 0,25 %% after intake), incisures (from 3.34 ± 0.44 %%, up 2.17 ± 0.35 %% after intake), two cores (from 1.63 ± 0.26 %%, up 0.65 ± 0.21 %% after intake) and rid the body of aberrant cells, as evidenced by the increase in the number of cells with karyolysis (up to 5.98 ± 0,91 %%, up 9.55 ± 1.74 %% after intake), karyopyknosis (from 10.71 ± 0.90 %%, up to 11.97 ± 0.85 %% after intake) and perinuclear vacuoles (from 9.24 ± 1.63 %%, up to 12.94 ± 2.57 %% after intake). In women, anti-mutagenic effects ofpolymalt extracts are more pronounced than in men. Antimutagenic effects of extracts can be explained by the properties of contained in them B vitamins and sulfur-containing amino acids (cysteine and methionine).
Tipo de publicación:JOURNAL ARTICLE
Nombre de substancia:0 (Antimutagenic Agents); 0 (Antioxidants); 0 (Plant Extracts)


  7 / 12856 MEDLINE  
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PMID:29334221
Autor:Liu L; Gong W; Sun X; Chen G; Wang L
Dirección:State Key Laboratory of Microbial Technology, Shandong University , 27 Shandanan Road, Jinan 250100, China.
Título:Extracellular Enzyme Composition and Functional Characteristics of Aspergillus niger An-76 Induced by Food Processing Byproducts and Based on Integrated Functional Omics.
Fuente:J Agric Food Chem; 66(5):1285-1295, 2018 Feb 07.
ISSN:1520-5118
País de publicación:United States
Idioma:eng
Resumen:Byproducts of food processing can be utilized for the production of high-value-added enzyme cocktails. In this study, we utilized integrated functional omics technology to analyze composition and functional characteristics of extracellular enzymes produced by Aspergillus niger grown on food processing byproducts. The results showed that oligosaccharides constituted by arabinose, xylose, and glucose in wheat bran were able to efficiently induce the production of extracellular enzymes of A. niger. Compared with other substrates, wheat bran was more effective at inducing the secretion of ß-glucosidases from GH1 and GH3 families, as well as >50% of proteases from A1-family aspartic proteases. Compared with proteins induced by single wheat bran or soybean dregs, the protein yield induced by their mixture was doubled, and the time required to reach peak enzyme activity was shortened by 25%. This study provided a technical platform for the complex formulation of various substrates and functional analysis of extracellular enzymes.
Tipo de publicación:JOURNAL ARTICLE
Nombre de substancia:0 (Dietary Fiber); 0 (Oligosaccharides); 0 (Waste Products); A1TA934AKO (Xylose); B40ROO395Z (Arabinose); EC 3.2.1.- (Cellulases); EC 3.2.1.- (Glycoside Hydrolases); EC 3.4.- (Aspartic Acid Proteases); EC 3.4.- (Peptide Hydrolases); IY9XDZ35W2 (Glucose)


  8 / 12856 MEDLINE  
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PMID:29329353
Autor:Xu X; Gao P; Zhu X; Guo W; Ding J; Li C
Dirección:Jiangsu Provincial Key Lab of Crop Genetics and Physiology/Wheat Research Institute, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou, Jiangsu Province, China.
Título:Estimating the responses of winter wheat yields to moisture variations in the past 35 years in Jiangsu Province of China.
Fuente:PLoS One; 13(1):e0191217, 2018.
ISSN:1932-6203
País de publicación:United States
Idioma:eng
Resumen:Jiangsu is an important agricultural province in China. Winter wheat, as the second major grain crop in the province, is greatly affected by moisture variations. The objective of this study was to investigate whether there were significant trends in changes in the moisture conditions during wheat growing seasons over the past decades and how the wheat yields responded to different moisture levels by means of a popular drought index, the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI). The study started with a trend analysis and quantification of the moisture conditions with the Mann-Kendall test and Sen's Slope method, respectively. Then, correlation analysis was carried out to determine the relationship between de-trended wheat yields and multi-scalar SPEI. Finally, a multivariate panel regression model was established to reveal the quantitative yield responses to moisture variations. The results showed that the moisture conditions in Jiangsu were generally at a normal level, but this century appeared slightly drier in because of the relatively high temperatures. There was a significant correlation between short time scale SPEI values and wheat yields. Among the three critical stages of wheat development, the SPEI values in the late growth stage (April-June) had a closer linkage to the yields than in the seedling stage (October-November) and the over-wintering stage (December-February). Moreover, the yield responses displayed an asymmetric characteristic, namely, moisture excess led to higher yield losses compared to moisture deficit in this region. The maximum yield increment could be obtained under the moisture level of slight drought according to the 3-month SPEI at the late growth stage, while extreme wetting resulted in the most severe yield losses. The moisture conditions in the first 15 years of the 21st century were more favorable than in the last 20 years of the 20th century for wheat production in Jiangsu.
Tipo de publicación:HISTORICAL ARTICLE; JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T


  9 / 12856 MEDLINE  
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PMID:29251886
Autor:Kumar A; Sen A; Kumar R
Título:Micronutrient fortification in a crop to enhance growth, yield and quality of aromatic rice.
Fuente:J Environ Biol; 37(5):973-77, 2016 09.
ISSN:0254-8704
País de publicación:India
Idioma:eng
Resumen:A field trial comprising of 3 levels of Zn-0, 5 and 10 kg ha-1, 3 levels of Fe-0, 15 and 30 kg ha-1 and 3 levels of Mn-0, 5 and 10 kg ha-1 was carried out during the two consecutive rainy seasons of 2008 and 2009 to study their effect on growth, yield and quality of aromatic rice cv. HUBR 2-1. The experiment was conducted in 33 partial confounding with three replications. All the micronutrients (Zn, Fe and Mn) were applied as basal and rest half doses were applied through foliar application at different intervals of crop growth. Application of 10 kg Zn ha-1 recorded significantly higher growth attributes i.e. plant height, tiller hill-1, dry weight and leaf area index (LAI) as compared to preceding doses. Significant increase in growth attributes was also observed with the application of 15 kg Fe ha-1, but it was statistically similar to 30 kg Fe ha-1. Similarly, incorporation of 5 kg Mn ha-1 significantly increased the growth attributes of rice but further increase in Mn levels decreased the response. Application of 10 kg Zn ha-1 (51.33 q ha-1) and 15 kg Fe ha-1 (51.09 q ha-1) resulted in significantly higher grain yield over control. Whereas, application of 5 kg Mn ha-1 produced the highest grain yield (49.91 q ha-1), but was at par with 10 kg Mn ha-1 (49.18 q ha-1).In respect of quality traits, application of 10 kg Zn ha-1 and 15 kg Fe ha-1 recorded maximum values of hulling, milling, head rice recovery, kernel length and breadth, which remained significantly superior to rest of the doses. Hence, to achieve the maximum productivity, profitability, as well as, quality of aromatic rice cv. HUBR 2-1 was grown with application of 10 kg Zn and 15 kg Fe along with 5 kg Mn ha-1.
Tipo de publicación:RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T; JOURNAL ARTICLE
Nombre de substancia:0 (Fertilizers); 0 (Micronutrients); 0 (Trace Elements)


  10 / 12856 MEDLINE  
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PMID:29357369
Autor:Cabral AL; Jordan MC; Larson G; Somers DJ; Humphreys DG; McCartney CA
Dirección:Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Morden Research and Development Centre, Morden, Manitoba, Canada.
Título:Relationship between QTL for grain shape, grain weight, test weight, milling yield, and plant height in the spring wheat cross RL4452/'AC Domain'.
Fuente:PLoS One; 13(1):e0190681, 2018.
ISSN:1932-6203
País de publicación:United States
Idioma:eng
Resumen:Kernel morphology characteristics of wheat are complex and quantitatively inherited. A doubled haploid (DH) population of the cross RL4452/'AC Domain' was used to study the genetic basis of seed shape. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) analyses were conducted on a total of 18 traits: 14 grain shape traits, flour yield (Fyd), and three agronomic traits (Plant height [Plht], 1000 Grain weight [Gwt], Test weight [Twt]), using data from trial locations at Glenlea, Brandon, and Morden in Manitoba, Canada, between 1999 and 2004. Kernel shape was studied through digital image analysis with an Acurum® grain analyzer. Plht, Gwt, Twt, Fyd, and grain shape QTL were correlated with each other and QTL analysis revealed that QTL for these traits often mapped to the same genetic locations. The most significant QTL for the grain shape traits were located on chromosomes 4B and 4D, each accounting for up to 24.4% and 53.3% of the total phenotypic variation, respectively. In addition, the most significant QTL for Plht, Gwt, and Twt were all detected on chromosome 4D at the Rht-D1 locus. Rht-D1b decreased Plht, Gwt, Twt, and kernel width relative to the Rht-D1a allele. A narrow genetic interval on chromosome 4B contained significant QTL for grain shape, Gwt, and Plht. The 'AC Domain' allele reduced Plht, Gwt, kernel length and width traits, but had no detectable effect on Twt. The data indicated that this variation was inconsistent with segregation at Rht-B1. Numerous QTL were identified that control these traits in this population.
Tipo de publicación:JOURNAL ARTICLE; RESEARCH SUPPORT, NON-U.S. GOV'T



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